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Vol. Ill 


P, K. Gode,M.A,D Litt. (Paris) 

Bhandarkar Oriental Besearcb. Institute, Poona 

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Price Rs 20 


Published by 
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Ohowpatty Boad, 


By The Same Author U 

Studies In Indian Literary History 

Vol. I - Rs. 20 
Vol. II-Rs. 20 


For Copies of Vol. ICC apply to 
Dr. P. K Qode, M.A.,D.Litt.(pari8) 

Bhandarkar Oriental Besearoh Institute, Poona4 (India) 

Printed by Bhri M. S Sathe, Manager Pr&jna Piees, Wai ( Met Satara ) 

Pnblhhed by Dr A. D Pusalker, M.A., LL.B., Ph.D and 

Prof N. A. (lore, M. A , Secretaries Prof P. K. Oode 

1 7^7^* &^*&^5 


By The Same Author 

Studies In Indian Literary History 

Vol. I - Rs. 20 
Vol. II- Rs. 20 

Published by 
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Chowpatty Boad, 


For Copies of Vol. Ill apply to 

Dr. P. K Gode, M.A.,D.Litt.(paris) 


Bhandarkar Oriental Besearoh Institute, Poona4 (India) 

Printed by Shil M S Sathe, Manager Prajna Press, Wal(DiBt Satara) 


Published by Dr A. D. Pusalker, M. A , LL. B., Ph D and 

Prof. N A. (lore, M. A , Secretaries Prof. P. K. dodo 



List of Contributors to Prof. P K Gocte Works 

Publication Fund 


Limaye, V P. 

Lokesb Chandra 
Mahdi Hasan, 6. 
Mavalankar, G Y. 
Mayadeo, V G 
Mirashi, V V. 
Munshi, K. M. 
Niyogi, M. B 
Parab, L G 
Patankar, B K 
Patwardhan, E. P 
Phatak, M. S. 
Prasad Prakashan 

Priyolkar, A K. 
Pusalkar A D. 
Pusalkar, G. D. 
Pusalkar, E D 
Pusalkar, S D 
Bagbavan, Y. 
Bap, C K 
Eangaswami, K. Y. 
Eenou, Louis 
Sab n 13, G. H 

Sahasrabuddhe, D. L 

Sant K E 

Sarma, B. N. Rrisbnamurti 

Sastri, Y A Eamaswami 

Satavalekar, S. D 

Shastn, J K. 

Singh, E B 

Srivastava, S. P. 

Talvralkar, Y E 

Talwalkar, Y. G 

Upadhye, A. N 

Yaidya, P. L 

Yelankar, H. D. 


Wadia, Mrs Sophia 

Adyar Library, Adyar 


Agrawala, Y. S 


Arundale, Bukniini 


Ayyar, A. S P. 


Bhagawat, D. G. 


Bbatt, G. H 


Belvalkar, S K 


Chaudhun, J B. 


Gbitre, E. B. 


Damle, N G. 


Dandekar, E. N. 


Dandekar, S. V. 


Deb.B 0. 


Deshmukh, G. D. 


Dikshit, U. G. 


Diwanu, P C. 


Dongre, K T. and Co. 


Dutt, Nahnaksha 




Gadre, N B 


Garge, D. Y. 


Gore, N A 


Gupta, P. C 


Hardikar, T B. 


- Harshe, E G. 


Hirlekar, Yarunnabai 


Indian Institute of Culture, 



Jagan Natb 


Joshi, G Y. 


Joshi, P. M. 


Hane, P. V. 


Kapadia, K. M 


Harmarkar, A P. 


Earnik, H. E. 


Karve, D K. 


Kuvalayananda, Swami 


Law College, Government, 




5 Dr. S. M. Katre 

6 Prof. E. D. Karmarkar 

7 Prof. H. D. Velankar 

8 Dr. 0. Kunhan Eaja 

9 Dr. V. Eaghavan 
10 Dr. P. V. Bapat 

On the 15th of August 1951 the Committee issued an appeal signed by 
over 70 well-known personalities in different walks of life from all over 
India inviting contributions to the proposed fund, The Committee is grate- 
ful to all the contributors to this fund for their spontaneous and generous 
response. A list of these contributors is appended to this Foreword. 

Thanks to the co-operation of these friends and the press, the Commi- 
ttee has been able at long last to publish the third volume of Dr. Gode's 
papers, whioh contains 28 papers and extends over 260 pages. 

We are happy to record that Acarya Vishva Bandhu Shastri, 
Director, Yishveshvaranand Vedic Easearch Institute, Hoshiarpur, has 
offered to publish the fourth volume of Dr. Gode's papers dealing with 
Indian cultural history. The printing of this volume has just been started. 
We feel confident that the printing of the fifth volume also will be started 
before the fourth volume is out 

On this occasion of the publication of the third volume of his 
papers we wish Dr. Gode long life full of health and activity. We are 
glad to note that Dr. Gode is still pursuing all his research activities with 
the same energy and vigour as hitherto 

J. E. Gharpure 
Ashadhi Ekadashi ") E. N. Dandekar 

18th July 1956 V A D. Pusalker 

Poona 4 J N. A. Gore 


List of Contributors to Prof. P. K Qode Works 
Publication Fund 

Adyar Library, Adyar 
Agrawala, Y. S 
Arundale, Eukruini 
Ayyar, A. S P. 
Bhagav?at, D. G. 
Bhatt, G. H. 
Belvalkar, S K 
Chaudhun, J B. 
Chitre, B. B. 
Damle, N G 
Dandekar, E. N. 
Dandekar, S. V 
Deb, B 0. 
Deshmukh, C. D. 
Dikshit, M. G. 

Diwan]i, P. G. 
Dongre, K. T. and Co. 

Dutt, Nalinaksha 


Gadre, N B. 

Garge, t>. V. 

Gore, N A 

Gupta, P. C 

Hardikar, T B. 

Harshe, E G. 

Hirlekar, Yamunabai 

Indian Institute of Culture, 

Jagan Nath 
Joshi, Gv V. 
Joshi, P M. 
Kane, P. V. 
Kapadia, K. M 
Harinarkar, A P 
Karnik, H R. 
JKarve. D K 
Ivuvalayananda, Swami 
Law College, Government, 























Limaye, V. P. 
Lokegh Chandra 
Mahdi Hasan, S. 
Mavalankar, G V 

Mayadeo, V G. 
Mirashi, Y Y. 
Munshi, K M. 
Niyogi, M. B. 
Parab, L G 
Pataukar, E K. 
Patwardhan, E. P. 
Phatak, M. S 
Prasad PraLashan 

Priyolkar, A. K 
Pusalkar A D 
Pusalkar, G. D 
Pusalkar, E D 
Pusalkar, S D 
Eagbavan, Y. 
Eaja, C K. 
Eangaswami, K. Y. 
Eenou, Louis 
Sabnis, G. H. 

Sahaar&buddhe, D. L 
Sant K E 

Sarma, B. N Krisbnamurti 
Sastn, Y A Eamaswami 
Satavalekar, S. D 
Shastn, J K 
Smgb, E B 
Srivastava, S. P. 
Talvi-alkar, Y E. 
Talwalkar, Y. G. 
Upadhye, A. N. 
Vaidya, P. L. 
Yelankar, H. D. 
Wadia, Mrs Sopbia 


I have great pleasure m presenting to the world of soholars this 
third volume of my Studies In Indian Literary History, whioh is a continu- 
ation of Volumes I and II of these Studies published by my esteemed 
friend Acarya Muni Jinavnayaji in the Singhi Jain Series of the Bharatiya 
Vidya Bbavan, Bombay. As these two volumes were brought out solely 
through the benefaction of Acarya Jinavijayaji the present volume is being 
published through the goodwill and active efforts of my affectionate friends 
Dr A D. Pusalker and Prof. N. A. Gore in organising the Committee for the 
publication of my Collected Works and collecting the necessary funds for 
it. The Foreword of the Committee to the present volume with the list of 
my friends, who have generously contributed towards the cost of its publi- 
cation, gives me added confidence and encouragement m my life's work 
viz. my Studies m Indian Literary and Cultural history on which, I have 
spent the last forty years of my life God willing, I may still do some more 
useful work in this field. I cannot adequately thank all these friends who 
have made the publication of this volume possible. Speoial thanks are due 
to all the members of the Committee and in particular to its Chairman 
Principal J B Gharpure, whose blessings I have enjoyed during the last 
quarter of a century, to Dr. B. N. Dandekar ( Treasurer ) for his advice 
and co-operation in the publication of the three volumes of my studies and 
in various other matters pertaining to them and to Dr Pusalker and 
Prof Gore, who prepared at great inconvenience to themselves the Indices 
to my volumes and who spared no pains in collecting the Publication 
Fund for my works, not to say their active help m the editing of the third 
volume. But for the efforts of Dr. Pusalker and Prof Gore this third 
volume of my studies would not have seen the light of the day. 

Judging by the numerous appreciative reviews of Vols. I and II of 
my Studies published in India and outside so far I have reason to believe 
that my continuous research work daring the last four decades of my life 
has been found useful by all experts and laymen interested in the field of 
my studies This belief of mine is further confirmed by the translations 
of some of my articles in Hindi and other languages of India that have 
appeared during the last fifteen years. I derived much inspiration for my 
research work from two gurus viz the late Dr. P D. Gune and Dr. B. D. 
Banade, both of whom were among the prominent founders of the B. 0. B. 


Institute. It was on the advice of both these gurus that I joined the 
Institute on 26-4-1919 I owe to them a deep debt of gratitude. In partial 
redemption of this debt I have dedicated Vol I of my Studies to Dr Gune 
and his esteemed friend Muni Shri Jinavijayaji. I, have also succeeded with 
the help of Dr Gune's friends, pupils, admirers and children in collecting Dr. 
P. D. Gune Memorial Fund, which was handed over to the University of 
Poona in 1955 by myself and my friend Prof. C. E. Devadhar on behalf of 
the Dr. P. D. Gune Memorial Committee. The Poona University has kindly 
accepted the amount of this fund and a " Dr P D Gune Memorial Lecture- 
ship" has been founded by them. Though my debt to Dr. Ranade is irredee- 
mable it is my pleasant duty to dedicate the present volume to him as a 
token of my reverence and gratitude to him on the occasion of the comple- 
tion of his 70th year on 3rd July 1956. I pray God to give him long life 
and good health to inspire his pupils, friends and devotees in walks, both 
spiritual and temporal. 

In the correction of proofs of the present volume I have received 
considerable help from my friends Shri S. N. Savadi and Shri G N. 
Shngondekar of the B. R. Institute. I convey to them my cordial 
thanks for this unstinted help and co-operation. Finally I have to convey 
my hearty thanks to Shri M. S. Sathe, the Manager of the Prajna Press, 
Wai, and all workers of this Press for the neat and careful printing of the 

As this volume is being published the printing of the fourth volume 
of my Studies has been started by the Vishveshvarananda Vedic Research 
Institute, Hoshiarpur. This volume will contain some of my articles on 
Indian Cultural History I record here my best thanks to my affectionate 
friend Prof. Vishva Bandhu Shastri, the Director of this Institute for his 
friendly act ( bandhu-krtya ) in persuading his committee to undertake 
this volume for publication in their series. 

Bhandarkar Oriental 

Research Institute, ( p. K Qode 

Poona 4, 

3o th July 1956 


Foreword by Prof P K. Gode Works Publication Committee i-ui 
Preface l-ii 

Articles 1-22& 


1 The Gandhasara of Gangadhara - An unknown Treatise on 
Gandhasastra and its critical Analysis 1 

2 Vanamah Misra, a Pupil of Bhattoji Djksita and His works - 
Between A. D. 1600 and 1660 ' 13 

3 Some Authors of the Arde Family and their Chronolgy- 
Between A D. 1600 and 1825 IT 

4 A contemporary Manuscript of Bhanuji Dlksita's Vyakhya 
sudha dated A. D 1649 and Identification of his Patron Kirti- 
simha of the Baghela Dynasty (Between A. D. 1620 and 1660 ) 25- 

5 Kavi Kaustubba, an unknown Work on Poetics by Baghnnatha 
Manohara and its Chronology -Between A. D. 1676 and 1700 35- 

6 Karpurlya S\vadatta and his medical Treatises - Between 

A D. 1625 and 1700 43 

7 Exact Date of the Advaitasudha of Laksmana Pandita ( A D. 
1663 ) and his possible Identity with Laksmanarya, the Ve- 

* danta teacher of Nilakantha Caturdhara, the Commentator of 

the Mahabharata 48 

8 Fragments of Poems pertaining to king 6ambhu, son of 

Shivaji 65 

9 Fragments of Poems pertaining to king Sambhu, son of 
Shivaji 64 

10 Tbe Date of the Kayasthaparabhudharm&darsa of Nilakantha 

Sun and Identification of its Author in contemporary Eecords 76 

11 Upamsadbrahmayogm and Hatb&yogapradlpika 86 

12 Date of Sabhavinoda of DaivajSft Damodara, a Protege" of 

King SrSmvasa Malla of Nepal- Between A. D 1657 and 1685 90 

13 Han Kavi alias Bhanubhatta, a court-poet of King Sambbaji 
and his Works . 

( 1 ) Sambhuraja-carita composed m A. D 1685, 

( 2 ) Haihayendra corita and its Commentary, 

( 3 ) Snbhasitaharavah 10 ° 

14 Date of Sabhyalamkacana, an Anthology by Govmdaut- after 

A D 1656 ' Uti 

15 Date of Kesavabhatta of Punyastambha, the Author of Nrsim- 

ha campii and other Works - Between c. A. D. 1450 and 1575 132 


16 Chronology of Dharmapradlpa and Bhojavyakarana, composed 
under the Patronage of Bao Bho]ara]aof Kacoha-A.D.1631- 
1645 wo 

17 Authorship and Antiquity of a Stanza -with paleographic 
Imagery in the Test of the Mahimnastotra 147 

18 Studies in the History of Dietetics-Beferences to "Avaranna" 
in the Dharma sutras of Baudhayana and Apastamba and the 
Grbya sutra of Apastamba - ( Between B. 0. 500 and A. D. 500) 15S 

19 An Echo of the Siege of Jmp in a Sanskrit Grammatical 
Work ( Between A. D. 1690 and 1710 ) 161 

20 Some distinctive Names of Horses recorded by Hemacandra 
in his Abhidhanacintamani, by Somesvara in his Manasollasa 
and by Jayadatta in his Asvavaidyaka- between A. D. 1000 

and 1200 172 

21 A rare Manuscript of Eamacandracandrodaya, an unknown 
Mlmamsa work by Bala Gadegila ( Between A. D. 1675 

and 1775 ) ' 182 

22 A contemporary Sanskrit tribute to the musical talents of 
Tanasena. the greatest musician of Akbar's court, and its 
historical Perspective 188 

23 Vastusiromani a work on Architecture by &amkara, the Guru 

of Syamasaha, son of Mananarendra - After c. A. D. 1550 196 

24 The Contact of Bhattou Diksita and some Members of his 
'Family with the Keladi Eulers of Ikkeri -Between c. A D- 

1592 and 1645 20S 

25 The Chronology of the Works of Kondabhatta ( A Nephew of 
Bhattop Diksita ) Between A. D. 1610* and 1660 207 

26 The relative Chronology of some Works of Nagojibhatta - 
Between c. A. D. 1670 and 1750 212 

27 Date of Vasudeva's Commentary on the KarpuramaSjarl of 
Bajasekhara ( Between A. D. 1450 and 1700 ) 220 

28 Some Puramc Extracts quoted by Apararka ( c. A. D. 1125 ) 
and their bearing on the History of Indian Paleography and 
Education 003 
Index by Dr. A. D Pusalker, M. A., LL. B., Ph. D. 227-244 
Subject-Index by Prof. N. A. Gore, M. A. 245-254 

My Guru 


Dr. Ramachandra Dattatraya Ranade, m. a., d utt 

1. The Gandhasara of Gangadhara — An Unknown Treatise 
on (iandhasastra and its Critical Analysis v 

In his delightful and scholarly account of Indian Toilet 1 Dr. G. P. 
Majumdar has collected a good deal of historical information about scents 
and perfumes as manufactured and used by our forefathers. The sources 
ransacked by Dr. Majumdar for this information are (1) the "Vedic texts, 
(2) Pali tests, (3) Susruta Samhita, {i) Sukranih, (5) Arthaiastra, (6) Agm- 
purana, (7) Brhatsamhtti ( section on Gandhayuhh ), (8) MahQbharata 
(tfanttparvan), (9) garhgadhara-paddhati, (10) KumasV.tra of Vatsyayana, 
(11) Lahtavistara, (12) Markandeyapuruna, (13) Yuktikalpataru of King 
Bhoja, (14) NupjasHstra of Bharata, (15) Amarakosa, (16) Materia Medica 
of the Hindus, by U. C. Datta, etc. On the strength of data gathered from 
these sources Dr. Majumdar concludes as follows . — 

" Thus it may be seen that most of the ingredients of Indian toilet, 
flowers, garlands, perfumes, scents, cosmetics, paints, ointments and 
pastes were derived from plants. For the patterns of ornaments too men 
were equally indebted to the plant world — the trees, leaves, flowers, fruits 
and creepers." 

In view of the evidence about the wide-spread use of scents and 
cosmetics in Ancient India we are tempted to inquire if there existed any 
special treatises on the manufacture of these cosmetics and scents, contain- 
ing recipes about their manufacture in detail. "We have reason to believe 
that some such treatises did exist but unfortunately no manuscripts of 
these treatises have yet been discovered or recorded in our MSS catalogues 
of different libraries. For a long time I was on a look-out for such MSS 
and fortunately two such MSS of two different works on Gandha'sastra 
have been discovered by me. I propose, theiefore, to give in this paper a 
critical notice of one of these MSS for the benefit of scholars interested 
in the history of Indian Cosmetics 

Some years ago the late Pandit Eangacharya Kaddi. presented a 
collection of MSS to the Bhandarkar O. B. Institute, Poona. This collection 
called the Kaddi Collection contains a bundle consisting of two works on 

* Journal of tho UnWortit? o£ Eocibiy, VoL XIV. Part II, pp U - £0. 
1 r.c<;Ch IV (pp 83-105) of Scmc -lis,...'., of Indian C <.l\zck>*n, t»G. P :iajaradir, 
Calcutta, X9GS. 

2 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Gandhaiastra, viz., (1) the Gandhasdra, by Gangadhara, and (2) GandhavOda. 
Both these works are unknown to Aufrecht's Catalogus Catalogorum or to 
the Editors of the Revised Cata. Catalogorum that is being prepared by the 
University of Madras 1 

The manuscript is written on oountry paper and appears to be about 
200 years old. It consists of 49 folios ( 11 inches x 4J inches) with 11 lines 
on each page. The folios comprising the two works are as follows — 

Folios 1 to 87a — T^ETHR of ti^tit^R. 

Folios 87b to 49 — ipv^i^ with Marathi commentary. 

The Gandhas&ra 2 begins as follows on Folio 1 — 
" %toi3Uiw«w || sfcj^wft ^m n 


q- s^frraggft g^Kmg ^ inn 

f^fo^ f^l^H^T II 111 

1 My friend Dr V. Baghavan, who is in charge of the Bevised Cata Catalogorum, has infor- 
med me that no MSB of the Oandhasara and Oatidliavada have come to his notice so far 

2 Vide artiole on Cosmetics in Encyclo Brittannica, Vol 6, ( 14th Edn ), pp 485-488 Ooa- 
xnetios are substances of diverse origin scientifically compounded and used (1) to oleanse, (2) to 
allay skin troubles, (3) to oover np imperfections, and (£) to beautify. They have been used by 
men and women from the earliest times Probably tliey originated vi tltc East. Egypt has tho 
earliest reoords of them from 8500 B. onwards as follows — 

8500 B O — Unguent vaBe in alabaster ( British Museum ). 

2800 B. O — Mirrors of 6 th Dynasty 

1500 B 0. — Kohl vases in glass and Stibium penoils of 18th Dynasty. 
Do —Papyrus showing men and women having lumps of iiard on the top of head. 

1850 B. — Unguent vases found in Tutan Khamun's tomb contained aromatlcs whloh 
were still fragrant when opened, 

1600 B 0. — A granite tablet on i Sphinx portraying tho of fonng of Incenso and fragrant 
oil orunyuent. 

The Bible refers to cosmetics used by Jewish women. The Koran rofors to aromatlcs. Nero 
( A. D 51 ) and hia wife made free use of perfumes and cosmetics. Tho Romans used almond, 
roso or qulnco for solid unguents. liquid ones were made from flowers, spicos and gums. 

The Gandhasara of Gangadhara 

*i^t ihwsi f^^Prarfcrcwft'? 1 ^ 

g^V qfwu II i 

^tt^t qre^ ^fctt 5^ ^im*H i 

^qki<H+id^um$ ^iag* n *rox 1 
?Rt <n=r irtnro 5^15 ^<?wi u<ui 

sgis l;g i res ^n^ at *n *%^?i*t 1 

^?r Ttnim^i ^g$iqi$ fe fcre^r 1 
t wmni^i{«<i n# sforaq^ imu 

a% n*«(i«*Vs% -MN<i<J fere ^ m^ii 
^ djil^ii^ts ^ md,a<iw> fere 1 

artpfcr craV ^mn^-Trat qfer^ ^ man 

RlUH^IWj^K ^ d£<W-e?g Wtti 1 

irt TJ^^TTnr gf^a ^stTH^t nun 
^<j% # fere TO5re;«mtsH^ *it^ 1 

1 TiJo atticlo <m Perfumer in Encudo. BrUtamiica ( llth Edn ) Vol. 17, pp. C05-507. 
Porfumaa aro substincoa which by tliolr f ragranco gratify tho ecmo of emolL Tho history o£ 
porfumea la closely associated with that of cosmotic*. ilany of tha earliest forms wore mado by 
dij«.'i/j£odoroimegetablosub=tan<xa with sesame, almond, 01 due oil. Tho prlnclplo under- 
lying this proce^ la atill mado u*o of although iu an improved form, which la called Mattralioii.- 
Thlaortiolo then dials with such toplca as D s'lUat on. Express^)!, Ezlraciion, Animal Pcr/urra, 
Balsams, Gums aud O\eo-r^» s, Sjnitetics aud Iso'aks, Jr.'i/Scia! ZVoxcr-oiti and FxmsUtl 

Studies in Indian Literary History 
Folio 4 — Colophon of 1st Prakarana reads — 

i^oZto 5 a — " JraRrns^jRi^^T n s n ffa Tgfownra' *PlhR II " 

Foho sb — '* ^fa Trqt^Bif% 

Folio 6b — " sra inf^irai " 

Foho 7b — " jprare: " " Mffihgmi qg 1 ^ftdh*fjr«i7T. i ^ra *t**§3t 5* 

Foho 8b— " s^g ^ifa " 

Foho 11a — " «t*t 5i^n?r li 

grefcRfo ww^ ^t 3^13 ^ ii " 
Foho 12a — " snr ^ KW ; " . . . " 3TT *r<TT " 
Foho 15b — " siq- qffi || 

m^#. fre ui^igs+i^g ^r *etcV ii " 

Foho 17a — "smt vj3^r II 

Foho 17b— "zw fazfct " 

Foho 18a — "are t&% " . " em $*pTTf% ^T " 

■Fa/lOS £1 11-' 'SKI ^q-H ^cbu^n || 

fefej^r ^^abi 3to q^reft |c*y< II 1 II 
qsfcr *nRr inrut ^sqtfpEW =^tf^m i 

JRSTTS^T jfam q* =g f|^r*nfa% II 3 II 

The Gandhasara of Gangadhara 5 

^rarfl5j*f?4dHm«M4lii * u « II 
^ 5T^TT ^5^ "TCtajT ^Tt^RTf^f^j; I 

^oho *£ — " qf\%fnfact?f jt^§;: §sj#^- i 

JTtf^fr jjy4C^^qT ^W^f^dmflr II ? it 

sit iMfawg*dt>ntsyi =5 w'i<ur i 

ii«tt ^isn TdsjiPr cnft i^g ^5wg; || ^ || 

f?3 ^n*re?Kr<T i?PU£cy*4 srcqir 113 II " 
Tha Dravyas are classified into different Vargas as follows — 
mstem, srjsy, iww, Jrarrr, ^r, ^r or iw, g^?ft — \ra tst^t 
<s3n, jfsF* ^^ ^nft, ^=r:, qfsr, §^whi, 3n*g>:<n, m&xft, *n%, mvfl, 
f? , S^fv, TO , x ^5^, fjf^J, test— ^x sct^t C/oZio £3 ). 
?*fH, ^ite, gs^ai, ^sr, ^itt^, \<n?x, fftost, srw^t, 3rar*nsnft, 
sfr^ft, are, ^IVn ( w# ), mmt, m^m, sftw, *%t~ ^fa wrft- 

(folio 23). 

$<5j£^, cRT, SI^FSHB, If^T^, ^Rlf^, H<?t, *JTHJ<Et$T, SPcftqssnB, 5^., 

tWt (fohoSi). 

*§?> 3 C *^, ^3^7, n*g^r, *<jwn*. im^R, gfircr, tot, g-rfK, ^w- 
=re, srirorcft, ^r-^fa agg^r ( f i l0 ss ). 

*&n qftw i . ...q*nr% . . sctn^ . . j^nft,. . fo^r, 

sfcnft (/o/to £? ) 

X Tha use of =^3 oil by ladie* is illustrated by tho following Snbha'-iU .— 

"*aVl ftfH fins* fe^,^ JHdi^r ^reW q<rer qtf sq ^ &*: , 

6 Studies in Indian Literary History 

? (?) ?mi ^teraftsN^r^rc fens h n 11 
a^T irewftm jforat iT^fWfe ii ^° ii 

if oho 27 ) 

The foregoing analysis of the rare MS of this treatise on Gandha- 
sastra gives us the following information about its author and the scope of 
the treatise with allied particulars — 

(1) Gangadhara is the author of the work He calls himself Kovida, 
t.e , an expert in this science of Cosmetics and Perfumery designated as 

(2) The name of the work is Qandhasd.ra as stated by our author in 
all the colophons as also in the verses at the beginning and end of the 

(3) The Gandhasastra is called by our author as g*fa ( difficult to 
comprehend ), %r^tfir ( the materials of which are of a scattered nature ) 
and fadtf ( vast m its scope or extensive ) Consequently our author com- 
piled this treatise by gathering materials from several sources ( w%& ^Ff*b 

(4) Though our author has composed his treatise on the basis of 
earlier materials he does not mention any work or author by name. This 
oircumstance makes it difficult for us to fix the chronology of the author 
and his work In one or two places he merely states '« R^idtl^ " but he 
never mentions any s&j or its author. 

(5) Our author bows to the gods : (t) sqfa%3T or qrt^qflr, i.e , Siva, 
(it) *v*\\*& or Ganapati, (m) ^ft ( SarasvatI, the goddess of speeoh ) and (iv) 
<l? v j jq g or tt^pjst ( the presiding deity of the n^Rrra' ) attending upon God 

(6) Our author, though himself an expert ( or €tfc^) in GandhasOstra 
bows to his predecessors in the field, who are styled as " *T^i<i*3ji< ". 

(7) Our author mentions six processes in the manufacture of Cos- 
metics, viz — 

(i) W^I — Infusing or saturating powders with fluid, 
(it) q^PI— Eipening or cooking or decoction of matenals which 
have undergone the process of Wl 

The Gandhasara of Gangadhara 7 

(tit) ifcl— This is defined as follows (fol 2 ) — 

(v) OT^f — Fumigating with aromatic vapours of incense, etc. 
(w) ^ra^T — Scenting with the perfumes of flowers, etc. 

(8) In dealing with qi^T our author describes some varieties of qw 
such as (l) szra;, (2) ij&n^, (3) ^4H», (i) ^vjt?, (5) ^jrfornr, (6) Wrrcrer, 
(7) cbi^m^ etc Indian physicians are familiar with these processes of 
manufacturing medicines, which were obviously used for the manufacture 
of cosmetics and perfumes. 

(9) The treatise consists of three chapters as follows — 

(t) TftvTRl m*<ui, explaining the technical terminology about the 
GaiidhasOstra ; 

(») *TOt^$lff WHw'vftujftRr JPE^oi, dealing with the manufacture of 
different kinds of aromatic products such as ^i^V^>, qifirara, 4£<-Mltf, 
JwW, ^ra, forte, m^^TH, k<1%, vgft etc. 

(tit) i^y^RGK f?ra2<rftajTf^ n-b< Q i, which first gives a glossary of 
aromatic materials classified under (1) Leaves, (2) flowers, (3) fruit3, 
(1) barks, (5) sticks and (6) roots The author then states how these 
materials are to be examined before they are used for manufacture. 
It appears to me even from my non technical study of this rare 
treatise that its author Gangadhara had a thorough knowledge of the 
science of Oandhasdstra. He has also successfully attempted m the present 
treatise to systematise this knowledge for the benefit of humanity because 
(1) it is useful in the worship of the gods which requires ivx and W, (2) it 
contributes to the nourishment of men, (3) it enables men to realize the 
fruits of the three objects of human existence, viz., vw ; era and ^th, ( fspnr- 
^S ), (*) ^ pleases the Kings and (5) it gladdens the minds of accompli- 
shed women, and (6) it removes one's poverty also ( x%& safer aj^-ift^T ) 

According to the statement of the writer of the article on Cosmetics 
in the Encyclopaedia Bntannica the Cosmetics had their origin probably 

6 Studies in Indian Literary History 

in the East though the earliest reoords about then use about 8500 B. 0. 
*nd even earlier are found in Egypt. In view of the suggested Eastern 
origin of the Gandhascistra a systematic history of this Science and ait 
from Sanskrit and allied sources needs to be elaborately reconstructed 
Eor this reconstruction the present treatises viz., the Gandhasara of 
Gangadhara and the Gandliavada with Marathi commentary will be very 
helpful. In the present paper I have only analysed the MS of the Gandha- 
sara and have reserved a study of the MS of the Gandliavada for a separate 

The Bomans made use of the rose in the preparation of solid 
unguents In the Gandhasara no reference to the rose is found The use of 
rose in the manufactuie of perfumery began very late in India i. e , in 
the latter half of the 18th Century as proved by me in two papers * regard 
ing the manufacture of rose-water m India. 

According to the Vaise§ikas, Gandha or smell is one of the 24 
properties or gunas. It is a characteristic property of the Pi thivl or earth 
Earth is accordingly defined as Tra^f ^f^T^t Buchanan 2 m his account of 
the Perfumery industry in Bihar and Arwal about A D. 1811 mentions 
the manufacture of an essence having the smell of dry clay as follows — 

" The most strange of these essences is that made with the clay, 
which communicates to oil of Sandal-wood the smell, which dry clay 
-emits, when first wetted and which to me is far fiom agreeable It sells at 
1 J rupee for each rupee weight " ^fq^ft is *T?t*qRff mdeed ' The word it^t 
in its bearing on perfumes has considerably mfluenced the Sanskrit 
language as will be seen from the following terminology recorded by Mr. 
Apte in his Sanskrit-English Dictionary — 

tt?*t — Pounded sandal-wood. 

3T^ — Black aloe wood. 

JTsqifa* — A kmd of perfume 

Hrqig — Fragrant water. 

*P*n*^T — The wild lemon tree. 

TP^RsraL — Sulphur 

*{ 'H\M<b — Mixture of 8 fragrant substances offered to deities varying 

1 Thess papers aro — " Some Sanslvrit Veraea on the Manufacture of Roso-wator, " etc 
{Poena Oraitalist, Vol VIII, pp 1—8) and " Buchanan's Account of the Manufacture of Rose- 
water and perfumes (A. D 1S11) in Bihar and Arwal (.Y«o Indian Uiluniary, Vol VII ) 

2 Yidc-o 633 of Patna Gaya. Heport, Vol II, Published by Bihar S. OrKa Red Societj, 

The Gandhasara of Gangadhara 9 

m kind according to the nature of the deity to whom they 

are offered. 
T'^n^ — The inusk-rat. 
^ .- mate — The vendor of perfnmes. 

Ttr^i3>7 — Rich in odour, very fragrant " ^aeifcriFFvnsJr " ( Mb. ). 
TH^n^-ar — The orange tree. 
*lr\*T3<} — Sandal-wood. 
WW^Rd^ — The scent elephant. 

TT^fhT^ftf^r^. — A perfumer, 
ip^tg: — The civet-cat. 

H - twR't' t — A female servant whose business it is to prepare 

M'-H'hWi — Aloe-wood. 

TiTEj^ft — A kind of perfume. 

Tl^^fo'bl ( ^fe^r ) — Musk. 

4RiW3 — Fragrant oil. 

T«T^T5 — Aloe-wood. 

^rpvjvnft^— An epithet of Siva. 

*Fvrafe — Musk. 

<^W^<g — Musk-rat 

l^ftsrqr — A kmd of jasmine. 

■U«-U43I — A species of zedoary. 


JISWTWT. — Sulphur. 

TF^rfqsr, TTsvrftrcnfcrei — Smoke of burnt fragrant-resin, supposed to 

attract demons by fragrance, 
jpigrjwi — Vetasa plant. 

TRrqg^i — Flowers and sandal offered to deities at the time of worship. 
^»W{J«U — An indigo plant 

n^'Rsft — The Pnyaiigu creeper — A bud of the campaka tree. 
*F*4<i3. — The mango tree. 
TF*mi^T — A large black bee ; Sulphur ; 

— Name of a mountain to the east of Meru renowned for 

its fragrant forests. 

10 Studies in Indian Literary History 

T^HT^ft — Spirituous liquor. 
^WHlR'^— Lac 
*T*nj*T — Musk deer. 
TT^spr — A bull. 

l^J^f^f) — A bud of the campaka tree. 

TrggRu — Preparation of perfumes " «?^T WH &fadl *I?WJj(vk " 
( Mrcchakattka 8, Y&jnavalkya Smrtt 1,2S1\ MudrQrdkqasa 

TORST — Myrrh 

Trstfra. — Turpentine. 

tr^TH: — Kind of jasmine 

*}>^ciT — The priyangu creeper. 

Tra^: — The wind. 

'i^rai? — Musk deer. 

*mfkjfT3r — Wheat 

TT^aj — The &cLla tree 

7n a°^[^ — A kind of fragrant berry ( 3>3Jte ). 

7rajjfe«ft — Musk-rat. 

n^ft^ — Musk 

^TWIT — Sandal , kind of jasmine. 

*T^?pft ( w*\ ) — The musk shrew 

nqrafrT — The white water lily 

Tr^nfrf^l — A female servant whose business is to prepare prefumes. 
Cf TlvrenfcPT 

The above collection of words has many cultural associations chara- 
cteristic of Indian life as reflected in classical Sanskrit For any systematic 
study of the Indian science and art of perfumery on the basis of extant 
literature, technical or otherwise, it is necessary to prepare a comprehen 
sive glossary of terms -pertaining to 1 this science and art In the absence 
of such a glossary it is difficult to understand the terminology peculiar to 
the Gandha'sOstra as used in such treatises as the Gandhasdra of Gangadhara 
and the GandhavOda with Marathi commentary now discovered by me. 

That there were special treatises ( before A. D. 1000 J on Gandha- 
sastra by Lokesvara and others is proved by the following stanzas of 
Padmasrl, the Buddhist author of the work on erotics, viz., Ndgarasarvasva 
(ed. by T Tripathi, Bombay, 1921 ) 

The Gandbasara of Gangadbara 11 

Pages 11-15 ( l^m^K ) Stanzas 1 and 2 . — 

w$3 Hirmn jtEtoi^ «nfe<4^: II ^ u " 

The Cosmetics and Perfumes as described by PadmasrI ( o A. D. 
1000 ) in the chapter called the Gandhadhtkara and explained by his com- 
mentator Jaga]]yotirmalla of Nepal ( o A D 1617-1633 ) are as follows — 

(1) ^' . iiw^m prepared from n^, ^<£T , *s*h, W5, fiil«5^ and fara 

(2) $$r^rcr- prepared from q^p, ficra, fjii<»4*, <t>*$H, jpar, snTOT 

5Tt?RsV and 'T3' 

(3) "ij,4W. prepared from 5^ft, *S%, ffJF 1 *, **$, wrfsr ( «iiWif« ? ), 

*ncJ ( ^^q ) t ts&rs, ( liters' ) and jr. 

(4) %mm prepared from «dldi4>«*, ^^jt, =P%, ^[ft ( suam ) , 

sm^, f*i«^*, H5J, ^JS ffRt ( srikr ) for ordinary persons. 

(5) qcHcflg ( for Kings ) prepared from c^raj, t^T, Jnfa ( ;3£Rlf?r ), 

(6) ^gycuti. ( for Kings) prepared from gjfSrerc, +tdfl, jge, 3?rr, Til, 

*^T — This preparation is called ^gqifa<a-^q!HiM . 

(7) qflgra ( for Kings ) prepared from ^2, ott, «ndKtf, ^^r, ^33-, 

<$^i and 'Jjrse; 

(8) ^TpfrT xjukrcr prepared from nrer. snj^ g^, a?K, =g^ =$r^ 

(9) =gg htt prepared from ^sp, ^E^T, 3j^pr, ^=^T 

(10) ?5&t (for Kings) prepared from ^crft, ^, : ^^ ) Si^T, HFT 

( HHWii* ), onpre 

(11) ^ ( for Kings ) prepared from Ireret, ^2?, 3^T$?, ?^5 , qsr # 

g^firf5n?c, rnir, JTI?fT, <§E. 

(12) ^fgrera qq?ra ( for Kings ) prepared from q^, ajijs, ^^T, qf% 

( ^a ), fira^j, ?ns, mnt 

(1 3 ) TfaTPTgp^T ^q^FT prepared from ^ snj^ fti^, irre, =e^, 

. ^T, =3^, 5^raT. 

12 Studies in Indian Literary History 

(14) HifrTtricf <flqat$ ( for royal palaoe ) prepared from %^5\^, fl^T$, 

3l^r, sjtstt, snj^, srreraot, ef|* 

(15) prefer ( another variety ) made of 'raprer, wt^ ; jpg^, sa^TO, 

Padmasri's chapter on Cosmetics and Perfumes analysed above 
gives us m a nut-shell some of the popular products and their aromatic 
ingredients * as current in o. 1000 A. D., and even earlier. This chapter, 
therefore, provides us a good technical back-ground for the more elaborate 
systematisation of the GandhasQstra as we notice in the Gandhascira and 
Gandhavdda, whioh are obviously later than A. D. 1000. 

1 For the identification of fchejj ingredients readers are requostad to consult the Sanskrit 
tippan* of ilr. Trlfathl, whioh is very learned and critical. 

2. Vanamali Mis'ra, a Pupil of Bhattoji Dlksita and 

• • • 

His Works — Between A. D. 1600 and 1660* 

Accobding to Aufrecht 1 Bhattoji had a pupil of the nam© £UJ(<f -dfosr 
called also ^wrfefH^r. He -was the son of T^rfa^r and composed a work 
called the ^^ist^tl. Vanamali Misra also composed a work called 
a«?RF3r£TOn aam^lftl^si , 2 a MS of which has heen described by Stein. 3 
It begins as follows . — 

" ifeai »w*t<a *Hm*S\ MAW, i 

It ends . — 

^i^r ^ srai rem t^r4^T%n i 

Kondabhatta, the nephew of Bhattoji Dlksita composed a work called 
£Uu-Wi*jijui. One ^roilliftw composed a commentary on this work called 
l ' %^Rim^TT=Pn 4 " and another work called " fH3[F?ra^f%if5." 5 As the 

• Adyar Library Bullthn VoL X, Part i, pp. 231-233 

1 CC, I, 120 — "l»SJIS[«ffl?l called also ^tn^RM sou o£ qfofasj, pupil of Bk^toji 
3$%^Rta & 2^7 " 3XS h 2257 is describe br B. intra in hi3 -Yo'km, VH. 1S31, pp. 12- 
14. It end*.- " ^ titf^fiRi gql^iq^al^l tft ^ftl^figclf ^qqi ^ftq ^TOlfe^ OT 

9^RI. sW^5RW. SHIFT* Wft, WW " (=A.D 1869 ) This is a guide totho Bacrc4 
placc3 in Kuruks:tra. 

2 CC, II, ISO — H Wnfefip.? son of Tl^J, pupil of Bhattoji Dlksita. 3«TI»F>Rn<iqT 

co, in, in — Do. 

CO, III, lit — " O^tW^t^t H : jnPElRTO by ^WlfefflU soa cf %I IL." 

3 Citrus ofJanmj, 11SS, 1S01, p 21 (US No. 5210) 

A CC, I, CU— " |qr^? J I'itFTJI^;fn^{t bp Yaaanuli ilura, L. 1763 N. P VII. G3. " 

CC, n, US — " Bum dQ. " 
5 CC, I, 713 — '* W5P^a?rrq^5 ' J Oa Syntax by YaaamiU Mi'ra, Lahoro 6. " 

14 Studies in Indian Literary History 

MSS of these works are not accessible to me, I am unable to say if this- 
^TOu%fsisr, the commentator of a work of Bhattoji 's nephew, is identical 
with his namesake, the pupil of Bhattoji himself. H. P Shastri,t how- 
ever, states that Vanamah, the author of the ^l^ui^d t ^^^ ^ was & 
pupil of Bhattoji Dlksita himself 

In my paper on the date of Bhattoji Dlksita published m the 
Journal of the Tirupati Oriental Institute ( Vol , I, Part 2, pages 117-127) 
I have fixed up Bhattoji's literary career between about A. D 1560 and 
1620. Subsequently I have published two papers , one on the Chronology 
of the Works of Varadaraja ( P. V. Kane Volume, 1941, pages 188-199 ) 
and the other on the Chronology of the works of Nilakantha 6ukla ( New 
Indian Antiquary , Vol V, 1942, pages 177-183 ). Both these authors were 
pupils of Bhattoji Dlksita like Vanamah Misra and composed works say 
between A d. 1610 and 1660. "We have leason to suppose that Vanamah 
Misra, their contemporary and co student studying at the feet of their 
common teacher Bhattoji, must have composed his works between about 
a d 1610 and 1660 This is a reasonable conclusion but it needs to be 
backed up by the evidence of contemporary MSS of the works of 
Vanamah Misra. Such evidence was not so far available to me 
Fortunately m Fascicule II of the Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS in the Anup 
Sanskrit Library at Bikaner by Dr C. K Baja and Mr. K M. K Sarma 
( 1946 ) I have found such evidence It is as follows 

(1) Page 134 — MS No S ~ ;p$Rra3t<T by EpaNrft^ntH ^m&fasr, 

son of •Hijidfim and pupil of *?5tfo ^l%?r, dated Samvat nil 

( = A.D 1684) 
This guru is no other than Bhattoji Dlksita because Kaunda Bhatta in 
his tfaFRorcrTTHre ( Benares Edition ) says — 

^"^vrfji oWfiai *Eif<$i*ai §f^^7^ ii " 
These Karikas number 71 of which 35 have been explained by Vanamali 
in this MS. 

(2) Page U5— MS No 25 — ipshrc^T by the above author dated 

Samvat 1709 ( = A D 152 ) copied by crafts* 

1 Vide p 13 o£ Lk3 Cata of VyaJ-arana MSS (B A. S. B ) Calcutta, Vol. VI, 1931— 
Bhattoji wiota 71 Kankaa after the completion of hia 3J^El?3*T The US No 4329 contain* 
tha first 35 Karika3 with commentary of Vanamali who speala of Bhatjoji ag hia guru — 

" snra fqralt h^t <m£fHT^raft t 

Vanamali Misra and His "Works 15 

It is clear from the above dated MSS of the cg5g=rjr^ta that this work was 
composed by Vanamali Misra prior to A. D. 1652. Most probably this 
MS was written during the lifetime of Vanamali. I cannot say if he was 
living up to A D 1684, when the other MS of this work was copied. 

(3) Page 187— MS No 61— m'dVfa fr tt t by the above Vanamali 

Misra (this MS bears no date) 
(i) Page 161— MS No. 19— f^ngsn q^tfcT by hkj-h u I«5, son of 

?r+W«S copied by cHm&ft sr in Samvat 1678 ( = A. D. 1621). 
The Catalogue does not say if the copyist ^wifolH?T of the above MS of 
J D 1GS1 was pupil of Bhattoji. Most probably this vwwissfasr is identical 
with his namesake, the author of ^pSsr^JT^ta, H^HY&rasr, *i«<m-<a«>Mi*^i 
assrsrsrisrai, and perhaps of izm^wiiteTSi*! and ra^JI^cnmriiNN If this 
identity is proved to be correct we can definitely say that this MS of A. D. 
1621 is a specimen of the handwriting of one of the pupils of the great 
grammarian Bhattoji DIksita 

As regards Aufrecht's statement that '' fjcoi^rriHsr " was another 
name of '* twmfowsr " I have to say that it needs to be verified. In this 
connection I have to observe that the Bikaner MS of his ^^Rra^T dated 
A D 1652 was copied by one " ^ajirw " as stated in the Catalogue. It is 
possible to suppose that '■ ^rtra^r " in an abbreviated form of " ^uu^-d- 
fq<T " but I cannot say if ^n^rrfasir and spunisifasr are identical Possibly 
?TO«r, who copied in a. d. 1652 the MS of the ^KRTir^tr of gHHlfefHST, 
was a different person, though he might have been a member of the 
family of 5*;raifofa%T 

A Madhva writer of the name ^nTHlfefasr of the nuawflftsi and 
hailing from the neighbourhood of Vrndavana composed un^fl" 1 ^^ 1 and 
othei works between c. A. D 1575 and 1650 On folio 57 of MS No 713 
of 1882-83 of xi&dud.f m the Govt MSS Library at the B. O. E. Insti- 
tute he quotes from TRfaJtt as follows — 

%<&% i ot?> 3 nrq?^ ^to[ 3i^5t^." etc. 

The '* fRton " mentioned in the above quotation may be the 

gnrefrm of Bhatto ji DIksita ( a. d 1560-1620 ). The identity of surarfeRwr, 

1 S« m> jjifer oa tUU wor k in th» L.dian Bii'or^l Q <ar\rl u . Vol XXII, 1 1340 ). 

16 Studies in Indian Literary History 

the author of the *Tn5?W^T, with his namesake, the author of the Spi^r- 
srffrr ( MS of A. d. 1652 ), needs to be examined on documentary evidence. 
I have only recorded here the foregoing points to enable other scholars to 
study this point further. Chronologically there would be no difficulty in 
identifying these two authors of the same name ^TOifefoer 

3 Some Authors of The Arde Family* 

And Their Chronology — Between A. D. 1600 and 1825 

HALL 1 m his Bibliography refers to Mss of the works of a writer on 
logic by name " Krsnabhat Arde " but indicates no chronology for them. 
Lr Satischandra Vidyabhusana in his History of Indian Logic ~ refers to 
this author as Krsnabhatta Ade and states that he died about 150 years 
ago If the statement made by Vidyabhusana is correct we shall have to 
suppose that Krsnabhatta Arde ( not Ade ) died about A D 1771. This 
statement, however, seems to be wrong as will be seen from the evidence 
to be recorded in this paper, which shows that this author was living at 
Benares thirty years after the probable date of his death mentioned by 
Vidyabhusana, who unfortunately records no evidence for his surmise. 

Aufrecht records about 74 works of this author. In CG II, 23 and 
CG III, 26 Aufrecht calls him son of Banganatha. In GG HI, 114 he in- 
forms us that one T%Wt 3TR^, son of flijl^tf, wrote ^^I^R d ^'ftld'biaK ' 
( Stem 81 ). Hall in his edition of the Vaiavadatta ( Bib. Ind. 1859 ) states 
that a rumour had reached him regarding a commentary on the Viisava- 
datta by Ersnabhatti Arde but Aufrecht makes no mention of this com- 

* Journal of the University of Bombay, VoL XII, Pitt n, pp 63-69. 

1 Index to tlie Bibliography of tluj Lidiait Philosophical Systems by Fitzedward Hall, 
Calcutta. 1S5D, pp, 31. 35, 37. 5C, 59 

p 31— *l5I*ri)r%ftT and fOTI*l;ft b> Krmabbatja irdo, son of Ranganitha, and pupil 
of ono Hari Tho Author was a ilarahatta Brahmin of Benares. Ho had an. 
older brother ^Jirayana Ho wrota a commentary on tho fo IJ IlftF'<T. 

p 35 — .-l<«folt^fq<7rT a commentary by Krtuabha{<a Irda (=KA ) 

p 37— R)3P^55<yu|iA^ by KA. 

p 56— Jtllxhttmlc^J] by KA, Hon of Nariyana Bhatta, son of Eanganatha Bhatta. 

p. 59— 3T13qia3r5 f^fft by KA. 

2 Vide p. -ISC of Calcutta Edition, 1921 " Krsnabhatta Ado waa a Maratha, ■who \vtoio a 
glos* on Gadidharl called Gadadharl KatiVi and ona on Siroroam'a Tattva-Cintomani while 
rcJdmg at Beuarcs -svhoro ho died about 150 >ears ago Tho gloa has been printed ia Telugu 
character* " Kr-aabhatfa begins his Kafiki thus — 

" «\$oti 55^thri %><?nt hkruii ^?. i 
TT^TPft ^comrn qftr3re*3T ^rp^afe i 

18 Studies in Indian Literary History 

mentary Hall farther informs us in foot-note 1 on p 47 of his Preface 
to Vasavadatta as follows — Krsnabhatta was " a Maratha of Benares , son 
of Eanganatha and pupil of one Han. Among his works are huge com- 
mentaries on the f^TTfifaj, fi^Nft and ^m^teft The second is called %lfacg r 
or HKig^f^ffrT, and the third jt^^t or STTT^faratfaoft The n^ r^rft is by 
T^TVR*?5rgi'T The suT^ftft by smTtei«+ r W*l^Sl^l4 They annotated res- 
pectively the whole and a part of the ^rfefa of T^rafsrefaTroivisrSTsf which 
consists of notes on the fust two Sections of Gungesa Upadhy&ya's ?rcgi%cn> 

nfor, a celebrated treatise of Nyaya philosophy " 

M M Professor P. V Kane makes the following remarks regarding 
the above author but indicates no chronology for his works — 

" Oonim ( on firoWftpg A D 1612 ) TcHW^tt or €\fas\ by ^cui- 

*T£ anf " 1 

'' IjaJTO? 3dT^ ( or stit^ ), son of ^HT of Benares , Author of 
^nisn alias ^tfq-jpT on HuWiy-^ of 3>^rf|${ ^g " 2 
The foregoing remarks of several scholars like Hall, Aufrecht, Kane, 
reveal that Krsnabhatta Arde was not only a gieat logician but also a 
learned commentator on works pertaining to dharmasastra and Kuvya 
Though I have not before me any Mss of the several works of this author 
I shall record in this paper some contemporary evidence which conclusi- 
vely proves the chronology of this author. 

The India Office Library Catalogue 3 contains a description of 11 
fragments of the Ka'sika of Krsnabhatta Arde This description is concluded 
with the remarks — "Date of this part ( 11th ) fl^ "K<avj raicT =g^T^t "M 

^KM'hH* All parts wore wntten about the same time " These remarks 
show that the above fiagments were copied in Samvat 1857 = A D 
1801. Elsewhere 4 in this Catalogue Mss of argnHH^srqT on the sjTT^taft by 
this autboi. are described but this description contains no dates of the Mss 

1 Vtda p 574 of Hist of Dliarmattetra Vol I, 1980 ( B O R. I ) 

2 Ibtd, V 687 — Vxdo Aufrecht, CC I, 298- RDiqm'2' oomra h ? 5 S7IV '5 ^ "Hall, p 
31, K 182, B. 3 100, Burnell, 1306, Lahore, 10, Opport II, 6045 ( Krsna !§armi ) " 

3 Part IV ( Philosophy and Tantra Mss ) by Windlech and Eggoling, 1894, pp 618-019 

4 Ibid, p 625-627— Msa Noa 1922, 1923 —Vol I, has the following couplets aftor tho 
Colophon — ,, ^ 

%fk itot wnfox ffr-snm sfi: 53^. 1 
^fir^ *nm£ ^T??qg*nRi ^r 11 ^ n" 

Colophon of VoL II reads— f 

Some Authors of the Arde Family 19 

I was under the impression that Krsnabhatta Arde was a Desastha 
Maharastra Brahmm My friend Mr Baghunatha Shastri Patankar of 
Itajapur informed me, however, that there is a family of Karhada Brah- 
mins * of the name " Arde" now residing in the Bajapur Taluka of the 
Batnagm District and that he is in toach with the present members of 
this family I have requested him to send me a genealogy of this family 
to enable me to see if our Krsnabhatta Arde, the logician, belonged to 
this family originally and then migrated to Benares for his education. 

The following evidence shows that Krsnabhatta Arde was living at 
Benares about A. D. 1801-02, the date of the India Office Ms of his work 
leferred to above. 

In a Marathi Magazine - containing materials for the history of the 
Kayastha Prabhus the history of a caste dispute during the time of Peshwa 
Ba]irao II is recorded. In this account of the dispute 3 a letter from Bena- 
res Pandits is reproduced. It is addressed to the Poona Brahmins, and is 
signed by about 81 Brahmins of Benares grouped as follows. — 

40 — Maharastra Brahmins swafcni*!. ( a ^meW T ) 

1— Vajasaneyi Brahmins— „ — ( q ret ffifzrer ) 

21— Chittapavan Brahmins— „ — (fenTR^pn) 

9— Karhada Brahmins— „ — ( ^g^m ) 

7— Karnataka Brahmins— • „ _ ( j^n^T^T ) 


The first name in the Kaihataka group we find is the name 
'* $OTnre3it *£." while the sixth name is " mag*? ^ " The letter is dated 
&aka 17S3 <u Sam uat 1858 1 = A. D 1801 I feel no doubt that ' ^-wifr 

1 In tho Gotnuall of Kachadi BraUmuu with mo I had tho surnamo " 5rdo " wUh golras 
(1) q^q and (2) m®* It h necc^ty to examine tho v »* of K Fs nabIu$ta Irdo and Ond 
out if ho ha3 recorded hla own gotra incidental^ 

1 "WW Xt&m 5 ra5rar* SUM, Vol I, Nc, U (N.maja^ga, Frew, Bombay- 

3 aid, W . SO-31 Tho lottot be-ins-. ' ^fatft^tSirnTT^vft^Ww^^ 

wrn— wm wj^cti ^mv^i ^ tnsf^f <ft qra^ft, etc." 

4 «Th« letter cada-" *3R ^pjR^r qgfirMtafti ^ irogg, ^ ,*,, 

20 Studies in Indian Literary History 

sn? " of this letter of A. D. 1801 is no other than "Krsnabhatta Arde," tl 
writer of several works on logio and other subjects mentioned by me i 
this paper. If this identification is accepted we have evidence to behe\ 
that this author flourished between say A. D 17 BO and 1825 or so. As tl 
India Office Library Ms of sgnTHfls^rsn is dated A. D. 1801 we have 1 
suppose that Krsnabhatta was a full-fledged logician by A* D. 1800 an 
that many of his works on logic may have been completed before th 
year Presuming now that he was about 50 years old in A. D 1801 whe 
he consented to a letter of decision in a caste-dispute we may reasonabl 
allow for him a life-period between A D 1750 and 1885 (about 75 years 
The Ms of ^5Pf rnr^faPj^'ftfeSTCTrc mentioned by Stein 1 as the wor 
of " r^'MTO stk^ " son of *\$\$4 consists of 19 folios ( complete ) Thi 
I^TT'TIST seems to be the same as the father of fjsorvr? sn^, the logician 
who was also called ^^raisi as we have already seen. The genealogy of thi 
logician will now be as follows — 

*3l$r(C.A D 1675-1725) 


*l^Rm ( a of <}iii++mMRa'Tcf<fn%3TOR ) 

. J (C. A. D. 17001775) 

*TTHTO|»TS g on 

(A.£> 1750-1825) ^ 5 *™5 ( Q A. D. 1750-1825 ) 

■iUWWS mentioned by fjsarog sir? as his brother seems to be dif 
ferent from his namesake, the son of 5yjftftEH?T5 2 This ?irwjt 55JfH^ str^ 
composed a work on dharmasastra called the TrsnftwiTR of which Aufrecht 
( CO II, 32 ) records the following Mss — 

" ^jgnfeHFT? or JTsforerc by creams Bhau Daji 102, 10 48 1815 
Bgb. '292, Stein 87 " 

" ^JinRT^rPTT alias jpftaaiT by TOT^on*?, son of ^«ift*JT*T2 surnamed 
snre (siR^), quotes TPTF^RS^nW on ^awiflVs W^T on snqwsr, jpfoiqiRJiFr, 
n4^Uc q. FJoWi&g, ^rftfsi^trstra, q^g^mudiq- and mrerwfr and his own 
sn^am* Later than 1650 A D " 

Ms " Kgb. 292" in the above entry of Jeufrecht is identical with Ms 
iVo. 292 of 1884-87 in the Govt Mss Library at the B. O B Institute, 
Poona. There is another Ms of the work in the above library, viz , No 63 

1 Cata qfJammu !/jj by Peterson ( 1891), p 81. 

2 Vide His of Dharma I by P V Kano.p. CiO. 

Some Authors of the Arde Family 21 

of 1895-1902 which is dated &aka 1693 = J. D. 1771. Ms No. 292 of 1884- 
87 is dated 6aka 16-49 = A. D. 1727. It is thus clear that HTO^r S'^ftvR 
zmz, the author o£ the Trgi P^HHK , flourished earlier than A. D. 1727 and 
later than A. D 1612, the date of {^W^g, which is quoted on folio 122a 
of Ms No. 292 of 1884 87 * as follows.— 

On the strength of the above evidence we can assign this author to 
the period A.D 1650-1725 and consequently he is entirely different from 
^TW& ^'MW 3tr%, the brother of $wnr? m^k (A. D. 1750 to 1825). The 
Ms of this work in the India Office Library is a late copy dated Saka 
1741 (=A.D. 1819) Professor H. D. Velankar has described two Mss of 
this work in his catalogue of the B B B.A Society's Mss , 2 but these Mss 
bear no dates The work is a compilation treating of rites regarding the 
maintenance of the sacred fire, and rules of expiation in cases of 
irregularities The author notes some Marathi equivalents 3 for Sanskrit 
words on folio 8 ( Ms No 292 of 1881-87 ) It is now clear that the author 
of the sj&ifasrrci belongs to a branch of the Arde family which I cannot 

1 This 31b begins— 

q?^F ?<*n<T?mfa iwi^r sre* fat n 
g;5tfore ^ tot n&Hwqqi <roi u 

ffinfannrc §z f^ii feigc^ ii " 

TIio 313 cutis on folio 121 — 

S^i^st l^tw^r^ i^ftapn stereisn: fesraafrr? s^r> ^t ft^K^ui raa^givn- 
n^j u \\\ 

moft ^xm ctgyHt^j^i-uia ^jfr?r ii 
H^t^mxTFr f^t ^jffna^rmj: it ^ u " 

This is follov,i.d by tbo following cador&oiocnt in ted inL— • 

a Vii.c f j. 211-213 of VcUtfar's Callus (Vol. II, 1023) JLj Hcl. C70 and G=0. 

3 aiwicare zmmi =^&ujU Ssfowsf^rer; Sqvft=?R,t=^ 


Studies in- Indian Literary History 

link up with the branch represented by ^ir*is *ni>\ The two branches may 
be represented chronologically as follows — 

^spftiER ( A D. 1600—1660 ) 

^wuw g (A D. 1650—1725) 

,*^ (A.D. 1675—1725) 


Ti&mv (AD. 1700—1775) 

| x (epjt<st)i 


lWi {A.D. 1750-1825) $ottos sti£ 
(A.D. 1801) W&g^ trig 

The Ms of Rrsnabhatta's commentary on the N17 namjasmdhu 
described by Burnell 2 was copied at Benares in A. D. 1829. 

In one of the Sanskrit addresses 8 presented to "Warren Hastings in 
A. D. 1796 by Benares Pandits, I find the following signatories — 
" (42) Krishna Bhattha " 
"(44) Bala Mookoonda" 

1 Vxde p. 121 of Hulttsch Report H ( Madras, 1896 ) Ms No. 1240— Comm on Gadadhara's 
^IWRP^^R b y £Wi*T£ 3Tli Begins— 

Tr^mrtjpijfirsTCH^Tg {Stem 11 
^3 ^crarour ^cttV ^RT^rong^ 11 " 

2 Vide p 130 of BurneU's Catalogue of Taitjore Mas, 1879 

" fcrfaFaf^fTO by ^FMlSuH ( fi<>Wg ) younger brother of ^TO^m. The author was 
a Mabrafha of Benares ( See Hall's VSsavadatta pref , p 47, note ) Begins— 

" c5SfHHiwi Hem fq^V ^ 3^fa i 
^uttu nfetrgit *rm*n fH^sfti^n*. u etc " 

Wntt n at Bonaroa, Samvat 1883 
(V.dcfp 6579 of Dcs. Cola of Tanjoro Mss, VoL XVIII, 1934)— Ms No 1820G 

3 Yvde Journal of Tanjore S M LxUary, Vol H. No 1, pp 10-11 (My papoi : on 
" Testimonials of Good Conduct tD Warren Hastings by tho Benares Pandits— A D 179G > 
Bc-o signatories to the second address to Warren Hastingr 

Some Authors of the Arde Family 


On this address there are signatures of more than 67 Mabarastra 
Brahmins, etc , among which the above names occur. I am inclined to 
think that these persons are identical with ^oti^ grr? and ^T^g^ airs 
of the 1801 A D. letter from the Benares Pandits to Poona Pandits 
already referred to by me m this paper. Though the above signatures are 
not followed by the surnames of the writers in the 1796 address the 
circumstantial evidence is strong enough to support my identification of 
these writers with their namesakes m the 1801 letter. In fact I find that 
many signatories are common to both the documents as will be seen from 
the following comparison . — 

letter from Benares -J D, 1801 

Sanskrit Addresses to Warron Hastings — 
A. D 179G, from Benaroa Pandits 

TW^IS ctR 

Bama-Cluxndra Sarma sarnamod Tari 

TiRmfed 5lFT 

fllcra «ani<.<3 surnamed Sesha 

5%mqfta sir 

Salia Haree Rama Panta 


^lookoonda Dcva 

^"3*75 jfoft 

Baobam Bhattha Sarma surnamed Motciuo 

3TWT ^fctft 

Astrologer Jaya Bama 

r^iflir^l qn^T 

Cbcenta Jlaneo Burnamed Kaarlakar 

cJlaS^Ufltf M*Ilfef 

Bala Krishna Deekshita atirnamed Ayaducta 

ficafatZcfr s^ 

Krishna Bhattha 

w>H*i ws 

Bala ITookoonda 

3Firfti^ra fj§r 

Krishna Lalla 

hwwui<0iSja *H^r 

Cheentamineo Deeksheeta surnamod 

It appears clear to me.that Krsnabhatta Arde, the logician, was a signa- 
tory to the Sanskrit address to Warren Hastings, an English transla- 
tion of which by Mr. "Wilkms is found on pp 755-768 of the Debates 
of House, of Lords, London, 1797. Krsnabhatta did not, therefore, die 
about A D. 1771, as suggested by Dr. S. Vidyabhusana in his History of 
Indian Logic. 

Our Krsnabhatta Arde was a junior contemporary of the celebrated 
author Balambhatta Pavagunde, "the author of the Bulambhattl, who is 
assigned by M. M. Professor P. V. Kane * to the period .L D. 1730 1820 and 
to whom Colubrooke had entrusted the compilation of a work called 
Dharniastetra Safujraha about A. D. 1801. On the Benares letter of -1 D. 
1801 to which Krsnabhatta Arde is a signatory we find the signature of 

1 Wdtp 103 of ITuisr j of Dharv.a -u'ra, 1(1200). 

24 Studies in Indian Literary History 

'' ^josvi^jft •TFin^' " who is no other than his namesake in the employ of 
Colebrooke in May 1801 i 

It is difficult to fix the chronology of the several works of Krsna- 
bhatta Arde. I have already observed that the India Office Library Ms of 
the KdsikGL of this author is dated A D. 1801 He must have written his 
works on nyQya prior to A. D 1800 or so In his commentary on Gada- 
dhara's ^frra WM^ SFT our author refers to his parents igjqsn and i$^w as 
residing in heaven ( q^+i^H^d) q»n<aKff4Hmql ) This statement 

shows that Krsnabhatta composed the commentary in question when 
his parents were no longer living Possibly his parents died before 
AD 1800. 

P. S — I have assigned mwm ^$ti\m WX% to the period A. D 1650- 
1725. This conclusion is corroborated by the following additional 
evidence — 

( 1 ) A mrnayapatra A, D 1657 contains the following endorsement 
— '« SfltT HITPFIWS «mt g^miM " ( Vide pp 78 81 of f%^5*r? 
jrem by B. S. Pimputkar, Bombay, 1926 ). 

( 2 ) HP. Shastri [Notices, HI, 1907, Calcutta ] describes a Ms of <3$T- 
^t -H'fc l R^ I by HKWH Tg a ni» which is dated Samvat 1783 = A. D. 
1727. "We have already pointed out that the B. O. B I. Ms of 
^irillHPR of q m q a iwg ^TZ is dated &ake 1649 = A. D. 1727 

1 P. V Kane History of Dliarma I, j? 461— Kane mentions the following dated Mes- 
of Balambaa$ta'a works ■ — 

(1) =n3*Hft 3I» in Benares Palace Library— A D mi-15. 

(1) ^V^feftft ITs described by Stein in his Catalogue of Javimil Msa — A D 1701-02 
I may odd the following Maa to the abovo bat — 

(S) fWrtfOSqUsTT ( S^RJFRiI ) 107 folios— Samvat 1850=A, D 110 i ( Vide p. UT 
of Poteman'a List of Indie Mss w U S A , etc , 1933 ) 

4. A Contemporary Manuscript of Bhanuji Dfksita's 

Vyakhyasudha * 

Dated A. D. 1649 

And Identification of hi3 Patron Ktrtisimba of the Baghela Dynasty 

( Between A. D. 1620 and 1660 ) 

ATJFBECHT l records several MSS of the commentary of Bhanuji 
Diksita on the " Amarakosa," called "Vyakhyasudha . " Some of these are 
already described m the descriptive Catalogues of MSS so far published. 
Judging by this description we find m the first instance few MSS with 
any dates recorded in them- The India Office Library contains two MSS - 
bearing dates A D. 1800 and 1806 while the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 
contains three MSS, 3 one of which is dated A. D. 1793 while the re- 
maining two are dated about A. D, 1700 and 1800 respectively. 4 

In view of the absence of dated MSS of the " Vyakhyasudha " be- 
longing to the 17th century, to the earlier half of which its author is 
generally assigned, I was interested to find that the MS of this com- 
mentary noted by Aufrecht, viz., " Bhr 200 " was a contemporary copy 
of the work. This MS is identical with MS Wo 200 of 1882 83 in the 
Government MSS Library at the B. O. E. Institute, Poona. It contains 
the commentary for the 2nd Kanda of the " Amarakosa " and is well 
preserved in spite of its age. It ends as follows — 

Foho 218b — " ^rarFRm^aV *iu{tf<u*<M«w u 

II tft u sft II 

•Journal of tlioUnnortity of Bombay. Vol XI, Part EC, pp 00-99 

i cc i. eo ; iz, 5 , in, c 

a ViJfl p. 271 of I O. MSS Cafa.Part II. 1833-JJS -Vo. 965, dated &aka 1722. a d. 
laOO. MS .No. SGG, dated tamvat IE02 -A. D 1S06. 

3 Vide xp 118-113 of Vol II of tho Catdh^M by Wiatsraitz and Keith, 1S05. 

MS Xo 11QZ— Probably about A. D 1700. 

MS .Vo. //03—Sariivat 16« = A. D. J7W 

MS .Yo, JJ0i-~About IS0Q 
i "V ide p 103 of dla. of Bn'uh MwiMi MSS by Bindall, 1902-ltS C30 ii da»u4 A.D. JS0S. 


26 Studies in Indian Literary History 

The chronogram containing the date of the copy is represented by 
the words 5R, era, arg^, =^ — Samvat 1705 or A D. 1649 If this 
date is correct we mnst look npon the MS bearing this date as a con- 
temporary copy of the " Vyakhyasudha " of Bhanuji Though this MS 
contains commentary for only the 2nd Kanda of the " Amarakosa " its 
value for a critical edition of the " Vyakhyasudha " for this Kanda at 
least should be very great as compared with the late MSS of the com- 
mentary The colophon of this contemporary MS is also very important 
as it confirms similar colophons m the MSS of this commentary of later 
date It is clear from this colophon that the " Vyakhyasudha " was com- 
posed by Bhanuji Dlksita, son of Bhattoji Dlksita by order of Kirtisimha- 
deva, " who was a prince of the Baghela dynasty, ruling over the Mahl- 
dhara territory i As the MS is dated A D 1649, Bhanuji must have 
composed this commentary many years earlier than this date 

I shall now try to identify the patron of Bhanuji Dlksita, who 
belonged to the Baghela dynasty and whose name was Klrtisimha . The 
colophon of A. D. 1649 quoted above gives the following particulars about 
Bhanuji's patron — 

(1) He was of the Baghela dynasty ( gq^5rte*nr ) 

(2) He was ruler of Mahidhara territory ( ^sN^M^ifaq' ) 

(3) He was a prince ( sftJ^m^^R - ) of the name qflfaf&g . 

I am of opinion that Klrtisimha, the Baghela patron of Bhanuji, is 
identical with Fateh Smgh,2 the founder of the Sohawal State in Baghel- 

1 Both " ^f§f&I[^ " and l ' JT^ERfqUg " need to ba identified I have triad to 
identify " ^f^f^T? " in this paper *' Tn{}tKfttl4 " la possibly identical with Slathar 
State now tinder the Baghel Khanda Political Agency a3 suggested by my friend Dr E. N 
Dandekar. Zlaihar was originally a dependency of Bawa but later it went into the possession 
of the Bundela Raja of Panna ( vide p. 1S9 of Vol EC of Imp Gazet , London, 886 ) 

2 Vxda p 47 of Imp Gazetteer of India, VoL Sill, London, 18S7 — Soliawal— Tho State 
of Pohawalwas formerly a portion of Eawa territory but about the middle of the 16th Centurj, 
when Amarsmgh was ruler of Bewa, his ton Fata Singh threw cff his father's authority and 
established his independence as Chief of SohawaL. Hia descendant Lai Amaimngh was found In 
possession on the British occupation of Baghel Khanda and was consequently confirmed ia his 
State on his tendering a deed of allegiance. In consequence of the improvidence and misrule 
of Its Chief s the State has more than once come und r British management. It was last mida 
over in 1571 free cf debt to the present Raja of Sohawa. Lai SUi Jang BalMdur Singh, who 
ia by raco a Baghel Rajput. A small police forco is maintained of about 50 men. 

Bhanuji Diksita's Vyakhyasudha 27 

khanda in Central India My reasons for the above identification are 
as follows — 

(1) The name " Kirtisimha " mentioned by Bbanujt Diksita is only a 
paraphrase of the name " Fatesmgh. " 

(2) Bhanuji Diksita 1 may be assigned to a period A. D. 1600 to 1660. 
His patron Fatesingh was living at this time - 

(3) It appears that Kirtisimha or Fatesingh had already founded the 
Sohawal Kingdom when Bhanuji wrote his commentary as Bhanuji 
calls his patron " the ruler of Mahidhara territory " ( ^^TsnftwiSrc )■ 
It is quite probable that *' «^rc " is equivalent to " Maihac " and 
" n£hjtfg<TC " means the " Maihar State " which was the dependency 
of Rewa and is now under the Baghelakhanda Political -Agency as stated 
in the Gazetteer 3 As the town of Maihar is about 40 miles from Kewa, 
Fatesmg may have made it his headquarters, when he threw off his 
father's authority. His brother Anupasing was a minor when he came 
to the gadi of Bewa and ruled between A D. 1640 and 1660. In view of 
this chronology for bis brother's rule at Eewa we may safely assign him 
to the period A. D 1620 to 1660 or so and make him a junior of Bhanuji 

1 Vidamypipor on tba data of Bhattoji Dllcsita in tb.9 Annate ( Tirnpatl Institute ) Vol. 
I, pp. 117-127. As Bbttoji'a career ended about A D 1G20 we may assign bis Bon Bbanuji to 
tlio period A D 1C00 to IGbO. 

2 Tho geneilogj and chronology of tho Baghela dynasty corresponding to tho datea of 
Bhattojl and Bhanuji may ba given bore — 

^mi3 ( A D 1510-1555 ) 

TFR* (A.D 1555-1502) 

^U«5 (A D. 1C92-1593) 

fipSHlfcST ( A. D 1593-162i) 


f ^ 

awfen u d icai-icio ) stfm Q&rfhn 


r 1 

a^Hm ( V. D 1C10-1CC0 ) *fifjftn ( founder of Soha -al Sbta ) 

3 VIdo p. 1S3 c£ Vol IX of Imp GorJ , 13SC— ZIa\l^r U a station on tho Jabalpur 
cstcoiiou of tba Eaat Indian Railvra™, 07 roilw from Jabalnur and iO mile3 frora Bawa. Tho 
touu contains a fort bmlt in tba 10th century, T.buro tba Raja nov? icji&j. 

28 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Diksita, who calls him TT^raplH, whose father Amarsing ruled from A. D. 
1624 to 1640. i 

If it is possible to determine when Fatesing or Klrtisimha became 
the ruler of the Mahldhara territory we can easily fix the earlier limit 
to the date of Bhanuji's Vyakhyasudha, the later limit being of course 
A. D 1649, the date of the MS of the 2nd Kanda of this commentary 
already described in this paper. As Anupasing, the brother of Fatesing, 
ruled between A. D 1640 and 1660 and as he was a minor when he came 
to the gadl of Rewa in A D 1640, we may not be wrong in assigning 
Fatesing to the period A D 1620 to 1660 as we have remarked above. 
It is also possible to suppose that he threw off the authority of his father 
some years before A D 1640, when obviously he lost his father and the 
question of succession arose. If these statements, which I have based on 
the notes sent to me by the late Diwan Bahadur Janaki Prasad, are correct 
we may safely suggest that Bhanuji composed his " Vyakhyasudha" 
between A D. 1620 and A. D 1640 In making this suggestion I have 
presumed that Fatesing, the patron of Bhanuji, was born about A D 1620 
and that he was about 20 years old when his father died in A D. 1640 and 
was succeeded by the minor brother Anupasing 

In the foregoing discussion I have made use of the scanty information 
in my possession regarding Fatesing Baghel whom I regard as the patron 
of Bhanuji Diksita How Bhanuji came into contact with this pnnce I 
cannot say at present 

Tavernier visited Benares in A D 1666 He refers in his Travels a 
to a college at Benares founded by Raja Jaismg (AD 1621-1667 ) for 
the education of the youth of good families Is it possible to suppose that 
Fatesing or Klrtisimha may have had some contact with this college where 
some of the contemporary Rajput princes got their education at the hands 
of Brahmm pandits of Benares ? As it seems, however, that Fatesing 
Baghel was a contemporary of Mirza Raja Jaising, he may not have 
received his education at the above college where the sons of Jaising got 
their education We have, therefore, to presume that the contact of 
Bhanuji with Fatesing was independent of the above college like that of 

1 The chronology of the Bazhela rulers given in this paper is bised on tho not<33 supplied 
to mo by my friend the late Diwan Bahadur Janaki Prasad. M A . LL B , the Advisor to H. H 
tho Maharaja of Rewa He mi in constant correspondence with me on many matters of histo- 
rical interest and I put on record my deep appreciation of hi=. critical inaigbt and indofatigablo 
induatr) in investigating the history of the Eewa State. Unfortunately ho died m 19J8 

JFidopp 231-U35 of Vol II of thesa Travels (1883) Y\de alco my paper on Vifva- 
nithall Rlnado(p 50 of VoL 17, 1941. of B. B R A- E Journal) 

Bhanuji Dlksita's Vyakhyasudha 29 

Kavlndracarya Saras vatl with the Mughal Court and the Rajput princes 
who thronged at this court in the 17th century. * 

I have identified ffft m&M^ with the Maihar State and Klrtisimha 
Baghel with Eatesing Baghel, whom the Gazetteer calls the founder of the 
Sohawal State As hoth the Maihar and Sohawal States are near 2 each 
other in the Baghel Khanda agency it is possible to suppose that w^tsrcfktpr 
comprised area belonging to both these states, when Fatesing became the 
ruler of this area and perhaps made *T^t*TC or Maihar as his headquarters. 
I await more light on this question from close students of the history of 
Baghel Khanda, who may be able to settle the exact limits of the ?T$ra*faq*r 
over which Fatesing ruled after throwing off his father's authority some- 
time before A. D 1640 At present 1 have no detailed knowledge of the 
history of the Maihar or Sohawal States subsequent to the rule of Fatesing 
or even before it and hence cannot say anything in this matter with 

Carious views 3 have been current regarding the caste of Brahmins 
to which Bhattop Diksita belonged. Some say he was a Desastha Brahmin, 
while others say that he was a Sarasvata Brahmin. According to the 
generally accepted view he was a Telahga Brahmin. In view °of these 
opinions I was surprised to find in the colophon * of a MS of the Vyakhya- 
sudha the statement that it was composed by Ramasrama, (1) the pupil of 
Bhattop Diksita and (2) of Gurjara caste. Tins statement adds one more 
caste to the list of castes, to which Bhattop's family is snpposed to have 
belonged. I shall deal m a separate paper with the validity of the tradition 
that Ramasrama was the name of Bhanuji Dlkstta after he became a 
sanyas m. The col ophon of the Tanjore MS whxch refers to the Gurjara 

1 Vide my paper on " Kavindracarja Saraavatl at the Mughal Court " (pp. 1-1G of A,mals 
ofTirupahS-VOri IwtUuto. Vol I, PartIV) The p ct Jayarama in hia ^RWfe*- 
^ (Poona.1022). compel about A D 1653, ref £r3 to a «' q^a^ft 5^ •' at the" 
court of King Shahaji. father of Shivaji the Groat. 

a 3 foUo^- tUd0andl0ngi ^ 0fS ° 7WUaljndVai ^ rMKCotacd iQ «» *>* Can.W aro 
(1) MaxUt — Lat ^°16' N , Long. S0=>4&' E. 
V-) Soluzusal - lat. SMSST N .Long SO'iS'50' E 

i'lt!^^; 1 "^ 11 ™^ 13 ^ ^^ ^-^ Banxbardclar Bombaj, 1933. 
i , vd. p3S2l of Vol IX of Da C*la 0/ Tanjore MSS ( 10CO) - MS So. 1013 - 

30 Studies in Indian Literary History 

oaste of Eamasrama has not ranch historical value as it is contradicted by 
the colophon of A D. 1649 which neither refers to Eamasrama nor to his 
Gurjara caste as will be clear from this colophon already quoted elsewhere 
m this paper. 

Presuming that Bhanuji Diksita and Eamasrama 1 are identical we 
may infer that Vatsaraja, a pupil of Eamasrama, in the following verse 
of his " Varanasidarpanatlka " composed in Samvat 1698 ( A. D. 1641 ) 
refers to Bhanuji Diksita after he became a sanyasin — 

Bhanuji Diksita may have become a sanyasin before A. D 1641 It is also 
'possible to surmise that he composed the " Vyakbyasudha " before he 
became a sanyasin. 

I have already referred in this paper to the importance of the MS 
of A. D 1649, viz , No 200 of 1882-83 for purposes of textual criticism 
This importance will be better understood by a test comparison of the 
text of the " Vyakhyasudha" as represented by the printed edition and 
that found in the MS of A. D 1649 The inflated character of the text 
in the printed edition is apparent from the Appendix to this paper pre- 
pared by Mr. M. M Patkar. 

The authentic life-history of the scholars who flourished in the 16th 
and 17th centuries is difficult to reconstruct on the strength of contem- 
porary evidence I have tried in this paper to collect and discuss some 
useful data regarding Bhanuji Diksita and his patron, which I hope will 
attract the attention of senior scholars, from whom I expect to get some 
more information on the subject than what I have gathered in this short 

1 Tide p 177 of Des Caia. ofKi.vya HISS, Vol, VH, by H. P Shaatri ( R. A. S., Bengal ), 
Caloutta, 19B4 . Tho genealogy of ^ftRRT as given by him on folio 10a of the MS of ^qT- 
Jrajf^rar ia aa follows — 

^51 ajfii^lflr of surname f^TT^ 

um ( fy4ife< ) 

q^rsr ( a. d. i6ii ) 

Bhanuji Diksita's Vyakhyasudha 3 


(By Db. M. M. Patkab, b. a. ph. d. ) 
(This appendix gives a specimen of the variants in the text of th 
Vyakhyasudha of Bhannji DJksita as represented by the printed editio 
and the MS of A P. 1649 ). _ 

Printed Edition 
Niriiayasagar Press, Bombay, 1929, 
'2nd Kanda (Bhimitarga) 

MS No 200 of 1882-83 

dated Samvat 1705— A D 1649 

2nd Kanda ( Bhilmivarga) 


110 1 3^r 

„ omitted ^ft ^ 







• 1 






3f?: I cRT 3f55(¥q[l£> 

^^r^. festqsj 1 ^ra [. 
55?. I <T5I H^0tq[ I 


lb 1 





The Ms omits this portion 










omitted a^ qr etc. 









„ ,, omitted 

2b 3 ^^tft 

„ ,1 3t <3t J^m ?1fa S>q 

„ ,, omitted 

, omitted 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Printed Edition 

Ms No 200 of 1882-8 S 



nd K 


•jar Press, Bombay 19 $9, 
6nda ( BhUmtvarga) 

dated Samvat 1705— AJ). 1649 
2nd Kanda (BhiLmivarga) 






TO**. 3T W %ft * \ 1 
cT^T 1 '§55*3' ^f% *FT 513- f 


3 omitted 



?fr ^fegc. i crt '$rc-} 


„ omitted 

j^rer ' ^cf^iMcj; i S 

111-12 6 
112 2 




„ omitted 
6 fa<srat 

Af tei $&H\ the Ms inserts 

the following verse SHTc^r- 

fgg% §£l«r etc which is found 

in the printed edition after 

' qe fH?W% ' 










„ omitted 
„ omitted 




„ omitted 



adds HW*i§?rc ssjti^T 
before Wtf*TI^ 



adds anifiBK before 


„ omitted 




„ omitted 

Bhanuji Dlksita's Vyakhyasudha 


f Tinted Edition 

Ms No. 200 of 1882-83 

Nirnauasagar Press, Bombay, 1929 

dated Sarpiat 1705 = A. D 1649 

2nd Kfairta ( BhUmtvarga ) 

( 2nd KGnda Bhftmivarga ) 



114 11 




The Ms trans, fferr 
and STOT 




Adds 3J5HHWJJ((f£p5^T 
before =3c3lR^|ri<$r 

„ 12 

Wh&i*mq*<ffii gqvRRRq 

ii . 



,. 13 





»» n 

iraf&gfci m 


» t> 




Adds this after 

» •! 


>, H 





» » 





>» » 

Adds fq^fe^if^ foesrffc. 
cr^?55W after 5ftoft 

„ 15 

3fs- 1 era i *rct 5pq^r- ] 





» » 





115 „ 

5^Sf3 left! 'arsToW^i - 
5^ ^2 Vm\^ | s^oj- 

^ft3#*fograT f^- 





» » 


» it 





•» >» 





»i ii 







S^ after <$qw 

., IG 

3F* i <ra i ?fit $*rar- ) 

and omits Jft^- 

39*^ 1 3RT '£nj£. qq.' ( 

%fh fousJcT^ \ 




i» i» 


W3 nrfei » sfa ^ 





Studies in Indian Literary History 

Printed Edition 
Nirnayaa&gar Press, Bombay, 1989 
8nd KSnda ( Bh&mtvarga ) 

Ms No 800 of 1888-83 
dated Samvat 1705 - A. D. 1649 
8tid Kdnda ( Bhilmivarga) 







16 qtiAt-n 

17 m^lK 











18 sfiftrapi'Tftfira^ 





„ ' =3g yd^tcmRfJid^ ' 




«IT1*E^T sg^sfq 'aft' ?fa > 





i, ^ ' gwfo ' 1 




5. Kavikaustubha, an unknown Work On Poetics by 

Raghunatha Manohara And its Chronology — 

Between A. D 1675 And 1700 * 

Aufrecht mentions no work of the title sgft&^W. -Dr. S. K. De's 
History of Sanskrit Poetics also contains no mention of any work of this 
btie. Recently I came across a Ms of this work through the favour of 
Vaidya 6ivarama Eaghunatha Khandekar of Nasik. He was tinder the 
impression that this work was composed by his grand-father Eaghava 
Kavi 1 or Eaghunatha Appa Khandekar of Punyastambha or Puntambe 
in the Ahmednagar District of the Bombay Presidency . On examination 
I find that the Ms of «tiM! > <4 <r is not a work of Eaghava Kavi but that 
it belonged to him as I find from the endorsement towards the end 
of the Ms. 2 

As this work on rhetorics is unknown to Sanskritists I shall describe 
the present Ms and determine the chronology of its author Raghunatha 
Manohara . The Ms begins — 

" a %ft iuuni hit ii 

era ' <fci»qM*m ret «<h;^i«wu««i* i 

^tqirg^r tttm i^fafH H<i5tdr< h * II 

srnu »^w«4tr %cfrRrKvt ^ ii ^ it 

5W ■ftrayyn4^i4»^*K*y. n } u 

' Poona Oncnlalul, VcL VII, Nos. 3 and i, pp. 167-161 

1 I am preparing a special paper on tho nnknown works of Bughava Ksti who flourished 
between A.D 1758 and 1S20 or so 

1 This MS contains 2.3 folios and la written on country paper It h well presorted and 
appears to bo about 150 year* old. It contains tho following post-colophon endor«rotnt — 

utavft^IS^WtfRJ 11 ." !Iany vroiU of BJshaira wero competed and written at 
y<*?F*^r^ cr PuntSsabo 

36 Studies in Indian Literary History 

^P^tfiftw^ ^ a*n ^fcfr w^dq , n a II 
^^^m^n4rmfe^R5Sffoni; II ^ n 

t-m^di4 5ptt jif^t T^^rt. ^jar ?rai u $ ti " 
The Ms ends — (folio 25b) 

This colophon gives us the following genealogy of the author 
Bagunatha Manohara — 

(c. A. d. 1600) $s<Tiqf%3 of the surname wrf^? 



(c a. D. 1650) ftre*5 


(ad. 1697 ) ?3pmfecr the author of the ^Rh^ ^T 
I am inclined to identify this Ttpm *ttt%Z with T^W M$t${, the 
author of g^fERSTH, a work on Medicine represented by several Mss 1 in 
our libraries. Eeferences to earlier works and authors mentioned by 
Baghunatha Manohara in his ^Pk*)*jj*r are — 

1 Vide Aufrecht, CO I, 618, II, 146 — I Cata No 2695 una B B B., A. S Cata by H.D. 
Velankar, Nob. 206 ana 207. Thore are two Mas of 3gf%551tf at the Govt Mss Library (BOB 

Institute, Poona) No. 600 of 1899-1915 ana No 639 of 1895-1902 They are aesonbea by Dr. 
H D. Sharma on pp 863-864 of hia Des Cata. of Vaidydka Mss (Vol XVI, Part I), 1939 MB 
No 600 of 1890-1915 is dated Saka 1786 = A D 1814 It belonged to ono f^E^ \?iftftiq (Dinkar 

Joshi) In some colophons the author is called " ^f^^Rcra ^^pTITTfecT " (See fol 96) In 

the Ms of qif%4l?5*r also he is called " JJif^cJI^g' ^W^TnTTfe^T " Tho author rofers 

to himself as " 3>f?[<CI^ " in verse 2 at the commencement — 

" S<|fE5»TF5lf EE^^T r>3^ %afc?5rg l™r " The work is styled as " JTSPEJsq". 
No. 639 of 1895-1902 is a very modern copy without date 

In the Gotravali of Konkanastha or Cbitpivana Brahmins we find tho surname *pflft^ 
The Gotra of the ^5* family is *IR5I^ (f|^^%?t). The MS of the |gf^c5KT described in 
the India Office Catalogue mentions ^t%X as tho surname of its author ^^Rqf^T 

Kavikaustnbha and its Chronology 37 

(I) "Sif5^% i WRSPlt— -fol 2. 

( 2 ) " qr^feRF^TR^TOC. "~foL 2, 8, 

( 3 ) g?ra— fol. 2. 

( 4 ) ^RT— fol. 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 15, 17, 22, 23 

(5) ^af^??rm^V— fol. 3. 

This work was composed in 6aka 1522 = 4. D. 1600 by ?UT, 
son of snrc and <rm ( Vide pp 275, 278 of S. B. Dikshit : 
History of Indian Astronomy, 1896. 

( 6 } fiRrai^r— fol. 3, 7, 16, 19, 21, 25. 

(7) mm— fol 3,6,18. 

( 8 ) ?ro— fol. 3, 10, 19. 

( 9 ) i<wuysmm.--fol. 4. 

(10) ^+^ 4w r- fol 4,13,21 

(II) lure— fol. 5, 24. 

(12) " <g^RH^T ^I5^ff5% "—fol. 5. 

(13) " vm&. mf&mzm " —fol. 6, 23. 

(14.) 53^H^TTR— fol. 7. 

(15) w&ft«fol7. 

(16) " ?Eftfl<^W?T 5{^p?5tWE5mT^ "—fol. 8. 

(17) '* wrpm. *i»^ u < & "—fol. 10. 

(13) ^^R^^—fol. 10, 21. 

(19) ,c *^ra£. sr^retgen^ "—fol. 11. 

^^fe^t^n ~njt ^wi-r^j^ ... . i, » 

(20) '« ^faf$rer 5p^n;ra*Rio*n^" i — f i. 12. 




38 Studies in Indian Literary History 

(21) " ^m^t ibMzQft "— foL 12. 

*j^fod^«-4W^M^^ f*<E II ^tf II " 

Vide CC J,93— ^irnr^l alam B. 3-46 ( of *TOreT ). 

(22) srat vH^V -foL 22 

(23) tw^ 

(24) " ^«*3*ra% sreircus^H "—fol. 14 

" g fedd^ '$w t3 > 1%^ •• WlfofrtT II %$ It " 

( Vide CC 1,661 3ft^UW>-ri Tt by king Shaha]i and a work of 

this name on «<A**K etc. ). 

(25) " f^armfoisqrs^mr flidfrfri*£Ni4- "—fol. 18. 

" f^urnV— ftfefas^T^n "— ( About 1500 a. d ). 

(26) srR^wrm— fol. 19. 

" ^ ^ r^dm^cnr t^ &* * II <5» ii " 

(27) '* EE^oi^ ^ratpFgife^pn^ " — fol. 20 

" f^ggS 1 ^* . .. *nfir % ^f§*°3^ u * » " 

( Vide CO III, 83 — wm^TRPin Kavya by Kavi Vmda ). 

(28) " tbg+4<M JRcrra^?^ " — fol 20 

(29) " ^ ^§,^R "—fol. 23. 

(30) ^^OH^ fol 24— " ^W *re ere^T ..ST^W " 

Appaya Dlksita composed the ^^n^. The life-period of 
Appaya is a. d. 1554-1626 ( 72 years ) according to his descen- 
dants while others assign Appaya to the period A. D 1520- 
1593 (Vide p. 841 of i^-^fiERr-sgifeftt* in Marathi by Eao 
Bahadur W. A. Bambardekar, Bombay, 1939 ). 
It will be seen from the above references that the latest works 
mentioned by the author of the *&&W* are (1) gfaf^mfr of A. n. 1600 
and (2) ***KK of Appaya Dlksita ( a. d. 1550-1600 or so ). We must, 
therefore, conclude that he flourished after about a. ». 1650. A; our 
author seems to be identical with his name-sake ^ft^St^ *3*W^ 

Kavikaustubha and its Chronology 39 

H^ i f author of the qsifkcTO composed m A. D. 1697, the date of ^f^t^T 
may be between say A. D 1675 and 1700 or so. 

So far only one work of this author, viz ^fe^ro on medicine "was 
known. The present account of the arf%4te?p* proves conclusively that he 
composed this work on poetics as well. We have seen above that in this 
work he refers to and quotes from a work on prosorfy called the ^Wl^ 
composed by him " uQtffada^HMcyni " in two places. As no such 
work has been discovered so far I qaote below the verses from this work 
as quoted by T^Vt *&*%$ — 
Folio 2a — " era S^fa flfttffima^h^n^n^ \\ 

cwieH 3^<ni *w*jj$ t 
^src $m\i m[ti?[ 

T?T fttfta =9 TOT <ggjj 
Folio 8a : — - " sf* H^*w^< y wWifa?ffrfT i tf>$UwU * g<u*< 

It is clear from the above three verses quoted by our author that 
he composed this SKltwraRs earlier than his composition of the *&& * $ * 
Perhaps a Ms of Baghunatha's e^rmfe may be discovered hereafter*. 
The present paper has added two more works to the only work krfh<m of 
Eaghunatha, known to the students of the history of Sanskrit literature It 
has also given us the names of h.s father fwr? and his grandfather ^r- 
*&a not fouud , B the ilss of the fafan* as we find them described in our 
catalogues 1 of Sanskrit Hss. The genealogy of ^ ^ thus goes 
back to a bout a. d. 1600. s 

( Continued on tie tint yaga ) ' 

40 Studies in Indian Literary History 

As regards the native place of Eaghunatha we learn from the India 
Office Ms of the ^yfatflfl that it was ^qi^ft which has been wrongly 
identified with Bhagalpur by Dr. Bggeling i in his description of this Ms 
As the author was a Decoani Brahmin his residence must have been 
somewhere in the Deccan. This suggestion gets confirmation from the 
identification of "g<TT^ft with Chaul as we find it in the following verse in 
the Sivabh&rata of Kavlndra Paramananda composed for Shiva]i before 
A. D. 1674 — 

Chap. XXVIII, 59 — Here the Mogul General Shaista Khan orders 
another Muslim Sardar to conquer "g'TRcft — 
" ^n^ra 'b^imm * *fi^O am i 
qora^t ■jh wVu^r jet*? csPTR*rcn^ n *n u " 2 

Apart from the usage of the name -cwmd) for Chaul as found in a 
poem of the latter part of the 17th century, when Eaghunatha Manohara 

( Continued from the last page ) 
The Ma ends — *' ^fcT S^smFl^ I 

snr Irsrfjrairasj =qftaV f*nn?ft n <« ii 

5fe ^T l ^^RjgiW^^I^ I ^ ^ $<aNdU<^Tf| 3<JNSda<fl ^wwa in °ii " 

1 Vide p. 949 of I Mss Cata Pt VII ( 1896 )— Ma No. 2695 

" Valdyavila&a.. by Eaghunatha ( or Eaghava ) Pandlta Kavl£vara of the Manoliara 
Ki&a a resident of =^^3* ( Bhagalpur )" Mr Nandalal Dey on p 228 of his Geographical 
Dictionary refers to Chaul aa follows — 

" Ohaul — ^iratft, 25 miles South of Bombay , it is the Semylla of the PenpUm of 
ths Erythrean Sea" 

( Bee also p 46. Ibid and DaCunha a History of Chaul and Bassetn, pp 3-11 ) 

2 ^qreaVste, ^iTs^^^m, vfftrgfl= fira5t, qpi^= q?r|g, gmffrre^ rnteff. 

Shaista Khan gave the above order during his camp at Poona ( 3"43^f^T 5JKtfl<3l»f. )• 

Kavikaustubha and its Cnronology 41 

lived at this place we may note here the fact that Chaul ol Revdaiiffl (in 
the Ahbagh Sub-divison of the Kolaba District of the Bombay Presi- 
dency) is a place of great antiquity. "Under the names of ^f<rra?ft and 
|gg*%iT local Hindu traditions trace it to the times when Krishna reigned 
in Gujarat." * 

"We may now sum up the facts so far brought forth regarding the 
life-history and literary activity of X^m as follows — 

(1) Eaghunatha Manohara composed the following works — 

(1) Isj&tfitf on Medicine composed in a d 1697. 

(2) d'^lt^n^fe a work on prosody mentioned and quoted in the 

^^r^r — No MS discovered so for. 

(3) jrf^^^dvr on Poetics represented by only one Ms m the 
possession of Vaidya S. A. Khandekar of Nasik . This Ms 
belonged to Baghava Apa Khandekar (a.d 175S-1825) 

(2) The genealogy of Eaghunatha as recorded by him in his 
^13^3*1 is as follows — 

?wiqf^[ — son f*ra*T2 — son x^m 
(c. 1600 A D )— (c. 1650 A.D. )— ( A D. 1697 ). 

(3) The native place of Eaghunatha Manohara was : *n*n^ft which 
appears to be identical with Chaul about 25 miles south of 

{i) In his sfa%t*cUT Eaghunatha mentions and quotes from the 
following works which are not recorded in Aufreoht's Catalogus 
Catalogorum — 

(i) W4'<i<A* 

(u) His own v5*?h^rafe. 
(in) <*l<.q-fcrfg§r. 
(iv) :^3qs?gifw 
(v) 5R5q-RT^. 

Studies in Indian Literary History 

(vi) *N*4lK*&4j<0. 
(vu) HH&ft. 
(vm) M*dM<fa. 

(ix) *rm*^TftRii 1 

1 The work ^RT^iaifS^if mentioned by Baghunatha appears to Lave been m Snnaltnt 
Kavi Vrnda's W^T^lftraf mentioned by Auf recht ( CC III, 83 ) appeara to be a Hindi woxl 
VidaB E. Institute No 361 of 1S92-05 — »' ffe %ft^1^fi[^ar HRq^rffl^I 3<5>?T.'' 

The Us records two dates, viz. (1) Sf^l \3* ? ( A. D = 1687 ) and (2) 93^ 1^\j -which is 
not obviously Yilrama Samvat The first djte may represent the date of compoaition while 
the second represent! the date of the copy. 

6. Karpurfya Sivadatta and his Medical Treatises — 
Between A D. 1625 and 1700 * 

Aufrecht records the following manuscripts of &ivakosa by Sivadatta 

ith his own commentary . — 

CO, J.G47 — " fcrc^tsr lexicon by Sivadatta Oxf. 195a. " i 

CO, II, 151— " fara^ST lexicon by Sivadatta Comm.-6ivaprakasa by 

ne same, Stein 51." - 

Both the MSS of the Sivahosa and its commentary &ivaprahusa 
lentioned by Aufcecht are inaccessible to me for study and analysis, 
mbsequent to the publication of Aufrecht's Catalogue Catalogorum the 
3. 0. R. Institute published a lists of MSS added to the Government MSS 
jibrary. In this list we find a complete MS of the &ivakosa with the 
'hvaprakasa, viz No G16 of 1S95-1902. As the lexicon was composed in 
l d. 1677 and as it is a compilation based on many early lexicons and 
)ther -works it is worthwhile recording a complete list of the works and 
mthors mentioned in it especially because no such list has been given 
sither by Aufrecht or'Stem. Prof. Ramavatara Sarma also refers to this 
eiicon casually in his survey* of lexicons. Aufrecht 5 mentions g^iag^pr 
is the work of Sivadatta and records only one MS of it, viz. " L. 1181. " 
This MS has been described by Eajendralal Mitra in his Notices of 

' Poojw Or Ltitdul, Vol. VII, Parta 1 and 2, pp GC-70. 

1 Vido p 195 of Aufrecht g Cataloguo of MSS m tbo Llbra^ , Oxford, 1S(H 
Auft<*ht has pointed out tuo datooftho lexicon ma £Ua 1099 ( - A D 1C77) reprinted In 
tLo chronogram " ^J^{?j " at, tho end of tho v,ork 

a Vida p 01 of Catalogue of Jan mtt MSS (1801). 

MS so 33S^0w€i^Rreqr ftmm. by fJTO «fo =^3^R -dated Wat 
1SSO ( = lSi*). complete Iho tat and commentary arc by tLo sama author -Data of 
comv-oiitlon feaU 1539 (A. D 1G77). 

Tho B. O B. I MS Xo GIG o/ ms-M0£ bos the following colophons - 

Cam.-" tfg MtqEJO? ^%m tt f^fto^- fowag: c$ : . »» 

3 Yiu> 5 W of LkU c/ ifSS (B. O R. I.) poouj, 1925 ~ 

4 \ido p. 1 mtro. to KolpadraJ^ a, YoL 1. Bard, igoq T f,„ <; r - , / 
K ^ * »" » *-« and b 33 a conuLS^J^^ " " ^ ^ 

o. CC, / CsT- " Q^igg^q aca. Ly ^vadat'ami.ra, L. US1. •' 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Sanskrit MSS. 1 It was copied in A D. 1719 and is perhaps the oldest dated 
MS of &vadatta's works. At any rate it is removed in point of tune by 
about 42 years from the Sivakosa and its commentary Sivadatta 2 was a 
physician trained under his own father Caturbhuja and other eminent and 
learned physicians of his time as stated by him in verse 2 at the close of 
his ?isji??5^T 

Works and authors mentioned by Sivadatta in his own commentary 
on tlie Stvakoia ( MS No 616 of 1895-1902) are — 

1. ginre, fol. 1 

2. Qs^iofe, fol. 2 

3. Srf^ft, fol 3 

4 fere, fol. 3 

5 vjrcjtfft, fol 3 

6 srrafaw, fol. 3 ( o A D 1550 ) 

7 *T*if?rerg, fol 4 

8 q>q^ g , fol 4 [ Vide my papei 
in Annals B E. Institute, 
XIX, 188-190 ] 

9. wtftivnq^infor, fol. 4 

10. «rar, fol. 4 

11. g^nftTO, fol. 4 

12. ftsr§ , fol. 5. ft*JI (5) 

13. ^at, fol 6 

14. grwfe, fol 5, 6 
15 %rr , fol. 6 

16. qrr^JT., fol 6 

17. fl^f^U, fol. 7 
18 fiFST^fa fol. 8 

19. *ftq^cT fol. 8 

20. %cj5s , fol 9 

21 f&T., foL 10 

22 ^sigw , fol. 10 

23 ft^sspste, fol. 10 

24 *ET<£cr, fol 11 

25 fe^=snr, fol 11, ( Vide my 
paper in the Karnutak Histori- 
cal Review, III, 15-20 ). 

26. ^TT*TSrgr$ fol, 11 

27 mw\® , fol 12 

28 <3t=5R, fol 12, ( See No 25 
above ) 

29 *ruw«W3l. fol. 13 
30. f«^?^5rai5r, fol 14 
31 l^cfig* , fol 14, 62 
32. Vtf&n, fol. 15 

33 ^if, fol 15 

34. tvisj, fol 15 

35. ^rm^5, fol 15 

1 Vidop 79, of Vol. IV of Notices-iiS Ho. H81 Dated £aka 1611 = (A D 1719) -A 
treatise on Nowlogy, Therapeutics and Materia iledica By §ivadatta Mifca. 

End — " q gjl«a™W tf g 5SgW*I2lfc- 

^h ^^sp fiw^rfira- 11 ^ 11 " 

2 Vide Aufrocht, CC, II, 60 - ^^m by ffcRrT Peters 5 351 = US No 351 1392-05. 
This fiO^TT calls himself " ^prafo^acFI? . " 


Karpurlya &vadatta and his Medical Treatises 

59 wtmn- fol. 45, 57, 59, 83, 91, 

36. ^qqvateisq, fol. 15 

37 «mr^-, fol. ic 

3S *q**TO§^TO 3F«2VST*i , fol. 16 

39. *n*ra, fol 20 

40. -<tfriismm, fol 21, ( Vide ray 
paper in Indian Culture, YU, 
Nos. 3-4) 

41. gsjffrer, fol. 22 
42 mm, fol. 22 
13 hwhrsi, fol. 24 

44 %5nT, fol. 25 

45 ^i^r^ fol. 25 

46 iriunuj.1, fol. 32 

47 ghnfe^, fol 32 

48 vjotc, fol 33 
49. snawift, fol. 33 
50 vrtf^fol 34 

51. ^m, fol. 35 
62. *mft, fol. 35 

53 trrgif, fol. 36 

54 g^jfo, fol 37, [Vide my paper 
in Annals (B. 0. E Institute) 
XVI, 313—314 and Prof. 
JCuppuswami Sastri Volume, 
41-51 ] 
?RHfe, fol. 39 
«ra*r, fol. 41 
S^'fcrK, fol. 41 





93, 96 
flR, fol. 45 
WJ , fol. 47 
?mwi¥l5T , fol 53 
m&\, fol. 53 

^ JTI%, fol. 59, (Hemadri's com- 
mentary on the AstQfigahrdaya 
is possibly referred to (Vide 
my Introduction to Astanga- 
hrdaya edited by Harishastri 
Paradkar, N.S Press, Bombay 

§^r, fol. 59 
^SFTHSTS, fol. 66 

^mm, fol. 68, ( Vide my paper 
in Indian Culture, 111,535-543) 
?&&, fol. 73 

69. m^n , fol. 71 

™. %?*Z , fol 74 

71. =cnpn^., fol. 74 

72. ^nn^w, fol 76, 83 

73 ^nft, fol. 77, 83 

74 snfc^iH, foL 80. 

75 f^vrg^I^l, fol. 88 

76 ^332 , fol. 90 
77. vra^dr, fol 92 
78 gumitff fol 93 
79. ^qfe^ehi, fol. 104 



$f£, fol. 44, 68 

uue I *ii m """"S "" these references for want of 

commentary a the i2n> K ^-° ^ ) ™ t0 the M «n*ng*n» 
— ~~ ^ ^^hed between a d. 1G00 and 1G50 or so and W* 

46 Studies m Indian Literary History 

may be looked upon as the senior contemporary of Sivadatta, who 
composed his lexicon in a.d. 1677 

It appears that Sivadatta was a learned physician and had an equally 
learned son of the name Krsnadatta, who composed, a commentary on the 
Dravyagunasatasloki of Trimalla. * This commentary is called DipiM 
or DravyadipikS. Aufrecht records the following MSS of this commentary - 

CC, I, 120 ~- " Oudh IX, 26 " and " NP, V, SO " 

CC, II, 51 — «• Egb 922 " ( by ^m^( son of fag<r<T ) The MS " Kgb 
922 *' is identical with No 922 of 1884-87 m the Government MSS Lib- 
rary at the B. 0. E. Institute. This MS contains a corrupt colophon as 
follows — 

folio 33 — '' fe^f^ ^^ rarerera fa g R ra^ g gw i $ott^tt: ^faH 

It is clear from this colophon that fjwr^r was the son of fa^^rf, who 
was himself the son of ^^a. In veise 2 at the beginning of the work 
Krsnadatta refers to his own authorship of the work as follows — 

|ppjn^ ggtan ferret spanftfosr n =* ti " 

On the strength of the data gathered so far we can reconstiuct the 
following genealogy of Sivadatta's family — 
<gt£tta =33^r ( A. D. 1600-1650 ) 

C Between ^ 1%^^T — Composed fisra^ihtT with commentary in a d 
} A D 1625 C j 1677 and a^rag*^ ( MS of A D 1719 ) 

( and 1700 ) j 
(C.AD 1700 ) ^oji^ composed ^^tiq^t 

Aufrecht has already pointed out that facrertfiTW is mentioned in the 
Ravindracandrodaya This work has now been published. 2 In the list 
of Benares Pandits whose tributes to Kavmdracarya Sarasvati 3 are recor- 
ded in the above work we fmd the name of fag^rifasr. The identity of 

1 Trimalla flourished between A D 1S83 and 1199 according to Prof H D Velaniar 
(Videp 59tlie Catalogue of B B. D A Society MSS, Vol I (1925 ) — MS No 175 of Dravya- 
guuafataslokl ). 

2 Edited by Dr Hara Datta Shaima and Mr M. M. Patkar, published by Oriental BooL 

Agency, Poona, 19S9. 

3 Vide my paper on"Borvucr and Kavindracirya Sarasviti at the Mughal Court" ( Annals 
of thi S. V. On. Institute, Tirupah, Vol I Part 4, pp 1--1C ) 

Karpurlya Sivadatta and his Medical Treatises 47 

this fa ^ -a fa sr with his namesake the author of the Sivakosa needs to be 
examined Sivakosa was composed in i. D. 1677 by Sivadatta and it is 
highly probable that this author, who was a junior contemporary of 
Kavlndracarya Sarasvati may have joined other Benares Pandits in their 
chorus of congratulations offered to Kavlndracarya on the occasion of the 
abolition of the pilgrim tax at Benares through the successful intervention 
of Kavlndracarya with Emperor Shah Jahan ( A. D 1628-1658 ). 

The editors of the fcavindracandrodaya make the following remarks 
regarding Sivadatta Misra m their Introduction ( p. vm ) — 

" ii. Sivadatta Misra, son of Caturbhuja, author of Sivakosa written 
in 1677 and Samjfla Samuccaya ( med. ) ( CC. I, 649a ). Prose passages 
1-U on p. 26. " 

Evidently they tentatively follow the identification of the & Misza 
of the Kavindracandrodatja with his namesake, the author of the Sivakosa 
as suggested by Aufrecht. We have, however, to see if the prose pass- 
ages ascribed to Sivadatta Misia furnish any conclusive p\oof about this 
identity. My examination of prose passages shows nothing in them to 
prove the above identity except the identity of names indicated by the 

Prof Velankar describes a MS i of a commentary on the Baaalirdaya 
ofGovmda. This commentary was composed by one ^srfosr son of 
TOWW of the Kurala family ( j^^fe ). H as this ^^fe* 
of the $*n* any connection with the c^g&feir ? This question 
cannot be answered at present. 

*Jl ) "Z 'IT & " ^ "" A S "-' J '' "*'■ "MB*)- MS -V. Bi On. 

7 Exact Date of the Advaitasudha of Laksmana Pandita 

• • • • 

(A. D. 1663) and his possible Identity with 
Laksmanarya, the Vedanta teacher of 

Nilakantha Caturdhara. the Commentator 
of the Mahabharata * 

My friend Mr K M. K 6arma, Curator of the Anup Sanskrit Lib 
xary, Bikaner, has ]ust published a note, on sn^cnj^rcrar ( a Dissertation 
on the Raghuvamsu ) by Laksmana Pandita. i I note below some points 
from Mr. Sarma's note — 

( 1 ) The only work of LP ( = ^i?uTqfe?r ) well-known to scholars 
is his commentary HTT^f^BT on the Bftghavapandaviya 

( 2 ) W<pm the anthor of the Yoga Candnka ( CO, I, 536 ) and 
^T1<JI the author of Hir^jf^n are identical 

( 3 ) There are two MSS of the Yoga Candnka 2 in the Anup Library, 
Bikaner ( Nos. 4404 and 4405 ) One of these MSS, viz No. 4405 is dated 
Samval 1747 ( = A. D 1690 ) 

( 1 ) LP was of Kaundinya Ootra He was the son of Datta and 

( 5 ) LP was the younger brother of Ganesa and Kaghunatha of 

( 6 ) Nagesa and Narayana, his maternal uncles, were his piecep 
tors in medical science. 

( 7 ) arW^^cft^ ( the author of ^cnrmn^t^T ) was his preceptor in 

* Voona Orientalist. Vol \, No_ 1 and 2, PagC3 1-7 

1 Vide pp. 69-72 of Jour of QanJaralUa Jlui Research IiiMult, Allahabad, Vol II, Part 1 
(No\ombcr, 1011 ) 

3 Thcro n a 513 of the Yo^a-CandnU in tho Go\t "MSS Librarj at the B. R. Institute 
( No 7G3 o£ IS32-9J ) It ia calkd YauljaJa Yo£a-Can<lriJ 3 la \cr-c 3 LP rcfor3 to his gurua 
in medicine, \i~ ^11^1 and HK131 aa follow a — 

Folio G— " firEJtfTlHr' gtHm^ra^lWir cn35t?R<?IsfaT. " Thi3 MSia dated gaU 1778 
( = A L> 1S"G > Tuo lis belonged to HB! *&$ gflll? Jjk^^l^* It was copied 
from the b.lonsin- to " X\H^Z HWIW *ft^\ " 

The Advaitasudha of Laksmana Pandita 49 

( 8 ) He pays his homage to ^mi^TTT also. This Bamasrama is 
possibly identical with his name-sake, the son of Bhatton DIksita. If this 
identity is correct we get about A. D. 1650 as the upper limit for the date 

of LP. 

( 9 ) The lower limit for the date of LP is A. D. 1690, the date of 
the Bikaner MS of his Yoga CandnkCt. 

( 10 ) We can assign LP to the latter half of the 17th century, i.e. 
between A. D 1650 and 1700. 

( 11 ) There is a MS of the H l^dita yrT of LP in the Anup Library, 
Bi&aner. It is a philosophical and grammatical dissertation on the 
Eaghuvainsa of Kulidusa The MS contains 66 folios (8$" X 3V' ) con- 
taining the commentary upto the 16th verse of Canto I 

I have now to add the following information about LP and his 
works as gathered by me during the course of my studies — 

( 1 ) Mr Sarma is correct m assigning LP to the period c. A D 

( 2 ) There is a MS of the Advaitasudha of LP in the Govt. MSS 
Library at the B. O. B Institute, Poona. It is No. 113 of 1902-1007 In 
this MS we find the exact date i of composition of this Adiaita work, viz. 
Samiat 1719 = A D 1663. 

( 3 ) LP was a contemporary of Nllakantha Caturdhara the celebra- 
ted commentator of the Hahabhlrata, who flourished at Benares between 
A. D. 1650 and 1700 as I have proved in several papers. 

(4J The Catalogue o/Alwar Durbar MSS by Peterson (1891), p. 19 des- 
cribes a work called ar^dgvji^T which is possibly identical with the stfcT- 
STOl ( B. O. 1\. I MS ) and the Hire*3l|^rTOr ( Bikaner MS ) Peterson 
makes the following remarks about this Alwar MS — 

" 484 — srtagvjFBvq by ?^w, son of T 3 ^ of the ^Yfa^q^ 
and ttNt of the 3n5r*n£?i of Benares. im?t and T&m 
were his elder brothers and «fwi'«r and TRPT 3 !, his 
uncles on the mother's side. He praises his teacher 
^*r,5te and *rap**r. ^t's father was Fra^ntf. Our 

1 TUo colcphoa of tho 313 ruccrda thij dale — 

TLj ctroscsram ^ (9;, ^5 (1) > ^ (7)^ tj(cft (1) u cqaa i to 5a n. it 1710 = A V 

lCbJ 1 hue d2.cr1lx.-d this !I5 oa pj i-O-ivl of cay CiU. of Ki.ja 1133 ( B O R- In-'ita*c\ 
VcUMU.Pit 11(1312) 


50 Studies in Indian Literary History 

author was a hearer of UW^fs^'s lectures and he 
' learned 33> from *TP^ and ifc from his father " 
( 5 ) S E. Bhandarkar't, Report on MSS ( 2nd Tour— 1904-1906) 
p. 45, describes a MS of the srt^srer as follows — " Advaitasudhd, com- 
mentary on the *m*cj<ilqPm<f which is also called ^f^r^T. It is by ^W^fed 
son of .... (^)^rgjRf, an ornament of the sr^rgrfH^ family. The author was 
kindly regarded by TtWgt^ft^ JT^igft An attempt is made therein to 
interpret the 7^5T so as to yield a Vedantic meaning " 

(6) The India Office Library contains two MSS of the (Vaidyaka) 
Yoga-Candnka [ vide p. 982 of I. 0. Cata , Part I by Eggehng (1896) ] 
These are — 

No 2753 — ^TFerf^ffT a treatise on materia medica in 38 chapteis 
by 35$WJlwfetf, son of ^rT. The author studied medicine 
at Benares under the tuition of two brothers ?tFfar 
( whmw ) and hknui and had three eldei brothers *l<Jftr, 
Ttjfm and xm and a yoimger brother r%f^ i This MS is 
dated Samvat 1800 ( — a. d 1744) 

No 2754 — Do — Copied by one g r^ y in Samvat 1733 ( = A D 1676). 
This MS is the earliest dated MS of Vaidyakacandnkii 
of LP It is 14 years earlier than the Bikaner MS of the 
work copied in a. d 1690 as pointed out by Mr Sarma 

(7) LP States in verse 10 at the end of the Advaitasudlui as 
follows — 

Evidently LP was a southcrnor He abandoned his property at home 
and becoming indifferent to the woild went to Benares LP was possibly 
a Maharastra Brahmin as the nanio of his motheL, viz. nnn suggests. Wo 
must, however, get more data for proving this point conclusively 

(8) Works and authors mentioned by LP in his Advaitasudhn ( B 
O. B I MS No 103 of 100Z-1907 ) are — 

1 This information ia gathered from (ho hat thri.3 \or_oi of tlto MS reproduced b/ 

The Advaitasudha, of Laksmana Pandita 51 

s&q^TTfks, wuwroren, *^^ra%., mf&Earc. ^rav u a flqfaM^ , fitfnrercT, 
^5^H«^-6*n^, ^qife^, fowia^, **% *fkn*n<*r, fecoj^oi, qifrrtlq-, #*- 
3if?npETT, ^FmHRT, ^rFFWorjfo, ^J^itqr, wnz t srsra, 3*5*r, *?tot<?t, 
*n*re, 3*^, •iwhwi, ^totw, Tisivtitor, tfiaitpw, ^^-m ^, ^>^r, tfitf, 

greats, %Mta*Ti<3i, 3tffnpi5i, ijwi^V, sw^r, tisrw^, s^F^rraix: mst- 
mwwuirt , qTCiwrvriVr, fa'arerr, &fMft, ^i^T4^q, ^TTOftftg*, ^ic^m^T, 

^ rnzvtm*, vfem^wi, zmwfc , rqfa*r, ^irqRq^ic^, mr^, vmwm, 
*^^i, t^|afaft<fa, eT^forr, sins^fw, ^s^stcpt, ^f^fiw, ft?rw?q. 

"tmrarc , aMta^renc, srnhw^nq., ^%, WJ^qmirfTTq^r, srfiR^a, ^*jt, 

ki^ktc, ^^i<it, m%$z, «i®i5T« *rfl^r«2Ri^, ft«i*3f ^rga^i^R^cft. 
jra:, msisrpr, 35*1^, mqrar, £*J?ifan, fcRtfrar, sifae, ^n^tai, q^qr- 

V&h VTTfll^T, 6TlEfl4tHT, U^f*. ewfen, o?iyq^, ^TOfll^, '^51^- 

^ni^T, vnfa, iwiqftq?, " ^R«iqH?m]>^5Brafera i sn^fijqret 
( f ° ho18 of Kal apa III ), sriq^tcT, sftmi, noR^, ^frlter-, sjwsfaraw, ra^r. 
m&ft, mmttm, *re^iu, ax^-tfm, f^tgwgw, mvmf^, ^m^n,' 

iwqfta:. ^fins^, ^?gr^ 5^., ^b:, «g*mn, ftwitife , ^^ 
x^mpx^mx^ qtq?T, qiwra^nfit trr^ifera^ =ETTW**mfaf^, 

The foregoing list of uorksMd authors mentioned by LP has been 
made by mo earsonly, but it is sufficient to prove the W de range of stud> 
carried ou by LP at Benares In fact LP shov,s familiarity W th practi- 
cafiy ail branches of Sanskrit teaming. ^ must, therefore, invest^ 
andseejihe compel any othe« works besidoa the 4«wn f 'ftiwfera 
and OT^ft^fi referred to abo\ e. " 

52 Studies m Indian Literary History 

( 9 ) The genealogy of LP may be represented as follows — 
f^wir ( of cTgisTrfa family of ^sH^H??^ *rt5T ) 

( mairied ntsn of arra^T *rte Her brotheis — qmsr and WI^t) 

(a d.1663) 

(10) The chronology of the works of LP and their extant MSS as 
discussed in the present paper is as follows — 

A D 1560-1680 — Bhattoji Dlksita flourished at Benares. 

LP mentions Bhattoji's STo^sV^pr in art^^^T 
„ 1550-1600 — Appaya Dlksita flourished at Benares. 

LP mentions f%^jftaT?TT and other works af Appaya 
Dlksita in svijcrer^. 

,, 1663 — LP composed his sj^dH^T at Benares 

„ 167 G — India Office MS of the qtrrgfe^i of LP. 

„ 1690 — Bikaner MS of the ^irgf^ST of LP. 

., 1743 — India Office MS of the qfrrgi^Pt of LP 

„ 1856 — B 0. B Institute MS of the 3t|oH^i of LP 

(11) Aufrecht ( CC I, 536 ) refers to one namesake of LP in the 
following entry — 

" ^hows perhaps the guru of vfte^is ( vrrccWI^I ftpm ) ( composed ) 

Gf CO, I, 139 — "H5I*m<nfol by <?S*W¥i2 (Barnell 148" )" MS men- 
tioned by Aufrecht as " Burnell 184<j " is identical with MS No 8660 of 
Tanjore Des Catalogue, Vol XV, p 6185. 

This is a MS of Rm^ qqtpPTiT of 5iJ;-fluW5 and it is dated &aka 1589 = 
A. D 1667. 

I find it difficult to accept Aufrecht's suggested identity of this cTJffl°I- 
vij with gg Muiw 1 mentioned by vfte-tfs ^J^T as his guru in Vedanta in 
the following verses — 

1 VidoMlruinuiPiakiva, Poona, April IOCS, page G3— my artick on IT^tijanatlrtlia, tho 
gatu cf Nllakantha Catardhara in Mlm iiriai. 

The Advaitasudha of Laksmana Pandita 63 

I am, however, inclined to suggest that 3^H<ni4 mentioned by ^$"3 
as his guru in Vedanta in the above stanza is possibly identical with 
55£fHtnqf^r, the author of the sfjhfifpn, who was a senior contemporary of 
^\^pi5 ^5^ at Benares, say between a D 1630 and 1675. We have seen 
already that gs-HURfeg constantly refers to his guru ^ra^iteKfoT in his 
wtasrai. 3te^5 ^^ als0 refers to (1) his Vedanta teacher ^Sfnoirr and 
(2) ^TO^ra^'^ m the following stanzas of his ^-Hmra^li^i — 
" Titans *jf^ %\ fcrawfinw ^rsjuinjskisat 

I may also point out that ^cffTJT*!?, the author of f%Tfc<resmsT ( MS of 
a.d 1G67 ) styles himself as " >;ftajrfljKH35iifa^q &<~tm etc " He is there- 
fore, different from 55^rnqf??r, the son of *iten and ^a and the author of 
the ^fanvn 

I hope the information about LP, the author of the Adiadasudhu, 
recorded by me in this paper will enable other scholars to study his 
works more closely than they have done hitherto In particular I would 
invite definite evidence from such scholars on the following points — 

( 1 ) My suggested identity of LP u ith 3~*an£ mentioned by Nlla- 
kantba Caturdhara as his guru in Vedanta 

(2) An) more information about LP than what is recorded by me 
above, especially about his descendants and the Brahmajnam family of 
Kaundinya Gotra to which he belonged 

(3)E\act dates of composition of the v,orksof LP other than the 
Advaitasudha composed in \ ix lGb3 

( 1 ) Was LP a Maharastra Brahmin i If so, can we get any infor- 
mation about his migration to Benares from the Maratha sources i LP 

1 lb a. 

54 Studies in Indian Literary History 

definitely states that he abandoned his property in the South and went to 
Benaies ( ^mf^r f*rq SJTIW w^l^Itfrmfa. 5ifft etc ) 

( 5 ) Can we get any more historical information about the contact 
of LP with his gurus ^jrWgtSKfaf and TmTSTff, 1 mentioned as gf^T m the 

1 Vidomyp3 P etiath Pricvavlw, Calcutta, 1911 on "A Critical survey of th» Samf 
ia-Ui of RJmVnma ( Be'neeti A. D. 1600 and 1677 " ). 

8 Fragments of Poems pertaining to King 
is'ambhu, Son of Shivaji * 

More than two years ago Mr. K X. Desbapande, a A , LL. a., pleader, 
Kolhapur, discovered two fragments of Manuscripts, one Sanskrit and 
the other Marathi, in the records of the Eajopadhye fauidy of Kolhapur 
and he was kind enough to prepare copies of them and forward them to 
Mr G. S. Sardesai, b a . Editor, Peshwa Daftar. In the meanwhile I 
published in the Annals Vol. XVI, pp 2b2-291 my paper on Han Kavu 
the Court-poet of King Sombhujt and 7u» Works. As some of the frag- 
ments of the Mss copied by Mr. Desbapande contained new material about 
the reign of the same Maratha King Sambhaji and appeared to form 
portion of some unknown complete poems, Mr. Sardesai desired that 
I should publish these fragments with their critical analysis. I gratefully 
agreed to this suggestion and wanted to avail myself of the originals of 
the copies prepared by Mi Desbapande As, however, I failed to secure 
the originals, I have thought it advisable to publish the copies as they 
have reached me, with a view to facilitating my critical analysis of these 
fragments and at the same time guarding against permanent loss of this 
important material I wish to draw the attention of research students to 
these fragments to enable them to trace the whole works of which these 
are portions My critical anal) sis of these pieces will have to v, ait till 
their publication in suitable instalments. With these remarks I present to 
the readers the following first instalment of the Sanskrit fragment in 

anr jfV^raqtaift ^^ffT^r n$i<re?r ti 
srmHTmt^^ sntminrft ^ftc u % ti 

f«5Kw ft^ft 1 ! vxu.i& g^ra: 11 1 n 

3"nvTirefit it^wgi^ unlryr^ sifosRfa n ^ h 

Rwiia*i< hEtctrv, tirrv. nvrcaun; n v u 

*JbiM ./-Vi D L, Itu.tM, Vol. Will, Pf 2ST-20r. 

58 Studies in Indian Literary History 

3£T. w^ite^i sr^rat *iswid i i 
Wrrafi: sr^f^ sft'gfife s^rera m«ui 

?i?qf%§qT qfcrai *m% jit^t flraV i%^ u 9° n 

«5nft+^.w<5i&<MpNiRH ii v? ii 

sn^r ^T^nak^n ^fli^ sr h^ i 
^njiw^wu^ii iai^n *m u an. u 
iryq^^fow 3*1 M(^*-n 3^ i 

|^nx? ^ctraiai: wWUfawiRR u *c n 
5i d*a*N^i M^'^tii ^g^n qt i 
afe.^iTH^g i. 5»F«jrf5«5*a. *r?T ii a\ ii 
S^ft Mftgai' ij^H^^^^f *rai i 

1 Patan Volley 

2 Parli. 

3 iforafii* 

■i Tatla Vally 

6 iledhe. 

G Kudal. 

7 Fonda. 

8 Salii 

9 Manori. 

10 HiyrfHC 

11 Varna. 

13 Bohlda. 

13 Bajapur 

11 SoundaL 

15 Pamvas. 

10 Lanja. 

17 Devle. 

18 Devrulth 

19 Eangameahwar 

20 Bavarda. 

21 Ohiplun. 

22 DabhoL 

23 Fungus 

21 DhamanL 

25 Hatkbamba. 

26 Kelc 

27 Bald 

28 Ytlo 

Poems pertaining to Sambhaji 

ir^at ^y$m *n% Tatar inre^sm n h* ii 

Hyt»i%<iam ^51 sn3tfWw*nn 11 h^ 11 

§m%<Isua<fIT $T3tw*. H5 11 ^« 11 
wjjft wr sriht m%£t ^im^ xm^ i 
srra^nrfer xt&za ^s^rfasnpn. u hh ii 

^d *m «HFn. Wra f^reae*^ u ».\ 11 

J^RI^te^T sfal IpTIFl^ SSHPTtft II H« 11 
^l3$d*l<fU£d<5MtffaR!T I 

SwwiHt+wmwr fauPd *rer rag*n 11 h<: ii 
aiwta WT ^RT^n ^ctl% i^H^it u ^ 11 

«aH*MW+IH<MIWW55¥*Wlwqi 1 

sWrgftar. siajsrerer 5iW4 «forei 11 <n 11 

ikit*di3>4 ^P4«*w*i qtrnpteror. 1 
trra^Tg^j^i^r iwmPd- ^sft h ii <^ 11 

^^^TVTi^nwaYa^Pct f^<iV 33T 11 ^y 11 
^EWpnrraH^nn vftTitsigq. qr 1 
^^fcrcHPtawtat frtffe m^i 11 ^ 11 

1 Kharcpatao. 2 Kaypatan. 



1 Jaltapar. 

5 KelavaU Harachcrl. 


Kaa'aeli. ■ 

B Arala. 

T»rLu 10 Salvaa. 



gil U a porUou of tno VUhaJsad hills. 



12 KLasaTiH. 

60 Studies in Indian Literary History 

^w^wp w^wiw^i «utt=idi arfqr n $«> u 
*n>i&h 'it %fa %fqr ^s^f^ri i 

3y+i nf^ h ^nfesnTahrJThmi. 11 »i 11 
^^(?d f$nr ^f(%^ swig t?t qfear 11 ^ 11 

SAW"! ^PrlTI^IWl'I5Ilf5PI 11 

<*<ipd H\$\>m cinf^ H#3 <E1?§ II «^ II 

^g^fa^: %fofeH<0 qRTriR^i 11 
f|[g^T«T^n. iifq^r^n <ft 11 »« n 
^dFTt. wid+i ■Ht^fci'it ^jpt^pt arfqr 11 
aw«i 5ifesr %f^55^!T^i^nfi™i' 11 »^ 11 
*TFT3jj6T 'JWif^t ^%aT srm^Vrsrn 11 

awifcldtfdl sliy-dlftuigM^W II v>$ II 

sJcyd^yi %i^s^3pn jTUwumi. 11 
sH^muhi ^PWi+i^ues ^nr 11 v* 11 
^m arfqr f^T5nwi*n*rcf^iiyw 11 
w+^iuimi &$ f^BT^r im &<$& 11 t° 11 

mHi% «&<W fltHWH 7TH5^Tft II <£1 II 
pf^T^FTgr. M*«IWI. sVaT^fa II 

1 Dlcholi 3 Kudal 3 qUIHjI = a lettor 

Poems pertaining to Saiubha]i 

uf5rei jjfito %f%^; ^(uidH^'i^T II 
g«nfo ^ ^fsr ?nfn§ wr sprei; ll <:\ II 

jprft qcRT. %f%sra^H^T ?^T II 
f^PTfo JWT^tS f^T^T«Wtn II <:* II 

re^i nf«^i snbr f*ii^KiimJi3T u 

^rr setBr; ^ra«^ 7?fof^ ht?ihct: ii «j^ ii 
iF^4ft?nan^T ^nfr e[5t^t srfa ii 

wt H5 JTfRn W^Pd itft HH II <^ It 

*HWKi+tfifagr H^T^trfd^(3d[ n 

H3Tct fqRJ<3^ZT- ^^cT^ar II %<> II 

sn^^^^sfhHT. ^^vi*^y ti 

arra^fe {%re jptf^nfi?i sfaT^ifar. n ^ ii 

qwurfSrai nr<n 3*nifa- jwraa ii M u 
<h*«kRc^* %fa Ownild^.^: 11 

^^F§5Wi4«IKs>*'<lW^m^d|. it 

£»qfe «£teai| hrt^i ?w aif+^i. u \h ii 
sra^qfer sipfa ^toI'S^towi n <^ 11 

^W^^Ttii-O^K www =5 II 

^Ri-ei'q-t«i5JH5tRf?. qsfinrrc«i u 
sTPj^nifer q*4 wrrx um? sttt ii <u ti 

62 Studies in Indian Literary History 

sjg^ fSrorf Mqm <ft%?n «rft u 

^rf^^wgf . sera ^srarfc^ n 

fj^fet ^?d ^ "g^ ?nfii% s^ u "j o^ ii 

fqRTf^a ^i^^*iiw^fwSRn<i+<i ii i°vs n 
%^r 3iRr wu ^ fa^fa *ifijaife* u 

ew^er ^iPr f%en *fa ^nnfi «wd*t u ? <>^ u 
*5*f §^t jut ^nni; MM^iyi^i*K* u 

^i^ft tftt 3n *v& jn^rofefir. ^ ii 1 1 1 || 
S^si gf^ sH^fe^H*n^jmfen^^% ii 

d^lta l M WJWI <^ STcRT qsisftsWTO^ II 11^ II 

The following stray stanza is found on one of the sheets of the 
manuscript fragments Its exact place in the text of the poems cannot be 
determined at present — 

Poems pertaining to Sambbaji 63 

9. Fragments of poems pertaining to king 
Sambhu, son of Shivaji * 

I published in the Annals of the B. B. Institute, Vol. XVII 
pp. 287-295 the first instalment of the fragments of poems pertainm 
to the Maratha King Sambhaji, son of Shivau the great The followm 
fragments form the second instalment of these poems found in the record 
of the Eajopadhye family of Kolhapur. The circumstances under whic 
copies of these fragments "were kept at my disposal by Bao Bahadu 
G. S. Sardesai, Editor, Peshwa Daftar, and Mr.K N. Deshpande of Eolhapn 
have already been described by me in my introductory note to the firs 
instalment of these fragments. 
II 3*fta? 3T*T3 II 

§mtf*THfWr 5Rf^T atftftfon n ^ n 

t r ^fe-dl^d l T^T d^"d^j ^M n ? || 

siHwrer «tt ^rgt ^ifaiji S? to**. II » II 
q^^f^t^i <?raf qreff §pa^T ^ i 

gfeg6 t(zMd\^^ra^ <;ci<ni"t\^ i 
q^RT?[ , W t Tt g^rt H^fgn^rat II % II 
Hqwiuid^ ffif ^fimlM^ft-'UW. i 

3hhUmft ««Ti«wKfr *Nri fkwvs i 

ktlX OTRcT a^ttlA^tt fclM^i cf'l K II « II 
d l d^l'A^ idHI^I^'tl-H^^lH. I" ** " 

AntiaUoftheB ^Institute, VoL XIX, pp iChGO. 

Poems pertaining to Sambhaji 

fjidtj^iui 5T , aUMc*M-b4>-b , Jlt I 

^ , 5S T ft^(^<i*A<<ndi+uMPiarefT i 

<t>(Ui;JWUN>K^Hs^WW£'U II 1H II 

yr^^w^t ^M^^Nfonf^mT a i\ it 
^lynMiiBi^dy^it ^f^r^^r i 
«^iRro«r \ik*% ^nfasnq R^jpr ii ^o ii 

^bn^wi^yyrl ra%: %i5Fgsgg': i 
smiiyg^sjflwua. ^nrapra u ^ n 
sressft^rcn ?€f ^ftqureq? unit i 
Rl<UMIWd. Wl <\*Hl*MH f=r*n u M II 

n^tfata g^. ii 

ata fara; mv tott ftn^jTR. i 

* Thb %g^ may t» tho %!jq S^lt^T, aatiot of Ri^tic^-Carlta t 

66 Studies in Indian Literary History 

>5a<ri ir^ Eisnj; h^rt g^rtrer u ^«> n 
?m 2E. ^M^g SSTflOT u^ftfafa I 

t%& ^rasr 5^i^n^ w^it ^r ii *<* ii 
%4V*( 3"«> ii 

5<nr qfira' ttjt ^T^^n stI^^m^ u ^ n 

^ERTf%H?^ ^re ^Rnfadl II ^ II 
ttfKHild^dV ^Jpft <Joft$3I njHISJ^V I 

JT^m^^V^ - ^ftjp^rai^gV ii \\ ii 
arowiuH «^^V ^isJWciyww^t i 

>i+i5iiwy ^ww^jjaV 'cj^^uct^ i 

^Frat 5fitaT*RI8^ MWMlft^dl^ II ^ II 

^snarcflsng^jw ^^4+u*uft^V i 
a^V fornix cu ^jpi »j^i*(od+jny i 

tm^qi=HHHT 33" 4frlfarfW3-dJTT II \v II 

gwi CTcoff smrerrc sif^^r ^% ?fc ii ^<s u 
t%^rat^iy ii 

%?t fft sq ga =gft^ ^fe I HRT nsft^ qRTRRT OTfRWJ. II tt° II 

*fc<rtji<JKi e^rafa «4*-hw ^4V i nra. ira^ n «i n 

q^^-t §$£ qrrr &&% i f&Ed^ita 5^t *ra ^ftqtht ii 
41<h^uh fi^ 4tPra^%?n i ma irsfr? .. .. u ** " 

Poems pertaining to Sambhaji 

fin tTflt Kta fe^ <refe i Rror ^?fer gn^r THn^nff i 
aw gcfflr ?pnu fa%n*faiiai t sire srata[ . u u? u 
?i?wa* srafa ^r J^r^ro^ 1 vn-j sisfcngvnracnfa it 

s*t s^hT^fgftRr %fa ^prfe 4ftr i *nar utft^ n yy u 

^iwr sifrr JbltidiiH $#a*Fir i ft^qoiT gonreft Tsrjf^n ^ u 
§4 si^ hw: f^m^r^ 1 *rra irefr? . ... u *h ii 

3?flxm«HfaHI5ra*ft ^rife i tto* irater ii a^ 11 

<*itft^*te 't>n*di4'b<ii ^fl=r i strtt ?7^r §Rsai f^n ^?tt ii 

tftf ^ f^f^rer ^tjr^t g% i ?rra Jreffc u so u 

5i^t^qi^w*<t fegrft ^ih^ i ^?j r^t HHi^si ^^t e^fa ii 
'jfTr f^7 tpptV fay^ti#^ i jti3- nfft^ ji •$£ ii 

qR-T ^m^ ^ZH HiHW+HT I 5TTFT STO^ £pjc? *Tf°T-t>l5HH[ II 

?isn sran? s?ra $<4^<>it i ^rt, n^ ... M y ^ „ 
$rfd*HJW fo^ q;ifd«^m>.-ti i ^r ?^^ era %3srafacTHT 1 1 
^t^t zmn 'j^ydqtMdMi i ?rra rratcf . ... h ho ii 
5s?*fH«wiRT g^ginTRT Hmrain grag^r ?rat =3 n 
^fjrawtai^jafawft ^ » *m JR%. u mi ii 

^rcrooft «mfa wwH-di^tii i mz JRftf . n <^ ii 

^ftqh£ S^fa <l|<i^lj(d^ | TTRT JTCft^ ... . || ^ „ 

zias&w §gtfr xn<ft ;wr i sna ar*ft^ u hm it 

o^ifa ^r^nfoT g % ^^t i srraifa HHr<TOarer<nfa ii 
sftrawrc gqfa jgHd'iyy^r i Hicr. irsfct u \% „ 

at ?mRT i^r crahpnn Rigr^r |gt ?rfi=a^{%^ q=an f^fer 11 
^re^T -^i^rk^ty =?^i^t s^nfojr ^pg^nr ^r : u 

68 Studies in Indian Literary History 

^WT U*dy<H*JNfe>*l4V IRlMUIWHT^r II ^n 

te<f^d3j*T3ftfir snfa Jjf§ %3ftt 

II ffa siwiFT. || 
sft u ^f? S^f II 

*r ; 5i i ^n erra^st ^R??f^:«^Tf«iq, u i n 

5TU^f^«^H?.<i. 4WI^*^*-^5t^T I 
s n«Hld^«H 5Tft i^T^r f$HKd II ^ II 

#3t*pTW^ sfa> gfrEgfrET^SJT^ II 3 II 

q> f^jfafd foetal tht §*t*tV *rlg; n « ii 

*HHHl-(\§i}dl4lWt *UHrm.Rui|^dT II ^ II 

?^[ q^RmHR^ats^ ^gsr i 
^iH5Rmeg44fi^TcrT *t^*3^ n $ u 

sre^ymf^ft ^{thrRt <£^*t ii u ii 

f^it vni^nm^ ^%#5ir^t trt n <: u 
sn^r *thV f^rn^ i^teqi ^te^f^n i 
H-Jtfd^-^ fe Mi^«iyi^n^4\^<iid, ii <* ii 
cn^oft^cRrarsV g^iwl^Hi^ai^i 

^ll^^«3«l-4W«4^Xni-jil4l%: || 1 o || 
TO5H <|W fq"g JraftwJT q% q^ | 

Ttf^'wjaT f^HHlwuJuwi^fa^ ii n ii 

Poems pertaining to Sambhajl 

JC^tRiqfadi r^rcr ^ q^pni i 
^nfe^eft Pram ^ ngf^tera u in u 

g^ ^€\^q^4t ;&««<*■<&$ u ?«s u 
Metacft^renatfq {^nra^nrem i 

srani q^d^M gqrcifir sgrnres: u ^ u 

*n^r*rt w^iqhft q ta 4fruwitere i 
^^ngryfdiid^^^^ =51^^ u ^3 u 
?j*qq\ •\nt\u\ 5^^!jrai ;?5fo. 1 
swr. 3^mrar. huts ^wfouT^ n *h 11 

^yj trad «i4k*i/ j^t^i q%iTra 1 

*«i q^emmfosq frtmfereR fe% 1 
^raw wt^ <rarer s?ftfcr h^m 

70 Studies in Indian Literary History 

*4<iWd fcra wnt«*i g^ a^T *rf%£T(T I 

^n i^rrai^ 3^n w^^tt eiw=& i 

^sreft «qri%ft^t ^if^T f^f^qt 1 
fenfernwr Jiw^r ^raft^ ^r€^ 11 v* 11 
^Jngjmf $m sftef M^immfi 1 
3cbifVfew4fcm=n g^r ra=ri nif^wi ll 3^ >i 

waff ^ Tjiy^i ^hn^fnrofegT n \% \\ 

*Mf ^sr 11 

... ^rfew^^fi[g|^fi?ftftra^MM^+i^i «nfd*4£fd .. .. s»q«uswwd «j?nreifta- 

l>dl*d*rflcf fgqrfJ-riH 

jpflnigf^rjig^^ 5^ Mwifd^iwf^Jrfi gsrwi^ir *«*^n+k i stfir q'^t t swid fir^n- 
H^ff g^ff ?iujwT^n( •*&& )qiHTH 1 ^ fa<fd*Mi^fl^w+wJi««*M*Iw+wtft- 

tnr w^M^<uii5iiftxr^i^-*Jid|cicA«ii^n?^^'iwfq- *idnft^cWi:i+<4'l+i4W<w(d- 

g a ^fk^mfe '-Pl d l HTrafq I cl^lfd'^f^d^^l^HlljMTiTqTfi^da *ET . <feI<flN4di... 

H^mi'mMfd mr^q m^ w nk f^gBT s^tfsas^r srenSra ^h ^ta-HMyuw-wfttj 
^fir -•£? JFRW^Tqi^feft -i.=^i'd<l^;]j5ti7j%^m"r 5ft*n?ni5flr ^n^^wgfHftrtiwPi- 

tik 1 dm-^a.-nn Mi^m i qj^qHd'^i-EiR^nq ^f jt 1 ^^?^^ r site. «'«fkwmi 

Poems pertaining to Sambhaji 71 

a^qTrfcrasra s^c^r g^^stqwrorog ^kT^Roi Rfaft£q*rffpr mi 
*i\ TUii i a%r3iargqimsri;fofi d*NHi ^ rd frgggfa%q- TnjUr?! dd^qR«-wp3 %fe- 
CFPraiqrfipjai fwiiforei ag f|[flrf^n^ a?rer i %pi nn?ftra^Trc»5Wj^n fcre- 
CTmwvrr mH^r gsiteRrcr -H^fd dmfafegrei lwn %( «** )<ren?rrapn cn*r- 
H^rtj srfs;? «^ i sif fTa%ft*n3fo*ufaara <b<<Jiaq« ^rga^t m^q sitFsa^iY 

%fhra^mRH^ngV aY ^qa> h^t 

5T?J sii^ga: 55^^ ^rrfft^HRinT: 11 v it 
«lwi^ imftai ireig^O^ 1 

^tTT?IT <i«^d«J *TC7 TOT J?575ft I 

rht aqhreraWi ^wigf^«m^i u * 11 
5«j*ul«R^i5ia^m*W5itfira 11 } 11 
na^qrfojai ia^iaJiMifefa. u * 11 

J^Stfo. qfinaT dHI»i<.'-4<adl+<ai II H II 
gHTOlQ^rairdiV-lH^-bqu.^: 1 

^■JViuita^sftreft ^nrg%. 11 s 11 
^fa^^^rs^Hf ighf? 11 «j 11 
^V^- ! sm : 5i?s ?^i-u-4r3RTfqr 11 <: n 

72 Studies in Indian Literary History 

^gsa^r *=3rg^ ?h^$ ii i n 

?t5tht vri^s^Tagg's ^*ih* i 
^ i ^^H^s t ^nwi4qHT it "R ii 

...iJWWti^W' MsdNlWJISJtHW. 1 
sm^faWT STRICT ^fto^vl || <|^ || 

ti^ifw^iiat ^thi 5TTcr: sn^ ^ra^t. i 
g,*4<a t wsi^ta^MKUwa ii is II 

^TH^f^rrf^g^^R^ra ll 1«a II 

3?sm*ffrif5reV fa snft fatfw %€t u is. ll 
f^iR^Vf^s^^wi^T g^ft I 

Sj^faror ^^g^ingdfw i 
aigjt^TO sural fkxft era sm u 1^ ll 

SCTETa. <HWd4(. «<4Wl*W4<W°l ii ^° ii 

^K^^^iMNa^ 'nV ^ft u ^ ii 

gT8fo ^ i 4k mifag€t fe*rair?H n *X n 
i&zgg f^mm^ fewfwa ^wn. i 

ssr^i3 , "nK35^ft3tTa*T33r I 

Poems pertaining to Sambhaji 71 

fosra^n firai^Rt ma^raV fatten* a \* u 

ftrarewroPSHt firaiWpr?^ a \c a 

3Tf3nf^<?n^ winter y«R^< a ^<* n 
tr<i«^rfitfq 5j?iWT/Jlfli'4?iw i 

^raffH^: sfts *r Ai ^f^raFra: 11 ^ n 

*i$iR^n<nq^ft JiiwRjsraWm i 

5pra|- qf^ra ^renrj^fq ^iht a 3.H a 
^s *nfa fasft ^rat s^atxRiqoi i 

Vt iKm ; c^rr ^fqaTRRTq^BiftRi, a }o a 


J^TR5T^ll }<t II 

snnq^ Orating e f^. f^ma. , 
fira^r ^jfrjfawiw ^t$nqz=E f^rrr ^ a <<\ a 

74 Studies in Indian Literary History 

^fcT %Rl %tff% 1?R grd«Il ^^ I 

*Tftftfa ^iRwwRuRj.m^MHid u v ii 

«Ui(Jl4*UHIU f%? y^^^ETS =3* II «A« II 

fti^r^i •ui^fter ^rtf^n ig ?r£n u <\<i it 
f^fta^fl^: qRNRddm m^r^H^sffif 
s tem foma j -u ^^mre! ^teft ^?r 

• • • • 

■JJfllTPnfT H^R E5R^RT * HSTC II o^ II 

di<p4ujRr *jj^n^ ^ M4*i=td(^a i 

Poems pertaining to Sambhaji 

Wi^WI WRR) trft^lflr H ^51^ II «<* II 
«hl«*; WhKHflWWc^l^ <NMW*lVMId I 
«H?T «l|c*2?wn^r JTFJTT MPwRwifd IUo I) 

are: hth TimraV «<|*w ^fr^Rr i 
<m=yR«<fo «fr*r- H^y^ifqq^Tcrt ti c i u 

*mRi«fwRyif?t ^jr^r m^zs. n <s^ n 
sra; gsw *ra^ farcrr in ^ ^f|f^ i 

1 0. The Date of the Kayasthaparabhudharma- 

dars'a of Nilakantha Suri and Identification 

of its Author in contemporary Records * 

Aufrecht * mentions some works about the Parabhus 2 among which 
he mentions a work called ParabhU-prakarana by one Nilakantha Sun, 3 of 

* Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, Vol. XIII, Part U, April- 
June 1939. 

1 Cata. Catalo I, p. 384 - "q^nfafafoT, on the origin of a caste called 
q**r — BP 299. TOT5ra?>T by ;fte*os^ — Khn. 76, and by wre^r are&— Khn. 
76." II, 78 — "^Ijraw on the origin and tenets of the ir*t caste descended 
from the Kayasthas written under king Sahuraj, son of Sambhuraj of the 
Bhonsla family. The anonymous author refers to Babdeva Atale ( q. v. ) 
L. 4199 " 

The B. E Institute ( Limaye Collection acquired m 1938 ) 
contains a MS called q^spRT ( folios 16 ) In the Govt. MSS Libiary 
there is another MS of <R*Tq«5?T No 567 of 1883-84 acquired by Sir B. Gr. 
Bhandarkar from the Maratha country. 

2 Vide article on Jig in the it^TCT^ gR^ifar ( by S V. Ketkar ), Vol. 
XVII, ( 1925 ) q - 242-248 The total population of this Kayastha Prabhu 
caste in the whole of India may come to about 30,000 The Maharastra 
historian Bajwade ( Klianda VI ) records in all 9 grSmanyas about the 
Prabhu caste. Dates of some of these disputes — &aka 1391 (A. D 1J69) , 
6akaimi{A.. D 1669 ), Saka 1597 ( A P 1675 ), Saka 1669 (A. D 1747); 
Saka 1714 ( A. D 1792 ), Saka 1745 ( A. D. 1883 ) 

3 The adopted son of Nilakantha Sun Thatte was married to the 
daughter ( Tai ) of Sardar Balaji Narayana Natu in A. D. 1818. ( Vida p. 
123 of Thatte Kula-vrttanta, Poona, 1936. ) This Sardar Balajipant Natu 
was associated with the K&yastha Prabhu dispute of Saka 1745 (=A. 
D 1883 ). It is possible to suppose that Nilakantha Sun composed his 
^EPrer-'T^rqri'i^r in connection with the dispute of 1883 A D to vindicate 
his relative's ( Balajipant's ) position against the Kayastha Prabhus. If 
this inference is correct the date of ^prewijqRfcsi must lie between A. D. 

1883 and A. D 1887, the date of the MS of this work. 

Kayastha-Parabhu-Dharmadarsa 77 

which ha records only one Ms viz , " Khn 76. " Prof. P. V. Kane also 
mentions the work " qrvrEFROT by Nllakantha Sun " in his History of 
Dharma'sastra i along with other works regarding the Parabhu caste and 
the Kayasthas 2 . I am not aware if Anfrecht or Prof. Kane had examined 
an actual MS of Nllakantha Sun's work, which they have designated 
" q<*£iW J i. " Recently I came across a MS 3 of Nllakantha Sun's work 
called " qfFremwmfesT " I have no doubt that this work is identical 
with the qrvrsTsRoi of Nllakantha Suri mentioned by Aufrecht and Kane. 
I propose, therefore, to describe it and present some data gathered from it 
with a view to studying and recording some historical information gathered 
from contemporary available records * about the date of the author and 
his literary activity. 

1 Tol. 1 (B. O.E. Institute, Poona, 1930), p. 577— «• q^ifaf^k 
qr«m?JT by ^s^^ft q^mrE^ by mq!& arc&. 

«R*J!PWT by iilf^2OTt (Mitra's Notices, X, p. 296. ) About 1740-A9 
A. D during the reign of Shahu, grandson of Shiva]i. When Balaji 
Baurao was Peshwa tff^FKra was flifesra and a favourite of Shahu, refers 
to mtfa z&& as a hypocrite and a Karhada Brahmm. " 

2 Ibid, p. 528 — Works about Kayasthas: — 3nreq<lfocflq or -a^si by 
fV3*4< alias wn*£ composed about 1647 A. D. 

WWTSra by fa$»<TC— Printed at Bombay, 1873, same as qjrawrqn<lq. 
Baroda Oriental Institute MS is dated 1727 ( 1670-71 A. D ). Ujjain MS . 
No. 1097 is dated A D. 1713 ( Vide List of 1930, p. 30 ). qFRqgf^Kq^j. 
*mK by e%jfiTrcR<iiqfa«r. ^rwravl, ^?qftfa, qspRqErcrc, q^quqfa by 

The Govt. MSS Library (B 0. R. I. ) has a MS of ^^ 
( No. 5ii2 of 1883-81 ;. 

3 In the Limaye Collection of MSS acquired by the B. O. R. Insti- 
tute in 1938 from Mr. Shambhurao Govmd Limaje of Ashto (Dist. Satara), 
a second copy of this work is also found and is dated A. D. 1827. It is 
copied by ^ son of ad» s^nf fen} as the following colophon shows.— 

Folio l£ — "lft Wv. Sqf^ mm fe?qtqH5qgg^T ^ ^qpJI fafofflsq 

1 Some of these records are found in the History of the Thatte 
Family (Thatte Kula vrttunta) b> P. V. Thatte and Y. N Thatte, Poena, 
1930— Vide pp. G-2j, which contain historical documents about the Tharto 

78 Studies in Indian Literary History 

The Limaye MS of ^R^qrmmf^- (folios 8) contains the following 
references to Persons, Places, "Works etc. — 
aJWI+J, V 35HWPT, 1, 2, 4, 7 

^jsfcr (=f^Rtefcr), 7 «n*jV d, 4, ^r^bn , 4 

(Began by %g>* and finished by ^^^^^j,^ ^ 7 

iftthS ) ^rwiT^ ,! 1 

family dated, A. D. 1718, 1735, 1743, 1748, 1767, 1769, 1770, 1773, 1775, 
1777, 1781, 1782, 1783, 1784, 1787, 1795, 1796, 1798, 1807, 1808, 1813, 
1816, 1818, 1830, 1831, 1838, 1858. In all 36 documents are recorded. 
The author of the ^EPR^q^W^ is identical with qtecps f^Wfi qq or q% 
mentioned in some of the above mentioned documents. His descendants 
are still living m Poona ( Vide pp. 52-53 ). A brief genealogy of 
Nllakantha Sun may be recorded here — 

%5ra — 'rfara — f^spf*? — ^rcraw — fasT^s — 3\&<bV6w&t 

(A D. 1775 (AD (Died 1834 A. D ) 
. 1783) 1772) 

In Document No. 9 dated 80th October 1775 our author's grand- 
father is referred to as follows — 

3 5} ». 

Our author's father fq^m&HZ was a iftrffa of f3Tw?W in the 
Karnatak ( Document No 10 dated A D. 1777 ). He is mentioned in 
Document No. 30 of A. D. 1816. The marriage of our author's adopted son 
is referred to in Document No 31 of A. D. 1818 ( from Balaji Narayana 
Natii to Mount Stuart Elphinstone) Document No. 88 dated 17th January 
1880 records the grant (of village €te^ to our author '« jftfU'JMiiaT' ftsrpr^- 
■qz qq ») from Bagho]i Angre. Document No. 38 dated 7th January 1881 
records a grant of land to our author. Document No 34 dated 86th July 
1838 records a grant of land to our author's son ^rcmsir^ft Jf)55^5W^> <W. 
This qm W tireft was the eldest son of sfta^'s cousin qton^ft. ^RWT was 
adopted as son m A. D. 1815 by :}te?<»5 as he had no issue ( p. 123 of 

Thatte History). 

1 Vide article on *otto in the H^RFsJl ^n€taJ, Vol X, ($-}<: 3. to 
\%-K) The term 3EWPT is found in a Malwa inscription of A D. 738-39 
In an inscription of A. D. 987, the term $p??*i is used. In the Sivalik 

Kayostba-Parabhu-Dharmadarsa 79 

ww^i, o ***&* a > 3 » 5 » 7 

snnpftqftr, 2 sn^Mtai , 4. 6 

J6i*rnifer, 4, G r ^3 a > 2 ' 4> 5 » 6 

nmms 1 , 6, 7, nnn?*?K •* ^jju+wwi:, 3 5 

35, 1 

Stone pillar inscription at Delhi of A. 1). 1184 the term WW has been 

used as a caste-name. 

1 Visvesvara alias mnprc of Benares composed a work called 
ferarSto, ( Fide Peterson's Caia. o/ Ulwar MSS, pp. 37-38) by order of 
Shivaji (" <mwn &m. &&& ") Vide pp. 223-225 of the ftFRfas^q 
(BIS Mandal, Poona, 1925 ) Aufrecht ( C. C. II, 139 ) states that 
Gagabhatta composed in Saka 1603 (A D. 1681 ) a work called «*w«W on 
dharma for Shivaji's son Sambhaji and a MS of this work is at Florence 
(Italy). He officiated at the coronation of Shivaji in A. D. 1674 MS No. 
9070 in Baroda On Institute shows that Gagabhatta composed his 
«ETCW[»tai»q in Saka 1599 = A. D. 1677 ( Vide Kane . His. of Dh. I. p 712 ). 
ThoMarathi Bakhar ftof^KR3 (Baroda, 1895) describes wir>T£ as irsr- 
SJWsntji°j, a^krat, cnftisii, am^S, ^len^^t ^iwi, nfit^n; ( p. 410). Vide p. 
311 of HvqgifR *ifcr«ta (1937). 

2 According to SahyQdn Kliavda of the Sbandapurdria the 
Candrasenlya Kayasthas originated from a Ksatriya king =^3^, who was 
killed by Parasurama. The widow of ^^H who was pregnant at the death 
of her husband went to the hermitage of ejrevq sage. Parasurama agreed 
not to molest her on condition that this would-be son of =^*to should not 
behave as a Ksatriya. The sage agreed to this condition and the son born 
of the widow of =3<wra was brought up by the sage and he pursued the 
profession of a scribe. The descendants of this son of =q^te came to be 
called Candraseniya Kayasthas. 

3 ^3t ijms fwite who accompanied Bajarama Ckatrapati to Jinji 
in A. D. 1C90 was a ^jjHSj^q. Kelava Pandita refers to him as follows in 
verse 22 of Sarga IV of his g^fTOJRfta.— 

82 Studies in Indian Literary History 

$&m> ( father of jfte^ v&t,) 1, 7 renrer ^adi 1 by m^ 7 

b^i&W 3, 6 ^toto2, 6 

^r, l sftep, l 

^J^W, 7 H^hr* t%*r^ «r&57, (the original 

3%^, 2 owner of the MS of the 

1 In a MS of Stddtontavijaya composed at Benares for Baja 
Pratapasirnha of Satara about A D 1839 I find a quotation from a work . 
^idMfl^LMdr by iti^R dealing with STrf^f^rcralfqfa (36 verses). It begins on 
folio 64 of the B. 0. E. I. Copy ( No. 3 of 1937-38) as follows — 

The quotation ends — 

?% warper gictaawrerarar sirfo^jf^ftaffj H2?«rc*nfai u *° n " 
Another quotation of 2i verses occurs on folios 68 -69. 

2 Ed. N. S. Press, Bombay, 1895. The S'Mrakamalakara by 
Kamalakarabhatta is a standard treatise on the duties of Siidras. In the 
&Qdrakamal<Ikara the author lefers to his Nirnayasmdhu composed in 
A D. 1612 (20th February) Gagabhatta (1674 A. D ) was the nephew of 
Kamalakarabhatta ( Vide p. 437 of Kane's History of Dharma. Vol I, 1930). 

3 Possibly identical with a work of this name by ^nigw, son of 
^ffl^m composed by order of fqarsftl? son of %^^T, B. 0. E L MS No. 
50 of 1872-73 of this work was copied at Cam bay on 4th March, 1591. It 
is mentioned in s^FTO^ of &%m (Between 1520-1590 A. D.). Vide p 641 
of Kane History of Dharma , I ). 

4 Sakhopant Ananta Liniaye (A D 1800 to about A. D. 1840) was 
a contemporary of our author Nllakantha Yinayaka Thatthe ( died A. D. 
1834). The MS of the ^Eprew^wfc^ belongmg to Sakhopant is dated A. D. 
1827. In a letter in Modi script {Ltmaye Family Papers No. 3 with me) 
dated A. D. 1827 our author is referred to as " q^ir^g^^H^S^rat 4% ". 
Sakhopant had a passion for collecting and preserving many Sanskrit 
MSS as is evident from the number of about 450 MSS preserved and 

( Continued on the next page ) 

Eayastha-Parabhu-Dharmadarsa 83 

HSjn^rr, 1 5N5T, i, 6 

3^1, 7 ^T% l\JS£=A. D. 1827, the date of 

fflij, 2, fog<ffc?, 1 the copy of the wrem^WTtf 

The liimaye MS of the K&yastha-parabhU-dharmddarsa analysed above 
begins as follows — 

" sAwjjstw to: 

ii arq- w^<fT3jvmi: u 

U"l«4 tRWHR vfttf«t>u<5l f^r^tri i 

s^r^rsi r^^gHn *nhrren*fqwn< i 
*rar jtt jr!^ «*fc{V«ic{tfi*w u ^ n 

3#s *\<wt: wz&fa*Ki\ft&£i% n^Rre. " etc. 

The foregoing introductory verses clearly indicate (1) the correct 
title of the work (which 13 " frW^m qyfcrer " and not qr>J?*r>r ) as also 
(2) the na me and surname of our author (viz. ^y*«5 fem* rt> ?ir^) The guru 

( Continued from the previous page ) 
added to by his descendants. Many of these MSS were got copied by 
Sakhopant between A. D 1800 and 1810. Sakhopant being a lover of 
Sanskrit learning must have been in close contact with our author Nlla- 
kantba Vinajaka Thatthe — 

According to Thaito Family History, NUakantba S'astri was sent to 
Benares for education by the celebrated nyayadhlia of the Peshwa period 
Eama S astrlPrabhune,whodiedml7&9A.D We have elsewhere stated 
A. D. 1780 or so as the probable date of Nllakantha's birth. If the above 
statement in the Thatte History is correct we may have to push back this 
probable birth date of NUakantha, say up to A. D. 1775 or so to enable us 
to presume that he was about li years of age at the time of Kama Sastri's 
death in A D. 1789 Kama fcstri held the office of Nyayadhlia for the 
last t,me for 12 }ears between A J>. 1777 and 17S9 at the request of Nana 
*adnis. It is possible to suppose that Nilakantha may have been sent to 
Benares at Peshwa's expense between A. D. 1785 and 1789 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

of our author mentioned in verse 2 above is sqi^ * who remains to be 

The Ms ends as follows — 

sft ^*u«H^M«%i sr% it iogg gnrfirara t U fr ft yi^M^^ua^f g^im «r^- 

%3 g^re <H^q-d yiMw* fere ar§^ ^t^ <Htq3>rci4 fcRsier u sft m? n " 

The MS described above was copied in A. D. 1827 for Sakhopant 
Limaye of Ashte as stated in the colophon reproduced above Sakhopant's 
son Jayadeva prepared another copy of this very work in A. D 1827 
which also we find in the Limaye collection 

NUakantha Vinayaka Thatthe, the author of the W^W^ufcia, repre- 
sented by 2 MSS in the Limaye collection has already been identified by me 
with NUakantha 6astri Vinayaka ^astri Thatte mentioned in the Thatte 
Family History ( vide footnotes to the early portion ) The chronology of 
the author from his grandfather to his son may be briefly recorded below.- 

A. D. 



Narayana, the grandfather of our author living. 

C. 1775 

Probable date of birth of our author ( = N ) 


N's father Vinayaka was acting as Phadnls. 

Before 1789 

Bama ^astri Prabhune sends N to Benares for education. 


N adopts as son his nephew Narayana, the son of his 

brother Mor 6astri 


Marriage of N's adopted son with the daughter of Sardar 

Balajipant Natu. 


Date of the MSS of N's work 5prc?rq**rqqfc5T 


N mentioned in a letter addressed to Sakhopant Limaye. 


Grant of a village to N. 


Grant of some land to N. 


Death of N. 


Grant of land to N's son Narayana. 

The occasion when the Kdyastha-parabhU-dharmudarsa may have 
been composed by the author is furnished by the ParabhU-grQmanya of 

1 In the Thatte History ( p 122 ) one sq H^ltft wfe^W ( jft*na$ ) 
has been mentioned as the disciple of our author. The statement needs to 
be verified. 

Ka>astha-Parabhu-Dharniadarsa 85 

A D 1823, with which Sardar 
would be reasonable to presume that Balajipant should find in his relative 
Xllakantha Sastri* a protagonist of the position taken by him against the 
Prabhuk If this presumption is correct the date o! the present work 
would lie between A. D. 1823 and 1827, the year in which two MSS of the 
work were got copied by the members of the Limaye family. 

1 Tide Peshwa Da/tar Selections No. 42, ed. by G. S. Sardesai (1934), 
pp. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 23, 24, 25, 54, 83, 85, 86, 101, 107. 
On p. 25 we have a reference to the request made by Balajipant to Pratap 
Singh, the Raja of Satara (17th July 1819) that the Raja should show to 
Grant Duff all papers to help him to write an authentic history of the 

2 Ibtd, p. 22 — Pratapa Singh records in his Diary under date 2oth 
July, 1819, some conversation between one ;fc wa j - JM and Grant Duff on 
Hindu Customs ( " jftfswsreft 3 nfe qi% gtem W3& ft?% *u$k " )• I ana 
inclined to identify this Jfrs^psgig* with the author of the ^q^w^qifrefy, 
as we know from the Thatte Family History that oar author was given 
as an assistant to the judge at the Adalat Court at Satara by Balajipant 
Xutu. On pp. 10-41 we have a proclamation about the "Vishrambag Palace 
J?dtha.-&Ua. dated Slsi Sept. 1319, providing for instruction in tqpEll 
and other Sastras. I wonder if our author, who was proficient m 
grammar had anything to do with this Putha-Sala. This point is worth 

3 See Rajawade Sources of Maratha History, Khanda, YI, p. 523. 

II Upanisadbrahmayogin and Hathayogapradipika * 

The Muktikopamsad i appears to be the only Upantsad, which 
enumerates the 108 Upamsads This number includes 20 Upamsads, 2 
whioh treat of yoga and a study of which is essential for all students of 
the history of the yogasastra. The only commentary by a smgle author 
on the 108 Upamsads is that of Upanisadbrahmayogin, published for the 
first time by the Adyar Library. This commentator closely follows the 
commentary of Sahkaracarya for such of these Upamsads as are com- 
mented on by the great Advaitin. His advatttc bias is further illustrated 
by the following explanation of the term 53 ( m the expression ijs^ffrr ) 
in commenting on the 45th verse 8 of the Yogatattvopamsad, which descri- 
bes a Yogi, who has attained stddlu or perfection, as follows • — 

The commentator explains this verse as under — 

We wonder if this equation " 53 = sg^iifM " would be acceptable to the 
students of Sanskrit philology as also of the Yogas&stra. 

• Yoga, (.Bombay), Vol 17, 35-37 

1 27w Samanya Vedanta Upanxsliads, Pub by Adyar Library, 1921 pp. 819-50 VerEea 80 
to 39 enumerate 108 Upaniaads and this list ia conoluded by the remark. — 

2 These 20 Upanifiada have been published by the Adyar Library (1920) in a soparato 
volume called The Yoga Upanisliads with the commentary of the Upaniahad-Brabma- 
Yogin, containing the following Upaniahada — 

(1) 3^*raTC3farcq3., (2) 3P2cRr<$qRqa;, (3)<H^£F?qPsq^,(4) ejfHlqRq^, 
(5) asflfa^qRqci., (ejftfofew'JtqRq^, (7) <^rclqfiiqc[., (8) ^Rf^^qraq^, 
(9) q^R^qRqRi., (10) q.gqci^iqRqti. , (11) jisjf^rarqRqa:, ( 12 ) "°^ J - 
jn^itqRqci:, (13) ^Mi^qRqct,, (14) ^In^rrgqftqci: , (15) n*)q^3Rog- 
qftq^., (16) qmricqlqRqT: , (17) qtafa# q Rq?r. , (18) TOihRqg, 
(19) wfe^qftqa;, (20) sstqftq^ 

3 Yoga Ugatushadj, Adyar, 1920, p 400 

IJpanisadbrahmayogin S7 

Our commentator quotes from a treatise on the Hathayoga and 
calls it by the name frSd?i f in the following extract from his commentary 
on verse 73 of the Bralimavidyopamsad 1 : — 

In the above extract the commentator refers to two consecutive verses 
in a work on the Hathayoga ( <j<£d?tf ). "We have been able to identify 
these two verses in the Hathayogapradipikd of Svatmarama. They are 
identical with verses 47 and 48 of the 3rd Chapter ( fo ftqtqfo i ) of this 
treatise 2 and read as follows — 

^t^ 3W5 *&n ?[cR ^enetsBT u yv» u 

(* IJpanisadbrahmayogin uses the variant ifm for sf^cn ) 
The manner in which two consecutive verses from the ^5?P~r have 
been referred to by our commentator and their exact identification in the 
Hathayogapradiptka m the same order appears to indicate that the ^d^ 
referred to by our commentator is identical with the Hathayogapradipiku 
of Svatmarama, a standard work on the Hathayoga. This conclusion of 
ours finds further corroboration in. another reference to a ' fr!,< fUd ?=T ' 
which is found in our commentator's explanation of verse 128 of the 
Yogatattiopamsad 3. This verse reads as follows.—- 

Th.s verse is identical with the following verse in the Hathayoga- 
pradipika * ( verse 97 of ^atftq^r )— 

^ The ^only difference in the two verses quoted above is of the reading 

t*m> for-^^q^n-but th.sisnegljgible. Th.s identity of the two 

Jfffff I _onejin_th Yogatattiopamsad and the other in the Hathayoga- 

1. I'cja Ufinuted}, Adyar, pp 2G4-C5 

3. 1'cjja U&zn^had:. 

*• T. P, U Eaiiion, p XU. 

12. Date of Sabfaavlnoda of Oaivajna Damodara, 
A Protege of King Srinivasa Malla of Nepal * 

Between A.D. 1657 and 1685 

Aufrecht records the following works of Damodara Daivajna in his 
Catalogue Catalogorum, Part I, p. 151 — 

" <*(«^<$* 1^5 — TZjrarffoBT^teT quoted in the >»»<i«t»n<fa ol 
$5T*-Bhr,p 30 
sreiforfc? Ondh X, 26." 

Sir E. G. Bhandirkar in his Report for 1882-83 (Bombay, 1884), 
p. SO, describes a MS of J&takapaddhatt of Kesava of Nandigrama and 
states that this Kesava wrote a commentary on this work. In this 
commentary he quotes ^nft^r. 

According to S. B. Dlksita {History of Indian Astronomy, Poona, 
1896, p. 258) Kesava IE (Father of Ganesa Daiva]fia) lived about &aka 
1418 {-A.B. 1496). This Kesava of A D. 1496 is the author of the 
•slld^l^dr, which is mentioned in a work called MuhUrtamartanda com- 
posed in &aka 149 S ( = A D. 1571) It appears from these facts that ^mfat 
mentioned by Kesava is earlier than A.D. 1500. 

Damodara Daiva]Sa, the author of the SabMvinoda is quite different 
from his namesake, quoted by Kesava in his J&takapaddhati as I propose 
to show in this paper. 

The only MS of the Sabhcivinoda recorded by Aufrecht in his 
Catalogue Catalogorum, Part 1, is the following. — 

Page 696 — " *r*nfsR^ on proper conduct in public assemblies by 
DaivajSa Damodara, Oudh X, 26 " 

The "Oudh" MS mentioned by Aufrecht is not accessible to me. 
My friend Mr B. L. Partudkar of Phulkalas ( P. Purna, N.S.B.) paid 
a visit to the B. 0. E Institute and handed over to me a MS of 
SabhQvmoda of Daiva]fia Damodara, This work appears to be identical 
with that mentioned by Aufrecht m the above entry. 

I give below a critical analysis of this MS as the MS is rare and 
unknown to Sanskrit scholars. It begins as follows . — 

* Pracyavi^I, VoL IX, Jan.-Dec 1953, pp. 1-10. 

Date of Sabhavmoda 91 

" rf\«ww TO: t 

^ni(?*i wrcia qtw^Hi* ^w: fljtKwie<6t *?; n \ u 

afer^ ^tres ^ ?r*5^ sfcit Sforer^ ^i u s i fa^ : u h « 
tiaaMilsfa >g snpftsfa ^rafsfir *rfw^ th$ s%* II $ II 

^H^iiStif^n^T^iT forego fg% $mft^ \ 

ittWHl^wlij ^gqt q^/q^^ii^r^l^i^ u * U 

swfst aro%:=| ^55; fora: q^ ,, , , „ 
^fii siqfo teret *niraiiti?Eqre?t 
*rafa «^?rft...^TOife 1 

^fa 3R% tffcrt Itq^TETO. 
^53^1(1 *TO$1$iftlO 11 n » 

5S* ^*? ^"rerest ^tfwr. 11 iv ii 

92 Studies in Indian Literary History 

?5P JWidi^KMl qw&i 3m«*3£i ferfa Jr fira^ II <i\ ii 

i *rer vrfi«iM< — f^rto sWmct (?) *wtfq^sm^. u i % n 
dc | 4'*H-niflm<d : fgrdg^ 1 Jjftsir^ i 

d^MyVs^+tjSyuiUW^ sfafa II \c II 
fft$?^T 3^T *4W.h\ 5Rg<dmd^4<iP^ - II 11 II 

dwwtsi: fa^f^ i^is^^fe^ifaaullsfa^, || 
y+il^+i^ sr ^3R^t ^n^^n^^^T ^c<ivrt( <% ^r ydw u ^° u 

%tiR%r «^ to gftftgmMtg : ^ snfer *n*i3> it ^i n 
*nftf5rai ^t Tag firm TitfVrJft'^^ar ^retf i 

g fc^fasta jeh i?? g^j srrat ^^■gyifa^R' i 
m^ 1 ^ ?quwquufa ^n^r^ftrag tsnfoprc ii r? ii 
STgf^e sntfai Irererra ^K+fera ^ crag *far: i 
s^rqfrafSicft foiqV <4<s*<w ^n?n whig ^rt ii *s u " 

The MS ends as follows — 

SRnf^pft^ts^renTT^ ^V^r refer <nf%wnrer> 5s?hj n i«o n 
sfarfe^isrer q?m<(( jt?«h& feres ^or?t^ i 

^rfcr ^^^^kMif^ ^-f g^nnH^^d^qi^^fedM^^^^f^rfmg-H^i^'it'^ 

^Jt-Rfctq{TT4V ^-4i«i <jcfPrn^: fefecra; i 

*wifa«ft<«rwfcr ufsn^t smcftcnzr i 
ilsfecr trgf*iNM<'idmA5i<nf*T ii 

Date of Sabhavinoda 93 

References to works and authors mentioned in the MS. of SabftHvinoda 
are as follows :— 

T«?ttfn^nq.— fol. lj fm-.~ fol. 2-, toot — fol. 2, ^n^r:— fol. 2; 

«W5:—£ol. 2; «5WPW:—- fol. 3, firfora«r?.~fol. 3, 4 ( fofaiSSr: ) ; 
fagoTs— fol. 3; pg —fol. 3; STPJIflJ:-- -foL 3, sn#*r— fol. 3, 4; 
zfmfal-- fol. 3; «ra^T-— fol. 3, 32jj5ft:— fol. 4; -twa^d^r:— foL 4; 
WRfosBf.— fol 4}5ftawirc*- foL 4. $«iftfW:~ fol. 4; wi— fol. 4; 
fol 8— -Colophon of 1st Chapter called "itag^ifciEK" 
fol 13 — Colophon of 2nd Chapter called "wsfHV 
fol. 19 — Colophon of 3rd Chapter called "^1^" 
fol. 24 — Colophon of 4th Chapter called "*nrftf%" 
fol. 30 — Colophon of 5th Chapter called "otir" 
fol. 36 — Colophon of 6th Chapter called "fligf^p'' 
fol. 40 — - Colophon of 7th Chapter called ''^raqRTret" 
fol. 47 — Colophon of Sth Chapter called "|?r^" 
fol. 53 — Colophon of 9th Chapter called "vnisrra" 
fol. 57 — Colophon of loth Chapter called "^hr" 
The titles of the different chapters mentioned in the above colo- 
phons are practically identical with the contents of the work given by the 
author in verses 23 and 24 at the beginning of the work. 

From the extracts quoted above we°get the following information 
about the author and his patron, for whom apparently the work SabUm- 
iioda was composed — 

(1) The author bows to god Dhutufir&ja and goddess Bharatl ( verses 

1 and 2 ). 

(2) King Uahendramalta of Nepal was born in Saryauamh. His 

mudra (seal) was known as " Uahendramalli •» ( verses 3 and 4 ). 
{$) In his lme was born Sivasimha ( verses 5 6) 
(1) Description of Nepal audits temples of gods and goddesses mz. 

GanesaZuroa, Vttnu, Kali, Bhlma, Motsyendranatka, Ouhje- 

^r l ,P^ h Tula J a,Garuda,Nllakama,etc. ( verses 7-14 ). 
(5) The author thinks that the gods of different places have gathered 

m Nepal and made it their homo as it were out of "ft ot 

tmperor Aurungzeb (verse 15 ). 

(0) InXepal there « a town called -Laaapaltan^ I* ffiD „ was 

Snai^ ** son wffankarasvnha. His son was Siddhanr. 
stmha ( verses 16-20). owunanr 

91 Studies in Indian Literary History 

(7) Stddhanrsimha resigned the Kingship in favour of his son Stint- 

vQsamalla" and went on a pilgrimage as an ascetio ( verse 21 ). 

(8) Srlntvasamalla pleased the Brahmins by his donations of wealth, 

elephants, oows, garments and horses. The author composed the 
Sabhavmoda by the order of this King who pleased him ( by his 
patronage ) ( verse 22 ). 

(9) The work deals with ajsTjpnftnPTT., <H«^"Wr:, ^Fnjqonfa, TT*nftfa., 

TO, mgffce, &ftfai, t«rerra, vnferra, and *rfrr in 1,000 stanzas. 
Any one mastering this work can shine as a speaker in any 
assembly ( verses 23-24 ). 

(10) The author states that he composed this work Sabhavmoda for 

the entertainment of the court of King &riniv&samalla It would 
be useful to all persons who want to shine as pandits in other 
assemblies ( verse 100 ). 

(11) Datvqfna Ddmodara composed this work for the Court of King 

SrimvOsamalla, the son of Stddhanarasttnha, who ruled at Laltta- 
pattana in Nepal, ( Colophon ). 

(12) The MS was copied in Saka 1759 ( = AD. 1837 )— ( Colophon ). 

(13) The work consists of 1600 'slokas and 10 prakaranas. Its author 

is Damodara. It was copied by five Brahmins, including Ananta. 
It belongs to Bdmacandrabhat, Pav.ran.ika, SQngavlkar. ( Colo- 
phon ). 
As the Ms of the Sabhavmoda before us is dated A D. 1837, we have 
to search for the ohronology of its author and his royal patron SrimvQsa- 
malla ruling at Lalitapattana in Nepal before A D. 1800 or so. The refe- 
rence to " Aurangaiaha " or Aurangzeb by our author in verse 15 gives 
us the earlier limit to his date. Emperor Aurangzeb came to the throne 
in AD. 1659 and died in A.D. 1707. We may, therefore, fix A D. 1659 as 
the earlier limit to the date of the Sabhavmoda and its author DatvajTia 

Some of the Inscriptions from Nepal published by Bhagavanlal 
Indraii in Vol IX of Indian Antiquary ( 1880 ) help us to identify King 
Srimvasamalla, the patron of DaivajSa Damodara. I note below the pertinent 
inscriptions and the data furnished by them pertaining to the Kings of 
Nepal mentioned in the Sabhavmoda . — 

Page 192— Inscription No 22 of Srlmvasa, dated Nepal Samvat 792 ( = A.D. 
1672 ). 

Data of Sabhavinoda 


Page3 192-193— Inscription No. 23 of Princess Yogamati, dated Nepal 
Sajjiiat 843 ( = A.D. 1723). This inscription gives us the following 
genealogy of the Kings who ruled at Lalttapattana in Nepal ; — 

f&f^rfa^ IS [ King of Lalitapattana became an 
ascetic and went to dwell on the 
banks of Ganga ( Benares ) ]. 



41»hV4 his 



( ruling in AX>. 1672 ). 

( went with his 21 wives to 

Dolaparvata and died m the 
temple of "Visnu ). 

( Consecrated in A.D. 1723 a 
temple of Bfidha and Krsna in 
memory of her son LokaprakOsa ). 

( died before his mother Yoga- 
mail ). 

-Verses 3 and 4 of this inscription read as follows '— ' 

^L^il^TZ N ° 1? ° f SMi ^mka of Lalitapattana, 
dated Nepal Sanitat 757 ( = AJ). 1637 ). 

Tai ( T t 5 ^T ° a gWeS the follcmm S g^alogy of the Kin°s of 
LaUtapattanan Nepal which may be h nk ed up wt f that given £ the 
inscription of A.D. 1723 . 

Ju^£u\^^o^Scflll? T il t 'l 1 ^ ripUoaof A ' D 1733 c0 »°^ tl» follow 


Studies an Indian Literary- History 


Rn^5 ' - 1 

5fU<fife ( married to 3I55^JV ) 

%%ff&5 ( ruling mAD 1637 ). 

Inscription No 18 of Pratapamalla of Katmandu, dated Nepal 
Samvat 769 ( =A D. 1649 ) states that he defeated the army of Sid- 
dhmrstrnha and took his fortress ( verse 6 ). Evidently Stddhmrsimha was 
ruling at the fort of Lalitapattana before A. D. 1649. His son Srinivasa 
was ruling mlD 1678 ( Inscription No. 22 ) Possibly Stddhmrsimha 
abandoned the Kingdom in favour of his son sometime between A. D. 
1654 and A. D. 1661 as will be seen from the following dated coins of 
these Kings of Lalitapur noted by E. H. Walsh in his article on Coinage 
of Nepal ( J. E. A. S. London, 1908, pp. 732-737).- 

Date of Com 

Name of King 


AJD. 1681 

Siddhi Nrsimha. 

— N.S. 751. 

,, 1654 

— Do.— 

— N S. 774. 

„ 1661 

Srlnivdsa Malla. 

—N.S. 781. 

„ 1666 

— Do.— 

— N8 786. 

„ 1688 

Yoga Narendra Malla 

— N,S. 808 

„ 1686 

— Do.— 

— N S. 806. 

„ 1685 

— Do — 

— NS 805. 

„ 1687 


—N.S 807. 

„ 1700 

— Do — 

— N S. 820. 

» 1706 

Indra Malla. 

—N.S. 826. 

„ 1707 

Yogamati and her son, 

— N S. 827. 

Loka Prakasa Malla. 


I am concerned in this paper with the dates for SrlnivOaamalla, 
the patron of Daivajna Damodara, and his father Siddhmraimha as also 
his son Yoga Narendra Malla. I, therefore, put together below the dates 
for these rulers given in their coins and inscriptions : — 


S'rimviisa llalla 

Yoga Narendra Malta 

- 97 

Date of Sabbavmoda- 

AD. 1631 (Coin). 
AD. 1637 (inscription). 
AD 1649 (inscription). 
AD 1654 (Com) 
AD. 1661 (Coin) 
AD. 1666 (Coin) 
AD 1672 (inscription). 
AD. 1685 (Coin). 
AD 1686 (Com) 
AD 1687 (Coin) 
AD 1688 (Coin) 
A.D. 1700 (Com) 

The regnal period of 6rinlvHsa Malta must he between A D. 1654, 
tbe last date for bis father and A.D. 1685, the first date for his son in the 
above list of dates. Consequently tbe date of the Sabhdttnoda which was 
composed for Srlmvasamalla, while he was ruling, must he between AD. 
1654 and 1685. 

In the article on " Some considerations on the History of Nepal " by 
Bhagavanlal Indraji, ed. by Buhler ( Keprmt from Indian Antiquary, Vol. 

IX, 1885) we get tbe following information about the Kings of the 

Lahtapattana Line — 

Pages 40-41 








( Younger son of Sivasitnha of 
Kantipur ). 

( — built a palace at Lahtapura 

AJ>. 1620. 
— dedicated a temple to Radha- 

Krsna in A.D. 1687. 
-made a water course m A D. 1647. 
— became an ascetic in A J). 1657). 

( — Reigned from JLD. 1657 
— bad a war with Pratapamalla of 
Katmandu (A D. 1658-1662). 
— His latest inscription is dated 
AD. 1701 ). 

( lost his son and became an ascetic). 

98 Studies m Indian Literary History 

According to the above information King Siddhtnrsimha became an 
ascetic in A.D. 1657 and his son ^rlniv&samalla ruled from A D 1657. In 
view of this date the regnal period of &rlmv3samalla lies between A.D. 
1657 and A.D. 1685, the first date of the coin of Yoganarendramalla It 
is, therefore, reasonable to conclude that the Sabhdvmoda was composed 
for ^rimvUsamalla between A D. 1657 and A D. 1685 * 

The rare MS of the SabhcLvinoda analysed in this paper is dated &aka 
1769 (=AD. 1837 ). At the end of the MS there is a contemporary en- 
dorsement that it belonged to " R&macandrabha$ Purimka Sahgavlkar. " 
My friend Shn B L. Partudkar procured this MS from the present descen- 
dants of B&maccmdrabhat now living at Partud ( Dist Parabhani ) in 
Hyderabad territory The genealogy of this family as supplied to me by Shri 
Partudkar is given in the Appendix. 

The Puramk family of Partud originally belongs to the village Jod- 
Sahgavl on the banks of the river PUrnSL Eamacandra Puramk of this 
family was the first to migrate to Partud and settle there. Both Bamaoan- 
dra and his son Panduranga became Sanyasins at the close of their 
lives and assumed the names JR8m<Znanda and Isvardnanda respectively. 
They died at Partud, where their SamMkis or tombs exist at present 
together with their busts made of brass Eamacandra Puramk was 
possibly a contemporary of Baja Gandulal, the then minister of the Nizam 
State. Shn Nagudeva, the present descendant of this family has m his 
possession a complete MS of the Mahabharata copied in the life-time of 
Eamacandra Puramk. This family has been enjoying the privilege of 
working as Puramks in the Nrsiipha temple at Partud in a hereditary 
manner The family was also the owner of about 150 acres of land given as 
mam to it for its service as Pur&nika in the Nrsimha temple together with 
a cash annual allowance of Bs 150/-f rom Government The family enjoyed 
these privileges up to the time of Balabhau, the father of Shn Nagudeva. 
At present the land referred to above is with the above family but Govern- 
ment charges land revenue for it Mr. B. L Partudkar had an occasion to 
examine about 75 bundles of records of this family besides about 300 
MSS in its possession These MSS were copied between 6aka 1602 
( = A. D 1680 ) and &aka 3802 ( = A D. 1880 ) a period of 200 jears. 
In some of these MSS the village Partud is mentioned as " PraharOda- 

1 The latest inscription of 1701 A D mentionod by Bhagvanlal Indraji for fcrlniaasainaUa 
needs to be reconciled with the coin of Yoganarcndra dated A.D 1635 Perhaps 6rlntvaaamalla 
abandoned the kingdom in favour of Yoganarendramalta sometime befoto A.D 1G85 and 
continued to live aa far aa A.D 1701, the date of his inscription mentioned by Bhagavanlal 

Pate of Sabhavinoda 


pfir. " Ramacandra Puranik calls himself " Sahgavlkar ". He composed 
a ifarathi prose commentary on SatpancOska, a copy of which is in the 
possession of Shri B. L, Partndkar. The genealogy given above is pec- 
pared on the basis of records in the possession of the Puranik family. 

I am thankful to Shri B. L. Partndkar and to Shu Nagudeva 
Puranik for keeping at my disposal the MS of the SabMvmoda and for 
supplying information about the PurQnxk family of Partud. 


Qenealaqy of the Purinik Family of Part ud ( Dtst. Parbham ) 
m Hyderabad territory 

( xm^ ) ytfrk&z ( called ^t )— ( i, t>. 1837 ) 


<5 , 3Tnq:)'%FT(jnTn) 





■5^X51 sn^Tpft ^<m^t msft <jr»ton -frmw 


r— '-. 

married to 
( ^tfkre qe^rft of Partud ) 

JZ — T 

.LI l'i 

m^c rcn jtftt qismraj (?j 

( died 1946 } 

( living m 1952 j" } 

—age 60 years) snn^rc? qiHl 

—living in 1952 
—a ge 34 years 

7 1 

T i — i 

(died in 
childhood ) 

I — 

in 1952 
( age 39 years) 

in 1952 
(ago 28) 

1 3. Harikavi alias Bhanubhatta, a Court-Poet 
Of King Sambhaji And His Works : * 

( 1 ) ^ambhurajacanta composed in A D. 1685; ( 2 ) Haiha- 
yendracanta and its commentary , ( 3 ) Subhasitaharavah 

The only Ms of &ambhuraja-cartta by Harikavi recorded by Aufre- 
cht 1 is " Report XIII " which is the same as No 191 of 1875-76 in the 
Govt. Mss Library at the B. 0. E Institute, Poona . This Ms is fragmen- 
tary and incomplete but is historically very important as it is a poem of 
a very high order dealing with the life of the Maratha King Sambhaji, 
the son of Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Kingdom in the Deccan. 
This Ms was acquired by Dr. Buhler in 1875 2 from Surat Unlike 
RcLj&rama-carita 8 of Kesavapandita which bristles with the names of 
historical personages and events, the Sambh urcija-carita, judging from the 
fragment before us, is unfortunately lacking in historical details to such 
an extent that even the identity of Sambhuraja, the hero of the poem has 
got to be proved In fact my friend Mr V S. Bendre, who fust studied 
this Ms m 1931 and whose zest for historical knowledge about King 
Sambhaji has led him to the establishment of an institution called Sambhajt 
Cantra Ku.rya.laya with the sole purpose of gathering materials for a 
historical biography of King Sambhaji, was disappointed in a further 
study of this fragment and consequently the fragment remams unnoticed 
since its acquisition in 1875 by Dr Buhler 

I shall now proceed to show that King Sambhuraja, the hero of the 
poem, is none other than the renowned Sambhaji, son and successor of 
Shivaji the Great. This is clear from the following extracts culled at 
random from the fragment before us — 

Shivaji is referred to in the following extracts — 
folio 3 — " ^rtfterak #gT33*rr3TT fa?pft i 

etc. — snrafon 11 ^a 11 

* Annals of the Bhandarkar O R. Institute, Poona Vol XVI, pp 262-291 

1 Cata. Catalogorum, Part I, 637, 756 

2 Report on tlie Search of Sanskrit Mss, p. 13. 

3 Kefcwapandita's Rajiramacanta or Journey to Jinjl edltod by V. B. Bendro, 1931 
(BI8. Slandal, Poona, Granthamala No. 86 ) 

Harikavi alios Bhanubhatta 101 

The parentage of Sambhaji from Shivan is clear from the 
following — 

folio 4 — " snfrft d X w iIH * wn^%f *v&- 

9^+lA Sigwyufd *^\4i*s£wi*: I 

snwsrc^: ii vmi w 

folio 79 — " *ufniuifcraffa. firawijw ^Rrgs etc. " 

folio 80 — " l^R^^q^ " 

"We get a glimpse of Sambbaji's youthful person in the following 
verse — 

folio 44 — "<flfo}Ktil% £ 6TI9^iH: qilfeirfcrefr I 

He is referred to as ^j, ?r^qfo and si^m throughout the Ms. 

Tho poem consisted of 12 sargas or cantos and it is really a great 
loss to literature that only about 2-3 cantos are available to us in 
the present fragment. Mr. Bendre has not been successful m his attempts 
to get a complete copy of the work The fourth canto deals with the 
poetic description of Sambhau's marriage in ^ite a classical style and 
is concluded with the following colophon — 

folio 53—" ;ft w^^f^,i\^t^^^^ { ^ f ^ r 

In the 4th canto Sambhuraja's bride is referred to as *n in the 
following verses.- — 

foho 40 -"^n^r tfafo* snwftfof vfi ^j , 
foho W--*'53ra^f%HfaRR^f7^^ „ „ „ » 


102 Studies in Indian Literary History 

The following verse mentions the bestowal of =gqr in marriage to 
5T3J by her father '' aq^Kiw " who is mentioned in verse 98 quoted 
above as " ^ ftsu&ra ": — 

folio 53 — " qarrrrt eira^cft st^jtpphV ^ $r*it i 
?&mQ wtfm gfM^RT f^r foutiaiw u 

„ — " *re5 qwn<Q«i -Hi|<iq % etc h ismi " 
The nuptials were celebrated at a city called variously as ' fJinj^nrc ' 
or ' dm«W ' 'ctqJTTrR ' H^n^TH was the srtqqfcr of the city and it was at 
his request that King snj proceeded to that city for his nuptials — 
folio 42 — "srsn^rcfraPT ^q^ ^ft^wifa ^n \ 
arc in g^jg^ ft ihiP>i$4 ^ n 
qrreren4 wfiU«Hw i*q<ft ?r q*n% i 
jftsuni«*<!i!i<Miy:$j<i sterol- n ^ u " 

People of the town gathered to have a look at King sig: — 
folio 42 — " < Hfrjj<»M fr5fa t tf35 ?nhr Jrs?°n«T I 

3TTST m d^ RdU f*tt>H lQiji%&i'Al. ii ^ u" 

And ladies were not behind men in their curiosity to have a peep 
at the King Their hurried movements are described in the patent 
classical style. The following verse will serve as an example — 

folio 44 — " *jJT$ti4 ^Rd^i+wrteicn ftsra^T- 1 

ercnigft ^ gT ^g ^ fore mf3^ II «V. w " 
^cm^m got down from his elephant and welcomed King Hlg — 
folio 45 — ,e ^T *rra faHU'UKnsrat 5I^tM 

After the marriage King Sambhu starts on his return journey m a 
chariot accompanied by his bride ^qr. — 

Hankavi alias Bhanubhatta 102 

folio 78 — " zfet i%M ftsr ^73Tii3m?Tn^ i "> 

The Governor of crniirR accompanied the returning party for some 
distance but was asked by King iWnbhu in touching words to return — 
folio 71 — " dd ^w-aH n fruaTTFra ^t \ 

ixit 4§ifr[ fc&t <«ui+id^t ^pg- ti v it " 

King ^ambhu returned to his capital and passed a few days of happy 
married hie bat shortly afterwards got the news of an enemy attacking 
his capital and forces — 

foho 74 — "S3: f^ ?? g^rHHW*Kln&»iJi$ciW- » 

WW £dl+H«{ OTTHTO £ II 

&K JT^H^dV WiPl^wft S^ U ^<5 II " 

Personal prowess of King £ambhn in the battle is described — 
foho 76 — " gsg^ra^re^SHsM^W^V- 1 

And Goddess of Victory crowned him with success in the battle* — 
folio SI — " HA^I^tJhUI^^^Thl^^fe^ - I 

4iuihVa**7^*wfaji<3^xi;i435f pr^rar u 

The n^ of King Sambhu blessed him on the successful termination 
of the battle.— • 

foho 81 — " snsftf^^f^n gw h gs -frnTatof ?mt 1 
Rf&d'hj^RiflVaFTdd^di Hijtr <*toi n^fen 1 

The !pj of Sambhuraia by name wt^qfoj was apparently a 
influential person as the following verses tell us.— 

104 Studies m Indian Literary History 

folio 82 — " ^d^N^nn^iR^r^^^i q^fa^rt I 

^a^iKMRd i ggfa s^HficH 3&ft<#T$<irt II m II 
aPl^ror^^ ^iNdfifaffqi^i^ fife | 
«amiiW^^^mfirahi^^tf^. || 

4ftt# g#5 ^ §fafa. ^cttV gofarifft i | -m II " 
The »pf praises the achievements of the glittering sword of v&jtfi in 
the hands of King tftsg — 

folio 82 — " ^T3ifi% wMw^h {Wmtft ?r ^t fl^rr^ i 
sfasfaftwrpr: «Md«*ft«*«WiUt*ft ^repm ll 

m *Ti5Tf^ft^f%ranfe f%^n srfsnft T^eifer n i*$ ll 
5T*ft ^aaa^ graft «yRdi ww+K^dlcj i 
uridi*ft ttero^f ^a ^mfe *raias*i in*Ri^gy; ll 
«r^rt *n^<«jft JW«w^d7 sra^at ?rcrara; I 
M^ g g q um f ^ gdti iui^ gi?nfeyT^ f^rra II %w II 
^t 5TiHi<J3w1*d3 ^K^di sPpcrsiR^pr sra; | 
sttfI ^ES-^ f^i^?ra^i dw^i^f jpn^f ll 

TpftniT 5nw€falT «Wd^KHMl lil 4*l<*lR*«fi5& II "H* II " 

The numbering of folios breaks off at folio 82 and different 

numbering begms, the folios being numbered differently in black and 

• , * , t ^ e , 159 ( red ink ) t . 

red ink. Apparently a new chapter begins on folio -=■ — pr; — . . > witn 

ll «ft<iufciw 5m: II 

Kmg fSambhu and Campa, his queen, are shown as 

enioying the pleasures of life. The following verse shows them in a sporting 
mood — 

" sgicr ^it ?^r i%^g3f^raH«na^n i 

Harikavi alias Bbanubhatta 105 

The above chapter breaks of£ at folio -rg-. Another chapter begins 

on folio ---with. "tfmSraitf w.." The poet flatters his own style in the 

following verse : — 

folio ^ " ^w^l^PtThatT^^H T I 5T3^mraTT I 

Then follows the colophon of the 10th canto which is called 
folio ~ — '» sigSfaq^ra^n *raW<iuitd<. 1 

The nest canto begins on folio -^ .It contains a description of King 

Sambhu enjoying a bath with his queen Campa in the bathing apart- 
ments. The bathing accessories in royal style are described m the 
following verses : — 


foho Y " Tra ^tesftfro^ra qra^^i i 

This canto breaks off at folio ^ ^ a fragment rf ^^ ^ 

abruptly begins on folio ^ . It contains firaafe 

106 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Shivaji was called ' *Ttai3T°rafewe.' The following verse refers to 
' -nfcfii<rt'<Sx{ , tUi| , $3 ^^ ' as perhaps a family heritage . — 
foho ^ " <mg. sftf^r g^ «g m$f>s$ srarft^r i 
s^ticT. f^R*n *riaa w+wi stt^ h£w<h u 

Hari Kavi makes his own remarks about his poetry and gives us 
his genealogy and the date of composition of ^ambhurija-Cartta.' — 

Eoho— ^ — ^ TOreftmrtfS^Rt *ro% m «ltp>^ 

^ctT ^r^r 3(3)1^ 3<ni^%Hw $aiVr 11 
ffitf w htf ^f^ftraT ^i*^j<V. 11 i^ 11 * 

a^n gsrcqfa^ $dn=a *^*% a sreqhrar: 1 

ate *&fa grfrsfe q>ftrcf^ftfo.3»qft ^s^t || 1^ II a 

ifceia^r 5ww%n°f5at af^P^ra f*ra 1 


1 The following versa in small hand-writing is given at the top of folio-rr M an addition 

indioated by the mark r*v after the verse No. 163 — 

^^l^l^ldld<l afaift wUMPi^fa II W 11 " 

2 After versa No. 163 the following addition indicated by the mark |\ ia copied in th« 

bottom margin of folio — 

ura: ^rig f^i^Rf *i^f% ^'' w<*i%wh'> II 

<r:mq: *fiMdc4M<5Kd<Hfd/ H^f^ni^FM- 

^ q^ ^ q^ift f^R^r ?r??fa: ll ?5* U " 

Harikavi alias Bbanabhatta 107 

%i w*€r i%w *kz mMiRtt writ ll i *« II 

3 «qFiW 4{d4H^ ^T^T W3OT WI 1 

sfa^tafira swiftwi «fmRiwrfwill iu ll 

sfWtK<iqTuf&^<ui ««id< inline: ll 
traTTifiri^ig^^rafe^ ^hj; hw^tj^ II ■} $» |) 

^uiHdd non- R^fd^4- h^-WK**"- I 

*for tnwit fa^Ff HTO ^^T3*vn ^3f || <}$<: || 

Wd'<ld^-41d.H[ ^Kf^qxT?TCTn gR: | 

wi^frfcid^yn ^n^iryreTT II H^ll 

«3^H^gH%ri^Rrg^^T. il 
fgr«TsRfsr^iftau{%Rrat5qT?hpi i 

CTiW ^T «Td^lN^jiq% ?t ^nwr ll *Uo u 
S?35tlH5Wcl(d*l ^fodi^l Bt- I 

wwirasrnrt ^3 ufts ll 1 ^ 11 

«0^ui^TO?q*4§v^Hara^FTvi7. it 

fireqraw ferret ^rfa^ g-g^ s^rei y^t u ")»\ || 
gg: ^yqw^ ^p^ttra- ^ftmspn «***- 1 

108 Studies m Indian Literary History 

*taV (s) tfteu.** ^y d^fisw ^nwtiH'^i^ i| 
( ^V ) # Wf& *-<i<&mw& ^srn^llr *ra 1 
^n^^ftqw^t ^jft^r^t ?n^ ^t^t i?r || <jv»} || 

w^f^^^ficfsra^cTOV^cwTfJrwt il 
?9i3ft sejpf ^««Pj«!S^i snf^nn I 
sros &mf r^3 wi^raft || i»v || 

- 5IMl«4UiJuft ftP^dJfur'luir ffi 'UNnfcntf || 

wn^nfagw im wra iijft mvit *rmg |i "}«<* j| 
f snt^j ^if«Hi fsrg^ shrift sre*nf*=rat i 

**frrHT %ra-iws f$rfd<re* wgfet h^3 il i*$ II 
^f%dmfaaftHjr<$v? ^^i3w>T*re. 1 

gj+isq ^ ^rg^rgf^ ^mfinft si^jt || iv»>9 ii 

w?ft f|>»Hw+w fqg?r ^i^q^R. I 

Epi**r 5iV*nn(fy<i«i^r<<j *TPTFjoiV«jf$Tcr || tvx: || 

The genealogy of Han Kavi as disclosed in the above extract can 
be represented as under — 

( 1 ) P^dinft l ( vide verses 166 and 177 above ) 


( 2 ) ftnw ( Son of No. 1 - vide verses 166 and 177 ) 


( 3 ) wmm ( Son of No. 2 - vide verses 168 and 177. He is called 

| the younger brother of T*RT*T m verse 168 ) 

| ( mwRi^cf ) 

Hankavi alias Bhanubhatta 109 

(4) wmz ( Son of No. 3-seo verses 177 and 170). 

It appears that Han Kavi's father Narayana who was originally a 
Deccani Brahman (^nVn^l^T - v. 169 ) bad settled at Snrat as ho is 
called ' fifem-tHM ItW * (v. 169) i. e. resident of frn%T^T which is the same as 
m^f or Surat mentioned in the colophons. It appears that Han Kavi also 
was residing at Surat or g^JT and consequently the scene of King 
&ambhu*s marriage with W is laid m fm^nrf ( folio 15 ) which appears 
to bo identical with fHi|*T*PT of which Han Kavi's father ^irwn was 
resident as stated in verse 169 How far this fact is true to history I am 
unable to say at present. 

In verse 172 quoted above we are told that this poem was composed 
by tho order of ( fa^ra: ) one <gvn known as the J5 of King sfrj ( = 3W 
j^tqci <m %,w ww f^mdvu nifc ft%ra \i ^\pj s^«n^ etc. ). This ^n tp$ 
appears to be identical with <R"iTf%a described in two verses ( on folio 82 ) 
which we have quoted above. 

The date of composition recorded m verse 178 of the colophon is 
Vikrama Samvat 1741, in the month of Pausa, Bahula Paksa, 2nd tithi, 
which corresponds to Monday, 12th January 1685. * The last folio which 
records the above date of composition was found pasted to another stray 
folio with some written matter on both the sides. This stray folio records 
on ono side the colophon of some work on phala-jyotisa or astrology conta- 
ining Samvat 17 JO and Saka 1605 ( = A. D. 1684 ), If this date is regard- 
ed as tho date of copying of some work on astrology it may be possible to 
conclude that our Ms of SambhurOja-Canta is a contemporary copy 
perhaps made in the very year of its composition viz. A. D. 1685, its last 
folio being pasted on another stray folio written one year earlier i. e in 
168 i as pointed out above The other side of the stray folio contains some 
written matter concluded by 3 verses ascribed to Hari Kavi as under — 

Folio ^-'^^5tlfew^^3^RH^r«^R » 
iraiqifH^tciwut+u*«ifq?iqT. u 

x$t iFT snaT ^^ctftr nf^a. si^r ^f% u 
3r ^*rafvnr«j?n ^ era ^riRtofi. it i 

I In-kiK JSTj&cEwrJ, 'Vol- VI. p. 172. 


Studies in Indian Literary History 


— siuaffia ii » 

sr ?m$ wuik) fensi fk ( sw qi g r. ? ) ii " 

— sfcsTOHT'T II 

There is besides the stray folio described above another stray folio 
in the beginning of the Ms written on one side of the paper with borders 
ruted in double red lines and of a slightly smaller size than the Ms of 
Sambhuraja-Carita containing the following five verses. — 
I sfoiuisiw TO. il 

srf*JcTJJ<Jlf%e?ft ^tf-JJUIIgiti^dl II 

^srr m nwAtk- 1 
a 3 m ftak II 

fH^jOTftRT eiHUsfslSM II ^ II x 

^gq^nraqra^H^T wKsra^n ?^i«R< i 
sis^HKN^K-^isi^ tgfriwfarr ^3 H II * II 2 
sro TT%n^ra^^T' % % * *yid<i- 1 

3«%lc+|<5ij**l q? g TTT^n sft^JbmW^ I 
ll^fa^ 4<?K<WM 4dldi I 

^ FHc^r 5T HTHT «4<£I SPTRT t 
%fH%4IPl+Pid|[TOcn g>^RT II H II 

3^3^. •" 

1 TMj Terw la identical -with Terse No. lin Ha No 829 of 1875-76. 

2 Tbia t«m No. 3 appears as verse No 1 m the lis { No 839 of 1675-76 ) of ^)^<£M- 
cqn^qt of Haxi Kavi. 

Hankavi alias Bhanubbatta m 

It is clear that the above extract contains the beginning of some 
poetical work of Wt as the expression " ^nfe^i in verseS 
above shows. 1 shall now prove that this TOntn » identical with the 
brothor of Sri Hari Kavi, the author of SubhasitaharavaU. 

Dr. Hara X>atta Sharma in his article 3 on Sri Hari Kavi, the author 
of SubhdsitaJiarHvali remarks : — 

" Hari Kavi was tho pupil of Narayana, one of whose verses he 
quotes and refers to it as eft^Rm^j^vm^C." His youngest brother was 
called ^JCTTFt^ and he is referred to by Han Kavi as ' wefrosrai ' or 
q w^ mmfr sET.' ^ seems that our poet had other brothers but we 
find no account of them This *&m$i differs from the snsqifa mentioned 
in qrifesmnragvi ( p. 37 ) ST%$<nka ( P- 53 ) and <***&& of ^rtenra^ 

( fol. 26*>, v. 258 ). 

Pr. Sharma then quotes two verses introduced by Hari Kavi as 
composed by his brother <giE , nfti. They aie: — 

( i ) " ^TNFTnr^i srarra x&n sprang i 

( ^ ) " «ror (^) i% nffc«w*w wr. ^frr * ?EFan. i 

( foL 33. v. 121 ) 

It will be now seen that versa No. 2 quoted above is exactly identical 
with v. 4 of the "gwfrrevTOT stray folio viz. " ><5ro3r......<^5f§r. " This 

identity proves beyond doubt that Sri Hari Kavi, the author of SubliOsita- 
hUrdwli refers in his anthology to the verses of his brother culled from 
tho " ^ifWlfa+'ferc " Ms, a stray folio of which has been preserved in the 
ils of srgtfovafer of Hari Kavu This association of ^jRTif&T with the 
author of vrjjTPruftcr raises the question about the identity of the two 
Hari Kavis viz. (1) sfofa, the author of g^nrqasmqfo and (2) sfcsfr, 
tho author of srgrenifor. I shall now prove that both these authors are 
identical. Ify grounds for establishing this identity are — 

3 Ini^tu UW QmtUiIj Vol. S, He. 3 pp. 173-165. 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

( 1 ) Dr. Sharma observes 1 about Hari Kavi, the author of §*nfor- 

" The author $rl Hari Kavi seems to have been a poet of high order. 
He boasts of himself in the following verse .-— 

( fol. 33a v . 128 ) 

The above verse is identical with v. 163 on folio ■— of the Ms of 

3T3j<l>Ji-3f<fl incorporated in the long extract quoted above. Perhaps it may 

have been taken from the Sambhuraja-Canta by the author of Subhastta- 

hardvalt. This identity of verses is sufficient to establish tbe identity of 

the two Hari Kavis. 

( 2 ) Mr. M. Krishnamacharya 3 in his book on Sanskrit Literature 
remarks about Hari Kavi the author of Subhasitaharavah — 

" TTi.s native country however appears to be the Dekkan and he 
betrays a very close acquaintance with the literature of his country. " 

These remarks are to some extent borne out by the colophon of the 
^ambhuraja-Carita We have stated above that Hari Kavi's father ^rcwi 
was the resident of (Ji(^<4tJH or ^4^< or Surat but he is said to be ' ^ifejoii- 
<wi«W ' (v. 169 of the colophon ). 

( 3 ) Dr. Sharma states about the author of Subha§itaharcivah - 
" Among various other poets Hari Kavi mentions the names of the follow- 
ing with reverence as- 










X ^frftoi'refecrpTF^ 

It is possible to make a conjecture that these people were either 
Hari Kavi's contemporaries or preceded him shortly. " 

Dr. Sharma's conjecture that some of these people were Hari Kavi's 
contemporaries appears to be corroborated so far as $wiqf&?r is concerned. 

1 niQ, VoL X, No. 3, p .182. 

1 The Classical Per\od of Sanskrit Lxteraluro, Madias, 1906, p 120 

Harikavi alms Bbanubhatta. 11& 

TVe have seen above that the sg^irawt mentions him as the w* of King 
Sambhu and describes him m two verses ( 121 and 125 on folio 82). 
Besides we are told that Han Eavi composed the Sambhurajacarita at the 

bidding of this &mdtt ( v. 172 on folio -^- ). 

( 4 ) As regards the parentage of the author of the &ambhurQjacartta 
and that of the SubhOsitaharHvali I have to observe as follows :- 

( i } The colophons of the different Sargas of the 6ambhur0)clcartta 
uniformly call sfofc as ' iRWi^f*^' i. a son of WKWunil*. Then again 
verse 177 of the extract from the colophon quoted above and verse 153 

on f j 10 JiL ase the adjective ' nm<JuiH*F3r ' with reference to Hari Kavi. 

He is also called ' wrafti: J m verse 163 m the top margin of folio — - . 

All these expressions prove that HFTPm was the father of sfcsfa. 

(li ) Dr.'Sharma states that Hari Eavi, the author of gsnfad^uwfe 
was the pupil of mxpvn as he refers to him as * wuiqumv3* u »Hl^ . ' The 
statement of the colophons in the -«i"+i<i*^U<j makes it cleat that ^mquiqft 
was the father of fjft*(k The title nft here is significant as ■hhimoi was 
not only the father of sft*fa but his 33 as well, because m verse 168 he 
is mentioned as <j^nr ( Tftprownsi *n57*. ) which corresponds to the title 
wft nsed in the colophons. It is, therefore, clear that one and the same 
person num^i was both the ^5 and the father of Hari Eavi. In verse 153 

(Foho--jj-)Hari Kavi calls himself ' JTwrntoiSPB ' in addition to his 

being ' www, ' Verse 164 ( folio ~) informs us that his family 

attuned pre-eminence owing to the grace of an ascetic ( qferarc ) of the 
name of Hitwuj. 

The identity of the two Hari Kavis is in my opinion sufficiently 
established on the strength of the evidence recorded above. It is now easy 
to fix the date of SubhasttahHrHvaU, In this connection we quote Dr. 
Sharon's conclusion — * 

" As Hari Eavi quotes the verses of Panditaraja Jagannatha, he 
cannot ba a contemporary of Akbar. Therefore, he must have flourished 
in the niddteof thc 17th century a. d.'\ 

i tUQ. Yd. X p. 47}. 

114 Studies in Indian Literary History 

This conclusion of Dr Sharma is confirmed in general by our study 
of the SambhurSjacarita because it was composed in a. d. 1685 and beca- 
use of our identification of the author of th6 SubhOSitahQrclvah and the 
Sambhur&jacartta as stated above. As regards the chronological order of 
these two works we are unable to decide because the verse common to 
both these works is not indicated by the name of its source. A glance at 
the varied and rich oontents of the Subh(i§ttah8r8valt will show, however, 
that Han Kavi was a voracious reader and perhaps this encyclopaedic 
anthology containing gems of Sanskrit poetry culled from innumerable 
sources beginning from poets and poetasters of hoary 'antiquity down to 
his contemporary Krsnapandita and even his younger brother Cakrapani, 
served as a good disoiplme for a budding poet of Han Kavi's classical 
taste so as to enable him to write an independent mahdkQvya in 12 cantos 
bubbling with the essence of Sanskrit classical poetry and devoted tcthe 
glorification of King Sambhajl, whose gay personality afforded him an 
excellent opportunity to make a oolourful display of a princely career, which 
has been estimated by some modern historians as politically effete and 

My brief analysis of the Sambhur&jacartta based on the available 
fragment of this tnaMkavya will, it is hoped, remove doubts, if any, of 
modern historians about the identity of the hero of this poem with King 
Sambha]i, the son of Shivaji. I shall, however, sum up the main facts 
revealed in my analysis which support my identification of Sambhuraja 
with King Sambha]i — 

( 1 ) Date of composition of the poem viz. A. D. 1685 corresponds to 
Sambhaji's period of reign 

(2) The birth of 5nj^ncTfrom ftra^T and the adjectives l'^nprer, i%fterW3T 
as applied to snrosr in many places as pointed out by me in the preamble 
of this paper clearly indicate the parentage of the Mar*atha King 

( 3 ) The reference to the sword of the goddess iT^rpft m the hands 
of King £ambhu and its description in three verses as pointed out by me 
also confirm my identification. 

( 4 ) The mention of ' tMI^ x . .. . . TRR ' with reference to 6ambhu- 
raja is also important. Shivaji was called 'nlfll4l u lwRi4W*' and his son 

1 Compare the following versa In the Budhabhumna of King &unbhn(GoTt Ori. Boriea) 
B. B. Institute, 1926 — 

Harikavx alias Bhanubhatta 115 

Sarobbaji was expected to follow his father m keeping this motto before 
him as a state policy at a time when Hinduism was regarded to be m petit 

( 5 ) The poet Han Kavi may have resided occasionally at Sambha- 
ji's court, though he himself and his father may have been normally 
residents of g4$? or Surat. As the poem was composed at the bidding of 
Sambhaji's tfi by name $ W WU<* such an inference is warranted. At any 
rata a greater contact of the courtly life of King Sambhaji may be presum» 
ed m view of the dominant note of gaiety prevailing in the portion of this 
ruabakavya analysed by me. The poet's family belonged originally to the 
Deccan as his father is called c ^rmwrp^r ' and naturally he must have 
entertained a high regard for a King of the Deccan territories, though 
Bur at was at thi3 period of history m the hands of foreigners. 

My friend Prof. H. D. Velanker has already published a " Sanskrit 
work called &r%m ( Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Govt Ori. 
Series, 1026 ) claiming for its author King $ambhu, popularly known as 
Sarubbaji, soa ol Shivaji the Great " and has thus retrieved the lost name 
of King Sambbaji as " nothing but vicious deeds, at the most brave and 
daring, are usually connected with the name of Prince Sambbaju " About 
Sambhaji's literary taste Prof Velankar remarks :—"- it is possible to 
conclude that not only had Sambhaji received education at the hands of 
learned Pandits but he bad also taste for Sanskrit literature and was occa^ 
sionally in the habu of wntmg poetry in Hindi under the influence of Kavi 
Kalasa or the celebrated Kalusha, especially when passing his leisure 
hours in the company of beautiful women." In his Preface Prof. Velankar 
refers to Sambhaji Hiudi Poems, selections from which were shown to 
him by Sfr. Purushottam Vishram .Jdavj., J. P. Then again verses * 16 
™ , , *,?; Preamb ' e ° f BadhabM ?^ Nearly refer to SambbaVs 
and LIZ men WCU VerSCd m P06try ' Bbet0ric ' Pa ' 5 ^' Xwo 

nxaon^Z . KaV5 ', a P ° et ° f °° meaU taIeDtS ' mUSt ^ been f0 "*<*t 
^^^^ an added lustre to the cultural history of 

1* Tliw rctKM te*i M follow* •— 

^5^ ^ft ^dHHI^<W ^aj: qg WWfqj 

1"16 Studies in Indian Literary History 

About Kalusha, the enchanter, who exerted a wonderful influence 
upon Sambhaji Prof. Velankar remarks . — 

" Among the quotations we f ind one from the pen of famous Kalusha. 
It is highly poetical and even though we unfortunately do not possess ^ 
any literary remains of this great favourite of King Sambhaji, we have 
grounds to believe that he was a literary man. In the old chronicles 
he is described as Kavikalasa or the poet Kalasa. " " We will not be, 
however, far from truth m assuming that to a considerable extent his 
literary gifts helped Kalusha to maintain his influence with the prince. 
It is quite possible that this Kavi Kalusha may have composed several 
poems, which were not preserved owing to the general disfavour in 
which he was held, but stray copies of which may yet have existed and 
might one day be discovered by us " 

These remarks of Prof. Velankar tempt me to infer by way of pare 
hypothesis that IisonHm who is described in two verses as the g^ of King 
Sambhu in the &ambhur8,jacarita may be identical with Kavikalasa, the 
Kannja Brahman who is popularly believed to have been purposely sent 
by the Emperor from Delhi Han Kavi, as Dr. Sharma tells us, refers to 
some verses of this pandit and introduces them in his SubhcLsitaMravah 
by the expression " sfl^wuifedHl^ " Then again in the Sambhurajacanta 
Hari Kavi states that he wrote by order ( fa^ J «ia ) of one fisar who was the 
3^ of even King Sambhu ( sigj^Warfa giV ). All these references show 
the great influence ^anqfeci held over King Sambhaji and it is possible 
that he may have been identical with the great enchanter of Sambhaji, 
popularly known as Kavi Kalasa This, identification is however, suggested 
as a mere hypothesis as among other accomplishments of fiOJiqfecT given 
in the two verses on folio 82 quoted above we find that he is called 
" q ^rf^ fr HHd^lJufl TJI " and ' ^hht qftfa ^jf^T^fefa Jj^isnrrcrafa "- 
expressions which may hint at his cleverness in political chicanery, so 
characteristic of Kavi Kalasa, the great enchanter of King Sambhaji 

Irrespective of our proposed identification of ^sRfira with $% <B^5T 
it would be useful to put on record verses quoted by Han Kavi in his 
Subhdsitahiravah and ascribed to ^wjwfcd for the reason that he is men- 
tioned as the ir§ of King Sambhu in the Sambhu rOjacarita If any poems 
of $f5pe«s?r are traced hereafter by historians the verses recorded below 
may prove useful m studying the question of our proposed identity of the 
two personalities ' I, therefore, quote these verses from the fragment of 

Hankavi alias Bhanubhatta H? 

the Ma of Subh^Uaharcivalt viz. No. 92 of * 1883-84 in the Govt Mss 
Library at the BO.B. Institute, Poona . — 
folios 8-9 — " i3W»mfl g «fcrfsprcrra3ra?re*i^n- 1 
Cwmfr ?W& g^Rr wfsr s?R^ I! 

folio 16 — '« ^kl^wf^^^i <?*ifir 5*ydwg*ft5 *reTT- 1 
foho 38 — " qjioft snftaffoi ^ wa *^^^ ttf^ta. i 

xjyfcbt^tH^W *9T01$H<!S<ftW4»i'jftTI?nTf ii 
'4iWt <£U*fltf ^H^tar W^pl <ts5^A T^ft 3T il 

w^sfUuijsi's i^^ft ^nr^r^cRr T: ii 

wH^SPP^Tf «Nfej^ ^f^ffjftgwcrf II *<U II 

3ft$CJi(jfedWN& " 
foho — " T^i^erTHiTifqr *n<jft sTrewNssrar- 1 
ianft^nrefa *\ Tsrefa 3 shi< 11 ^ n 

We have seen above that in the old chronicles Sambhaji's adviser 
Kalusha is described as sRte^t. In the above verses of fjwiqfetr he styles 
himself as «fr $*nqfoi apparently emphasising his poetical talents and 
perbaps eshoing the identity of his Sanskrit name «{% fWT with the 
popular name sOr ^sr. 


Smca the above paper was written I luve analysed ITss of %&5 ;{<t,i« <f 

represented by the following entry in Aufrecht's Catalogus Catalogomm- 
Part 1, 7C8 — 

H8 Studies in Indian Literary History 

" ^S^HW ^r and tlka by Han, Eeport CLXX-Comm. by sig ibid "" 
Mss represented by this entry of Aufrecht are available in the Govt. 
Mss Library. They are —(1) No. 827 of 1876-76. (2) No. 828 of 1876-76 
and (8) No. 829 of 1876-76. They were acquired from Surat by Dr. Buhler 
*n 1876. Aufrecht's entry about the author of this Kavya and commentary 
43 misleading because we find that this Kavya was written by Han Kavi, 
-the author of Subhd§ttahdrQvalt and the &ambhur&jacartta. 

Ms No 888 of 1875-76 — This is a fragment of t^^BIsq^ter of 
Ijfcefo. Some of its folios are not numbered but it consists of 46 folios. It 
was copied in Samvat 1779 i. e. in A. D. 1723 as the following colophon 
shows — 

"?ier sft ^q<(yjd«ftHmjrjre|ftq^5ft«fef^?r^di?ri sft f g^^Qdi^ « 

H5w«m<mi<Miq i grgfa gifwaKmwmtw *ti II hots: n *ft n sftrsj n sHra; i^s. 

The above colophon makes it clear that this commentary was 
written by ? fcpRr The poem commented on is a *r^I?I5*T called |a^t«fttf 
and the name of this commentary is ' Si^fatflfa^T. ' We have no means of 
ascertaining the number of cantos of this H57$T**T of ?fcEfa but the above 
colophon of canto VIH proves that it must have been somewhat like the 
Sambhurdjacartta in its extent The references to earlier works and 
authors found in this fragment are: — 

( 1 ) 5IK^lfdW<E fol 1, 6, 

(2 ) aifirvrm?* fol. 2 3 6, 7, 8, 11, 
13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 24,27,30, 
32, 37, 38, 39, 41, 44, 45, 46, 

( 8 ) sm*: many timeB, 

(4 ) sfm^l 1 ^ fol 5 , 17 , 3 2, ; 

X 5 ) ^nstT^nflTiraiq^T fol. 6, 
( 6 ) ikv: fol. 8, 39, 
( 7 ) aps^ira fol 9, 
( 8 ) jt^t fol. 9, 28, 29, 32, 36, 
( 9 ) *m*n<nt: fol. 10, 

(10) srrara fol 10, 

(11) V*nfa$*r<r fol. 10, 

(12) «^% fol 19, 

(13) |h: fol. 20, 30, 36, 38, U, 

(14) ^gsnreVfo fol. 23, 

(15) Ten** foJ. 29, 

(16) *n*TOcr or ¥H<kjijx<t fol. 26, 

(17) i^rag^ fol 26, 

(18) 5Ti#spn fol 28, 

(19) m^k ^f fol. 29, 

(20) f^T5KmT foJ. 29, 

(21) ftn*n*paT fol 31, 

(22) ^fN*iM fol 33, 

(23) ^F«2lc^K fol. 33; 

(24) ^rfe^iw fol. 36, 
(26) ^TTTcqi^T fol. 37, 

(26) $fa**nft fol 42; 

(27) 4»w n KJ fol 42, 

(28) TfaT5FT fol. 46, 

• Harikavi alias Bhanubhatta 119 

i£a No. 8S9 of W5-76-~ This fragment of tfwfiraiRrsiir consists of 
about 76 folios of which folios 1 to 68 contain the commentary for canto 
I of fo^^fra, while folios 69 to 76 contain a portion of the commen- 
tary for canto II ( 12 verses only). This Ms is very important for our 
present study as it furnishes more- particulars about Han Kavi. The 
first 10 verses refer to mwm, the 35 of Hari Kavi, and also*refer 
to his patron 3ftjs«#rfcr who is styled as star 1. e. born of fire or Shivaji 
{verses 7 and 8). We are also told explicitly that this commentary was 
composed by the order of Sambhaji and that the Kavya was composed 
by Hari Kavi himself (verse 10 ) 

This statement proves that Han Kavi mast have been a court-poet 
of King Sambbaji to receive direct orders of King Sambhaji unlike his 
composition of &ambhurajacartta which, as we have seen above, was com- 
posed at the bidding of $wrcfoi, the 35, of Sambhaji. Perhaps this g* 
may have brought Han Kavi into prominence and royal favour recogoi- 
zing his poetic talents and learning, being himself «ft and qfoj ( ' «fe. 
$orifct ' ) . I shall now quote the introductory 12 verses of this Ms as no 
other copies of this work are available so far^- 

foUo i-a~« «0no)«m «w. u 

*src ^ «fc*n $«n m\ fanft u 9 u 

120 Studies in Indian Literary History 

gprrciffoqifgi gft^ giqir ?rg3pra || $ n 

tft yw4<ifdmc ! jwM<irMi ( n^ jthm^r [ 

1% goq- fk& sN^r ufiprr smtftq^r | 
arro^r q^T^^gfeR^if^t^r n <: u 

sigji^fl^i ^r w€\ f*qdt»Ti i| <* n 

STTCTf SI«T ?fa<JIT ^fl^TRR^ II 1° II 

^Ri<r?i4i3*rcrmfti^fa%sjrT 1 1 

giHiy^l^^l+g^IT*<?I^UT | 

fa?rtfoft smfa 5rgrg55ii%*TW in % II 
q^rg *rr^ftrar ^fa^ir^qt i| 

Verse iVo. 1 in the above extract viz. " «ftap*r3r3f3^I ... sRdgri 
is almost identical with verse No S in the ^{RTTfonpfsar extraot quoted by 
me above from a stray folio found m the Ms of sr»j«*w(<d. So also verse 
No. d. viz. " $gMs43idM=4<£NHl ^pg w" is almost identical with verse 
No. 8 of the M^mfi i^fkar fragment It is possible that the brother -dtwifr 
in his enthusiasm to outdo his elder brother may have incorporated 
these verses from the hitter's works without acknowledgement though the 
alder brother Hari Kavi had better sense of literary veracity as he has 
introduced all verses of his younger brother ^PllPl with the expression 
" Hfrbfaa-Ulj ' tWU"i : " in his SubhUsitaharavah. 

As this fragment of snjfWlfa+r contains a portion of the commentary 
different from that found in Ms No 828 of 1875-76 it would be useful to 

Harikavi alias Bhannbhatta 


record the references to earlier works and anthors noticed by me in my 
cursory reading of the Ms These references are . — 

(17) sfe^wiviw wfittiww^- 


(2)3?**: fol. 5, 6, 1, 10, etc. 

( 3 ) mnrz, mm, i&rfH 
«RsiifiMii*j|: fol 3, 

( 4 ) ari"73 fol. 5, 6, 15, 23, 24, 25, 
26, 27, 35, 38, 40, 41, 55, 57, 

( 5 ) ;rnrq« fol. 5, 

( 6 ) ipntdPR fol. 5, 69, 
(7)?^ fol. 6, 
(9)^rg^E. fol 8, 17, 
(10) wfewt fol. 8, 12, 
(U) *VM><Hqnsnrn(V fol. 8, 

(12) 5rrcflfo<33! fol. 10, 

(13) m$& fol. 10, 

(U) «frrapH$r fol. 10, 11, 12, 14 15, 

17,18,19,20,21,25,26 28,30, 
32, 33 39, 42, 43, 47, 61, 
(15) mwm fol. 11, 

mm $%• fol. 72, 

(18) fa*: lot 44, 73, 

(19) «uu»4WlM qftwifiw 
fol. 73. 

(20) mn& fol. 20, 73, 

(21) vmfci fol. 14 

(22) ^mt fol. 16, 

(23) <qradV ii*ugitWf fol. 10, 

(24) ^3^i5i fol. 18, 19, 20, 

(25) #?iw mma fr fol. 20, 34, 

(26) *mm% fol. 28, 51, 53, 

(27) |r: fol. 19, 31, 50, 

(28) mf^feEifc^ragflf^n. <?*%: 

fol. 21, 

(29) fl^r: 23, 24, 66, 

(30) ^^h^ fol. 31, < 

(31) sg*ra?m fol S7, 

(32) fl^K 3}f5#r fol 60. 

(16) araw: fol 11, 

The above list of references combined with the W nf ™# 
the other fragment of this commentary fiiven nrelj ^ ^ m 

range of Han Ws stupes and m my^op n on SSttetT " •*' 
and somewhat boastfa, reference to L ZZ£ l^^ 
cccas.onally found m his works nohced above «*»**«** 

The hero of fcfc^ is |^ or ^^ and ^ 

^ff 55 » too transparent for the poet to hide behmrf * W1 * 

foment in winch he has been'pn £ Si poe^e T"^ *** 
other than ^ . hoappeflrs ^ tQ £ ^J£ **!**»"» »«• 
have seen above in oar analysis of r h,. JL T ^3**^ as we 
*« reel apparemly ZZ1 h l ^V'° n i0Vl ° Uo{ «*»& 
^owmge'pLaUon^ ^ ° f ^ ™* ^ in the 

^£.^ **«* ** 

J22 Studies in Indian .Literary History 

The poet also refers to <g<n as the mfcei of the poem in the follow- 
ing remarks on folios 29-30 . — 

He also refers to this gtrf as the beauty of the town of Surat m the 
following words on folio 50 : — 

This heroine is shown to have attained a marriageable age on folio 
31 — " <j<^'<c*<«(f*T3sf5pft w ^twn, 'ftssrewft ^r qrwg; " 

Wa have tried to prove from the statements of 5^5% in the sr^prsr- 
"gftcT that mwm was both the g^ and father of tfRfrfe . This inference is 
clearly proved by the following statement of this poet in this commentary:— 

Folio 68 — ,{ gft ^Trn^f cT I wfr. srtRnrr^sftjnaq^dqj g^ srrcproT-, 

We have also seen that Hari Kavi's family came from the Deccan 
and that both the father and the son were residents of Surat. Here is 
Han Kavi's own explanation about his Deccani descent — 

Folio 68 — "^ifsyunwrs K5Wsa,ir*r^ %qif5rmc) I iN4i<frj eTKftenr g**nr 

The colophon of Canto I appears as under on folio 68 and it Is very 
important as it discloses for the first time in our study the popular 
name of the poet, which is *rrg*TS — " %fe gfUj;4 y foregftaflremmffiHg- 

ftT+l^MT iHTO sriV «J?I5T ". Perhaps this real name of the poet viz. *ng*I5 
may afford historians a better clue to trace the descendants in this family 
than the poetic name ^Rrcf^ used throughout his works 

Throughout this paper we have identified ^JjJ? with modern Surat. 
Our identification is supported by Han Kavi himself for on folio 74 he 
explains " ^jrer ^^K bVt gW jrfsra;iftrefa?TO " 
and further he refers to the beauty of Surat in these words • — " ctuft- 

On folio 75 he explains the reference to mountain flt^ m the text 
of his Kavya . — "Jfij??: 51*^41^ fcsq^T- " 

Ms No. 8S7 of 1875-76 — We now come to the fragment of the text 
of ^^T??^'^, the commentary on which we have noticed above in oar 

Harikavi alias Bhanubhatta 12£ 

lalysis of the two available fragments. This Ms consists of 39 folios, 
hos 1 to 20 comprising canto I and folios 20 to 40 comprising canto IL 
his poem appears to have been written in a sustained style in the 
assical fashion and in doing so the poet is apparently influenced by. 
igannatha Panditiraya, quotations of whose verses have been given by our. 
)et in the Subhasitaharavali. Here is his appreciation of Panditaraya's 
aetic composition on folio 21 of the present Ms — 

The poet refers to hwwi n§ m verse 8 of thisKavya which begins 
n folio 2 with — 

" w ^ qgRraam ^^rahi^gf » and ends .... «• smsfc *w ^f%^pn- 

On foho 4 the following verses 24 and 25 appear and I find they 
ppear in the shrirasjfcr with identical verse numbers. These verses are.— 

"Writ 5gra > ^t% f ^rnf^Pm u ^ u » 

The following verse 29 is identical with versa 26 in «,« ^ r_ 

•elerred to by us in the begmnmg of this paper !L " * ^ ***^ 
" sRftft $qftnf^ imHT?qT% *nn_ l 

124 Studies in Indian Literary History 

*rr *m ^afcrcntficqtfjR'jfi H 3 ° il" 
We get more description of the heroine >s<n in this Kavya and 
her matchless beauty, news of which reached the King who began to 
pine for her hand. — 
Folio 12 — " ^fa-d^iyl^uiac^vfafa^n I 

Poho 16— " ^cftflT ft sfon rprcguimfU^id' i 

Mma u ff gtBifiT^ ^rjffRr ^y«rn^ I 
h TT3i cb^iP>^<y«NRd-?di. smsjorta; il i°r |i " 
folio 17 — Cl sr >£52no*nfrgr jhik ^tt 7ffry^ i 

^ s$r snfifa etc. " 
Persons interested m the King's welfare got busy and we find a 
Brahman approaching the King with a letter from Surat from =&n'a 
father — 

Canto I ends on folios 20-21 as follows.— 

ct?5T=^ ^M tg'qF^ud «ni t%a^TFn^s: |i i^v n 
of^r ^m imn *m ll " 

The parentage of srn is given in the following verses on folio 22. 
wi£^3 was a King of SaraL In his line was born wfrEra the fathor of 
=qn the berome of the poem. This aroteni or aifq*l*ld despatched a 
letter to 55W offering the band of =a<n to him through a Brahman mes- 
senger, who was his 3^, and inviting him to his capital with all his royal 
paraphernalia. — 

Harikavi alias Bhanubhatta 12& 

" q*$n& grafr sftogsre f&nn i 

*prcft*Ri Hs*reen?ri n^sarai ?rai u ^ it 

%>i++H«tf ^ ^13^ qr stqsft$3 II * 1 II " 
foho 38 — " *ft«s-wifays<»*u«^r i%gigg/$. 1 

foho 39 — " ms$m wvwuy 'gqqssh'Stoan 1 

a?« *jjt m<faqoireiftnt fog^ 1 
«F*n g&I^-fc^niaq ^tftf^ II 1 1 <£ II '' 
— " «n*ra*q ia^viHfori^T. at <££U«u 5^ " 

Tha fragment eads as under . — 

ftaV sfoeft %s«ra^?n ^^t 

* tj t rz^ 1 rrjiiiu 1 1 t 'j r rwr t li" r t Ji'ii-iimif j jib • 

a«T^r *ag l^'^rw hiti fljcfonravi. U 

In tho last verse of canto IE quoted above wo find for tha first time 
tho name of the mother of Han Kavi mentioned, which is sraijnT, beciuso 
the verse states " Annaparna gave birth to Han JCavifrom Ndrayanasari."' 

126 Studies in Indian Literary History 

In the above analysis of all the available fragmentary Mss of Hari 
Kavi's works we have tried to lay bare some historical information but 
have not attempted to identify or verify the same from other historical 
sources. Such an attempt must be made independently by scholars in- 
terested in the history of the period to which King Sambhaji belongs. 
We have attempted m the present study to give a rough sketch of Han 
Kavi and his works written under the patronage of King Sambbaji. 
Mentioned by Han Kavi 
wwipit — mother of Han Kavi 

I the quru of King Sambhaji probably indentical with 

r ^"' I Kavi Kalasa. 
or %(y*^iqfe?r ) 

<3<U or "gqFuft — the heroine of si^M^fof and ftjq-^ftd and the 
beauty of the town of Surat 

igjpnfo; — younger brother of Han Kavi, 

f^rrofar — Great Grand-father of Han Kavi. 

^rrft — river at Surat 

apftera — father of W, the heroine of srjjrra^ftcr and tw^^fta. 

cpa — Brahman messenger sent by apftere with a letter proposing 
the marriage of his daughter ^qr with King Sambhaju 

^mim or «UtWU|f< — The guru and father of Han Kavi. 

suraiT ( qfe3?FT ) — apppreciated and quoted by Han Kavi. 

qirem — Uncle of Han Kavi and elder brother of Han Kavi's 
father Hiiwm. 

ntjug — popular name of Han Kavi. 

H5n^ — mentioned by Han Kavi as the province to which his 
firmly belouged. 

fe ftU^K or fafsrnPT or aqHHTR or awTrR- Same as HWHi or Surat. 

^innu — Grand-father of Han Kavi. 

5T3, <r«nni, SPjPjqfil — identical with the Maratha King Sambhaji, 
son of Shivuji the Great. 

STHTI^jfal — composed in a. D. 1685 by Han Kavi by the order of 
£CTTCf*tf, tho guru of King Sambhan ( ^rnf ) 

Harikavi alias Bhanubhatta 127 

f^T^jjT or ftre —father of sfgrra or Sambhaji, identical with Shiva jr 
the Great. 

sfte^ij — ancestor of ^nfrpfa of Surat, father of wn. 

H^n^ra — the Governor of Surat ( called 'dmiTMifaqfa' in tho 
^rgrra^ficr ). 

g^nfqa^nr^fe — an encyclopaedic anthology compiled by Hari Kavi. 

gjfalH^E or dm^Kltf — father of w in 7rg*i*rgfer, perhaps identi- 
cal with dtftoitf. 

q*T3* or ?£$!; or gjer — identical with modern Surat, town of Hari 
Kavi's residence. 

5ft?fa ( alias *n«pTs)— author of ijrgrergfcr, ^q^^ fig and com- 
mentary, and <g*nfad<iKMfe. 

^^'4-<4(<d — amahakavya composed by Hari Kavi by order of King 

tU^-i(^Rd<n*l — called 5H[|fef3lRpEt composed by Han Kavi by order 
of King Sambhaji. 

1 4. Date of Sabhyalamkarana, an Anthology 
by Govinda jit— After A. D. 1656 * 

The only MS of a work " Sabhyalamkarana " mentioned by 
Anfrecht i is *' Bgb 417 ( fr ), which is identical with MS No. 417 of 1884- 
87 in the Govt MSS Library at B. 0. B. Institute, Poona Sir E. G. 
Bhandarkar in his Report 2 for 1887-91 does not deal with the date of this 
work. As this work is a rhetorical anthology of verses from various- 
poets and works, it has its place in the history of the mediaeval Sanskrit 
anthologies. I propose, therefore, to analyse the only MS of SabhyQlatpka' 
ratia viz. No. 417 of 1884-87 and indicate my evidence regarding the limits 
for its date. 

The work is divided into numerous sections called maricis or rays. 
The name of the author is Govmdaji 3 He was the son of Caku and was 
resident of Oirlpura. i He belonged to the MevadH caste of Medaja&ta 
( Mewad ) as will be seen from the following statements . 

foho 2 — " ?fa fafts*fonfa*!STnjprc*m (?) ^fh^faeq ^tg etc. " 

foho 3— I HW^faji rgwagfltc » 

The title of the work is ir&mttmi ( colophon on folio 9 ) or w*nm*l 5 
( Colophon on folio 3 ). The work is compiled somewhat on the hues of the 
Easikajlvana 6 of Gadadharabhatta. In fact one Gadadhara is mentioned 
as the author of some verses quoted on folios 12 and 34 

The following works and authors have been mentioned in the 
fragment of the SabhyHlatpkarana before us — 

• .V.J Indt»n Jintvi tanj VoL IV. No. 11. February 1912, pp ZCG-%0 

1 CC, II. ICG— Aufrccht nuntiona another ■uorkcalkd Km-tWHuA which seems to bo 

different from H^4IC-K' J I. 

2. VidoFP Ull-IxIUof ft-uort /or 1SS7-01 —Hera wo find marely a list of woria and 
author* rcntioc-d In tho fragn-ent of Sabbyalaraiarana. 

2 According to Sir R G ' OuimdajU" U a SanArJtl^d form of "OoundajL" 
i. I victdtf if Gvy.-ra u \.ith Gir jia^ara or Giraar In Jnnagad Stato. 

C. Aufr>.cht (CC I, C3G) rLCordja Kirya of tho title &MWW t/ Ittmacandra with a 
coon^niary lj Go\inJa l& 2.110) I cannot lay if thU commentator Go/lnda ii ioVntical with 
Gonniaj!, tUautiorof tf»Mlc4-fcOI 

\ Ij »y i^-z oj its IUa.lajI.ana (Jnnzli D 0. P I VoL XI f, p SOO). 

(1) wg^T 

Date of Sabhyalamkarana • 129 

— fol. 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 28, 29, 32, 34, 35, 37. 

— fol 1,17. 

— fol. 2 

— fol. 2, 12, 13, 23, 36. 

— fol. 2,4, 18, 21, 27, 30,36, 37 

— fol 2,8, 13, 15, 24, 29 

— fol. 2, 4, 11, 12, 18, 20, 21, 30, 34, 36. 

— fol. 2, 22, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 34. 

— fol. 3 

— fol. 3, 17. 

— fol 4. 

— fol 4, 21. 

— fol. 8 

— fol 8, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31. 

— fol 8, 16, 18, 24,35 

— fol 8. 

— fol 8, 16, 26, 33, 37. 

— fol 8, 9, 16, 17, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 34. 

— fol. 8, 14,21,37 

— fol 9 32,36 

— fol 10 

— fol 10, 16, 18, 32. 

— fol. 12, 18, 19, iO, 23, 26, 31, 37. 

— fol 12 

— fol. 12, 34. 

— fol 12, 25, 32 

— fol 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28, 36, 37. 

— fol 14, 32. 

— fol 15. 

— fol 15 ( composed iu a d. 1457 ). 

1 M^n'fea §uJa U th 3 aut li.r cf tto Cu-anl-Cjn'a ccmpo.-«d m A. D. ICiG t Udo 
^ piper m U,o .!,„„* (B. O B. L) Vol IX, M 031-202] The work FWliM-S 
can; c^J by Go^ t on {J|j .3 of tuo MS u idcni cal mtU R^fRRrl I havo cvldu;c» 
to pxovo that Silalaarta « M a F op.l cf Bhat'oj. DIk ita. "lutcco 

2 Vide orpi., ea K^jaibi {J a <r c/C n BtuatM, Madras. ToL XIV. pfc 1. 

c f 'niv,viT ^"'Tr' K "^3 t£ci 7J^rL u U^bUludty B y f x.uU Eao Br. P 
v. wt\A^Jl,jl A,. UL If. Kcemlj. 


X ** J 


p ■ r- ■ 













) ■■H^feHtfl+T 


1 Htqro? 

( n ; 

\ mm< 





) *TTl5c[Ri.£S 





> ^ig^rftyr 


) fa^ui 


) J3^<n 


> ^ 


) M<**i$X 



/ 22 

) ^irSTJTH 


) ^g^r 


l <^ 


> ^rar 


> foRl-fcH 


) jft^r^s 5jj§ ! 


) ^s^fe; 


) ^RFm 


) «WR*rc 2 


Studies in Indian Literary History 



42 '. 















— fol 31. 


— fol 17, 24, 27, 30, 81. 


— fol 17, 18,19,22,24, 27. 


— fol. 19. 


— foL 21. 


— fol 21. 


— fol. 22 


— fol 22. 


— fol 23, 26, 29, 31. 


— fol 23,26,29,31. 


— fol 24. 


— fol. 25. 


— fol 43. 

*imiw<^Mia. — ioj ao. 


— fol 26. 


— fol 26. 


— fol. 26. 


— fol 26,32,35. 


— fol. 26. 


— fol 2b. 


— fol. 27. 


— fol. 28, 30, 34. 

WS flrsW 

—fol 28. 


— fol. 28. 


— fol. 29. ( = rewgfta of m^P»3 ) 


—fol 29. 


— fol. 29, 34. 


— fol. 30. 


— fol 32. 



— fol. 32. 


— fol. 33. 

*I* (0 

— fol 33. 


— fol 33 


— fol 34 


— fol 37. 

Date of Sabbyalamkarana 131 

The above list is sufficient to show the sources of the present anthology. 
The reference to Bhatta Kamalakara on folio 3 furnishes us with a clue 
about the limit to the date of this anthology. If this Bhatta Kamalakara 
is identical with the author of the Ntrnayasindhu ( composed in A. D. 
1612 ) we can safely presume that Govindajit composed his anthology 
alter A. D. 1612. 

A more exact reference, however, for purposes of chronology will 
be found on folio 29, where a work called " f^rfhra^B " is mentioned. 
This work appears to be identical with the work fa««ft-*fttf by Nllakantha 
Snkla of which two MSS are available in the Govt MSS Library at the 
B. 0. B Institute, Poona. I have proved in my note * on this work 
that it was composed in Sarpvat 1718 — A. D. 1656. The verse from the 
Cimanliatala quoted by Govindajit on folio 29 of the MS of the Sabhyd- 
laipkarana is identical with verse 99 of the Cimanlcanta ( M8 No. 698 of 
1886-92). This identity clearly proves that Govindajit composed -his 
anthology after A. D. 1656. The other limit to the date of Sabhydlarpkarana 
cannot be definitely fixed at present but as the MS of the work appears to 
be about 150 years old we may tentatively assign Govindajit to the first 
quarter of the 18th century, if not later. 

L \iloAnnaU(&0 £. l ) xn, j. :*>. 

15. Date of Kes'avabhatta of Punyaslambha, the 

Author of Nrsimhacampu And other Works — 

• • 

Between o. A. D. 1450 and 1575 * ' - 

My friend Prof. N A Gore intends to bring out a critical edition of 
the Nraiipha CampU of DaivajSa Suryapandita He has asked me to fix the 
date of another Nrsimha CampU by Kesavabhatta of PunyastambhaJ as 
there is some resemblance between the two CampRs. I have great pleasure 
in recording the following evidence about Kesava and his works, which 
may enable us to fix his date within as narrow limits as possible — 

Prof. Dr. G. V. Devasthah describes some MSS of the works of 
Kesava in his Catalogue of the Bombay University MSS (1944- Vols. 
I and II) — 

Vol. I, p 348 - MS No. 968 - «f ^eqt^f?r of JRHT, a manual of f nneral rites 
composed by Kesava, son of Anantabhatta of the Laugdksl 
family and a resident of Punyastambha ( modern Puntambe 
in the Ahmadnagar Dist. of Bombay State), ^f&^-d*^ and 
-(JW^r^cjir are other works of this author Of. Velankar 
No 1249 and India office Nos. 4053-54 and 5769-76. 

This MS was copied by Sakharama Ababhatta 
Pathaka in Saka 1699 = A D 1777. The work quotes from 

The MS begins.— 

m^iPr^n^rpnahpi y^wmi*. ( om. ) w& i 

The MS ends — 

" ?fe jnwrf*^i' ^hrn%nhr ( or =n ) ^g«g^d^^^r % *n ( I ) 

Vol. II, p. 780 -MS No £287 - ^^\ of %*nr is a small CampU. in 6 
chapters narrating the story of Nrsimhavatara composed by 

* S-inl iTfrJj/j^niij Cteimemcrilicn Vo'jmt, 1353, pp 123-137. 

Kesavabhatta- Author of Nrsimhacampu 133 

Kesava of the Laugdk^i family, a resident of Punyastambba 
on the bank of the Godlvarl ( For other MSS see Velankar 
No. 12-19 and India Office No. 4053). Kesava wrote another 
work on this topic known as wgK^*<£, written at the 
command of king Umapati Dalapaii ( cf. India office No. 
4051 and Bajendralai Mitra's Notices, No. 1427 ). For 
quotations from the work see Ind. Office No. 4053. Kesava 
composed two more works, the w^W^f^ei (see No 1992) 
and sreq-feq^-ia ( see No. 9b3 ) 

Vol. II, p. G69 - MS No LOOS su<wfitfl of 33R This 13 an elementary 
. treatise on Indian logic composed by Kesava who is 
different from Kesava, the author of TarkabkusJ. For our 
author's 3R^fCT5% see MS No 963 above 

As MS No. 903 ( ^v&feq^ia ) of Kesava is dated A. D. 1777 we may 
push his date to a period which is earlier than about A. D. 
The Govt. MSS Library at the Bhandarkar 0. B. Institute 

possesses some MSS of Kesava's works. I record below the evidence of 

these MSS bearing on the history and chronology of Kesava's works. — 

{I) MSS of ^^^L— 

(1) MS No. 113 of 1887-91-^yhz^ This MS is dated Samvat 

1750 ( = A. D. 1694) 

(2) MS No. lH of 18S2-J3 -^fa^**t-MS dated Samiat 1851 

( = A.D 1798) 

(3) MS No. 367 of 1881-87 -*z =^-M3 dated Samvat 1855 

{ = A D 1799). 
( 4 ) MS No. 1S6 of 1879-80 - 1 ^ - MS dated Savuat 18-15 

( = A.D 17S9). 
( 6 ) MS No. 101 of A. of 18S2-S3 - ^ ^H.- not dated. 
( 6 ) MS No. 625 of 1SS2-83 - ^ wt- not dated. 
(1)MS No. 162 of 1502-07-^.. ^%- dated & a la 1705 ( = A J). 

1783 j. 
( 8 ) MS No. 27 of 1870-71 - ^ ^*t- not dated. 
( 9 ) MS No. 52 of 1871-72 - ^ ^- dated & a la 1717 ( = A.D. 

1795 ). 

(10) MS No 714 of 1SS6-92 - % =9^- not dated. 

(11) MS No. 511 o/ 1891-95 - ^ ^- not dated. 

134 Studies in Indian Literary History 

(12) MS No. 513 of 1891-95 -3 ^-MS dated Samvat 1839 

( = A.D 1783). 
We have thus MSS of 3 ^bearing dates A. D. 1694, 1783, 1789, 

1795, 1798, 1799. 
All theBe MSS are described by me in Volume XIII, Part III of the 

Descriptive Catalogue of the Go\ t MSS library ( B. O. R. 

Institute, Poona, 1950) pages 355-368. 
( II ) MSS of^mtt&l :— 

(1)MS No. 796 of 1887-91 - not dated. 

( 2 ) JkfjSf No 138 of 1871-72 - MS dated sam 1706 (=A. D. 1650) 1 

( 3 ) MS No 206 of 1899-1915 - not dated. 

(Ill) MSS of m*3feiKft — 

MS No. ISO of 1886-92-not dated. The MS begins exactly like the 
Bombay University MS of this work ( No. 963 ) and is 
incomplete (15 folios) The last folio 16 contains a 
different work. There are colophons in the body of the 
text mentioning the name %3T=Ti son of w\% 

The author refers to a few earlier authors and their works, such as 
qw^^FT. ( fol 7 ) , Bifhr ( fol 7 ) , " w^tnfcsna- 1 q m^rem srafc " ( fol. 10 ), 
3T N t q^ * i"i ( fol. 10 ) , Titan ( fol 10 ) , Tire^r ( fol. 10 ) ; m^k ( fol. 11 ) , 
rzna ( fol. 10 ) , .mismim ( fol. 12 ) , qtftafa: ( fol. 14 ) ; fin^uBwd (fol 13), 
^\n??i ( fol. 14 ), <u]^m.if^6T ( fol 14 ) , f%'5T^T ( fol. 15 ) etc. 

The dates of some of these works as given by Dr. P V. Kane in his 
History of Lharmasiistra, Vol. I ( B. 0. B. Institute, Poona, 1930 ) are as 
follows — 

Page 3S9 - ( 1 ) W^'JWmH by Madanapala - Between A D 1300 and 1390. 
Page 330 - ( 2 ) mnum >rafrr b> Mad havacarya- -Between A. D 1335-1360. 
Page 731 - ( 3 ) "Vrer5lR3T by ^"J'SRW, son of Hij^T^ft, son of mb^ of the 

5ni*Ti*mnr -AD. isgo 

1 This date is recorded in the following colophon of the MS- — 
" ?ra %5re ^P-HNdi ^rrc^f^Ei w$m II s II s^r. ?^°5 q^ i aw gfc \ 

«irTW3.rif-nrs*ni II >ak*i II =r II " 

Kesavabhatta - Author of Nrsinihacampu 135 

Page 825 ~(4) feftvpn by +r4+l-d«t^tft - later than A. D. 1100 and earlier 

than A. D. 1S00. 

In view of the above evidence and in particular in view of the refe- 
rence to JT^raf^JTO ( between A. D. 1360 and 1390) by our author Kesava 
We can definitely say that he is later than c. A, D. 1400, which is, therefore, 
the earlier limit for the dates of his works. The later limit is furnished 
by the B. 0. K. Institute MS of ?qi«rcf«5$i ( No. 138 of 1871-72 ) which is 
dated Satnvat 1706 {A D. 1650 ). The India office MS of Kesava's Jjfia?- 
«3m mentioned below is dated A, D. 16 87. I am, therefore, inclined to 
believe that Kesava flourished between c. A. D. 1450 and 1575. 

The India office Library Catalogue, VoL I, Part VII (by Eggehng, 
London, 1904) contains description (on pp. 1648-49) of two MSS of 
#5Wol Kesava viz. No. 4058 and No. 4054. Of these two MSS No. 
4051 is dated A. D. 16S7 ( Samvat 1634 ). 

Burnell's Catalogue of Tanjore MSS ( 1879 ), p. 118, contains descrip- 
tion of a MS of a commentary on the TarkabhOsa of Kesava Misra c. 
A. D. 1275). The name of this commentator is Kesavabhatta, son of Ananta 
and the commentary is called Tarkadipika These details are recorded in 
verses I and 2 at the beginning of the work, which are quoted by Burnell 
as follows — 

+4it«i*<w£ ^TTfir Prat sra ^rsfiwfyrac. it % it 

Tpifereftqr foqir a&CtPrer u ^ u " 

It is clear from these verses that Kesavabhatta, the author of ^tfrj- 
^, st^ftCT^ra and ^nqxl(^T is also the author of the commentary at&- 
m*l on Kesava Misra's a&mr ( o. A D. 1275 i according to scholars ). 

Our author Kesava Misra composed another CampO. called S^lT^ 
a MS of which has been described by Bajendralal Mitra, Notices VoL IV 
pp. 12- 13. MS No. 1427. Mura describes this work as " A poetico-prose 
romance, founded on the story of Prahlada, a yonth who, born m a Saiva 
family, displayed u nder peculiarly trying circumstances, the most un- 

0/IndHn tc^to by Vliijabhuwn, p. iOL 

136 Studies in Indian Literary History 

flinching devotion to Vaisnavism by Kesava Pandita. 
The MS begins — , 

sifiraig^naiTi ^Jtefq ^l^wai* l 

f^ *ftr. fog fgjjjn fewK usufwtfWr. ^V 

%n*4c*wtjq(«d^ flra«|& "g*^ ^tqi^n " 
Colophon - " ^f% «fta#.5ni<rpi<id$dr ngi^r*^!^ "ggsiwy-b SHTfltsq 1 i " 

The above MS contains 214 &lokas and is dated Sarnvat 1869 ( A, 
D. 1813 ). It belongs to Govt of India Prof Gore may get it on loan from 
the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, and see if this agl^J-^ is identical with 3#fe- 
^*\ or is a different work. 

Aufrecht makes the following entries about Kesava and Kesava- 
bhatta ■ — 
Cata. Catalogoroum, Part I, p. 127 — ■ 

" issra son of Ananta, Laugaksikula, of Punyastambha. 
— aw ^^NH^ N. P. X, 16 

— aSIT^J^ written by request of king Umapati Dalapati 
3>4H*l5 Son of Ananta Bhatta • 

a^lftrer a comm on the TarkabMsQ, of Kesavannsra 
Burnell 118a " 

I have proved above that %5FT the author of ^j/a^l*^, sr^feq^fit, 
-mmr-^si, and ajjrr^J^ is also tho author of crivftfa^oT represented by the 
Tanjore Mb described by Burnell on p 118 of his Catalogue of Tanjore AISS. 
I could not get detailed description of JTR^J^rPT^^ mentioned as Kesava' s 
work by Aufrecht. A IIS of this work ( N P X, lb of Aufrecht's entry ) is 
mentioned in the Catalogue of J\orth Western 11SS by Sudhakara Dvivedi, 

KesVvabbatta- Author of Nrsimhacampu 13T 

Part X (Allahabad, 1886) p. 16. The details of this MS as given by 
Dvivedi are as follows - 

ej^ ^ p^q^gjg — A CatnpU with commentary of Kesava- 333 leaves- 
16, 000 Slokas - on paper in Devanagarl charac- 
ters -in the possession of Bhagavatacari of Bena- 
res - Old, complete and correct" 
If this description is correct the MS contains the Campd. and its 
commentary by one Kesava. It is not clear if this Kesava is identical with 
Kesava, the author of NrsimhacampU and other works. 

The evidence recorded so far gives ns the following information 
about our author ■ — 

( 1 ) His name was %3T3. His father's name was *H«wr 
( 2 ) He belonged to ^rif^Ecr and uivqf^n an^ra". 
( 3 ) He was proficient in TftHTHT, a£, ?n%c*T, etc. 

( 4 ) He was the resident of ^*d*¥r ( modern Punt&mbe in the Ahmad 
nagar Disk of the Bombay state ) on the banks of river Goda. 

( 5 ) He composed «jT«$-<iW_ and u^i^*^ by the order of his patror 
^rmqfa^qfa, son of jftra^sqfcr 

(6) He composed also sn^jfsq^fa, wiw-MHi+i, ^n&ftq^r and possiblj 

( 7 ) He flourished definitely between A. D. 1400 and A. D. 1600 anc 
approximately between A D 1450 and 1575, a period of about 12£ 
years. This period can be narrowed down if we can identify hi< 
patron ^?mfe ^qfer, son of jtt(^ ^stqflr 1 

Very probably ^nqfh ^rfa, the patron of Kesavabbatta residing 
at Puntumbo in the Ahmadnagar District between c A. D. 1450 and 1575 
belonged to the family of ^qfe, son of gg*T and author of the work or 
dbarmasastra called ^jfa^rov? composed between A. D 1490 and 1512 
The points of similarity which go to connect these two Lalapati3 may b< 
represented in the following table . — 

V Dt P. V. E ano boa dctotci section 99 of hia Eulorj of Dhuma 'ic'ro, VoL I ( 1320 ) to 
a tvciV oa Dbanrtaf Ostra callxl ^Rj^lWI^ by 3?/}fcI or ^dlttf-^ sou of ^3*T and of tha 
l Tkil-'.<l^Tttnd<jiy H <?f < iytMI. This^qfcl v.;sa grtat oxporxat of tjcjj^j. no *as tho 
BUEil cf q^fcl?! acd tho chief mmUtar aad Lupct of rtcorda of Sicattihab, luler of % 3 p|R . 
^IS^WI^ «a» ecapcvcd betxtm JL D. UQO and 1S12 ( £130 -110 ). 



Studies in Indian Literary History 

Patron of Kesavabhatta 

<*c*4RuM, author of ^r^iraic[ 

(1) He was the patron of +;m«S 
between o A. D. 1450 and 

(2) He was possibly ^qfe in the 
army of some king ruling at 
Ahmadnagar between A. D. 
1450 and 1575. His protege" 
%sraw? resided at gM^arvr 
( Puntambe in the Ahmad- 
nagar District ). 

(S) He was devoted to god ffi% 
and is called " *rtfg^fof5pr " 
in Kesava's ngK^ 4 ^ ^ra 
composed ^w^r^ and »&l$- 
=q*tr by his order. These 
works illustrate unflinching 
devotion to god Govinda. 

(4) His father's name was jftfw^ 

(1) He composed Jjf&^Jrar^ bet- 
ween J. D. 1490 and 1512. 

(2) He was the chief Minister 
and Keeper of Eecords of 
Ahmad Nizam Shah, who 
ruled at Ahmadnagar bet- 
ween A. D. 1490 and 1508. 

(3) God grljr^ was the family deity 
of ^cwfcwitf, who calls his 
work ^fHSHWK and invokes 
god Jjfshr at the beginning of 
each section of ^fasny^ ( the 
fruit of the grace of god 

(4) He was a Brahmin of ^R£I5I- 
<§& and *n5jra5=HKTHjll He was 
the son of gg*l and a great 
exponent of tpzimyH. 

It would seem from the above table that y^Nfo ^cStfRr is connected 
with c[OTfef the author of the 3i«sjw«K and his family, "^rra" 
indicates a title of an army officer in command of a body of troops. Later 
on it may have become a family name of persons At present the surname 
" ^sri> " corresponds to the name " <jcwfa " cnrreDt in the 15th and 16th 
century in the Deccan. The author of the ^fa^usn^ being a prominent 
member of the " <t5nfd " family appears to have been called " ^qftKitf," 
whom I have identified l with " Dalpat Iiai " Mentioned in the Burhan- 
i-lfajir as aspiring after the office of the Prime Minister of Ahmad Nizam 
Shah (A. D 1J90-1508). There is possibility of ^rorrfo ^rfa being 
identical with ^jfa-*T3 if we presume that nrnr^ the father of 3?nqfir, 
and <nj«, the father of <^mfcW4, are identical persons. Even if this 

1. YiAj my f jj«r la tha Bruuedutgx oftte Indian Eii'or'j Ccn^rtu, Mahcbid, 1333, pp. 

Eesavabhatta - Author of Nrsimhacampu 139 

possibility is not accepted it is possible to suggest that -jhrRi ^ssqfg and 
^jPa^iar were important Hindu officers, who were great patrons of 
learning, in the employ of the Muslim kings, i who ruled at Ahmadnagar 
from A. D. 1460 to 1637. A. Hindu grandeu called ^Risft Mdwu-t com- 
posed an encyclopaedic work on Dharmasastra called the qr gauwdw . He 
was patronized by Burhan Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar (A. D. 1508-1651) 
as I have proved in a special paper ( Annals, B. 0. B. Institute, 1914, vol. 
XXIV, pp. 156-164 ). 

Punyastambha or Puntambe, the native place of our author 
Eesavabhatta was a great centre of learning for centuries, a ^aqfuad a 
son of !44^ft:jd, composed his commentary sq^qr4*4tg^V on Tsro^rft at 
Benares in A. D. 1636. He was also a resident of ; y»mawn . VR& ^tttt < :- u5-fe{ 
who flourished between o. A. D. 1775 and 1820 and composed many Sans- 
krit works was also a native of <j<n^«T ( Vide my paper on this author 
in Annals B. 0. B. Institute, 1943, Vol. XXIV pp 27-44 ). n^T^r S^rar^ 
( c. A. D. 1700 ) the great logician continued the tradition of our author 
Eesavabhatta in the study of logic and composed some works on logic 
( Vide p 486 of History of Indian Logic by Vidyabhushan). He also hailed 
from Punyastambha or Puntambe. The real history of the contribution of 
Maharastru, to Sanskrit learning is yet to be written. For this purpose 
we must fix up the chronology of every author belonging to different 
centres of learning in Maharastra, whose works have come down to us and 
are represented by manuscripts in pupho libraries and in private coll- 
ections, which remain still untapped. 

i Yiio p. 578 of SLitrj e/Ssntnt Pcdvej bj P. V. Kate.EcmUy, 13SL 

16. Chronology of Dharmapradipa And Bhojavyakarana 
Composed Under the Patronage of Rao 

Bhojarajaof Kaccha — A D. 1631-1645* 

Dr. P V. Kane makes the following remarks about a King of the 
name Bhoja in his History of DharmasOstra Vol I, ( 1930 ) — 

Page 879 — "There is a work named Dharmapradipa by Bhoja 
( Deccan College No 26 of 1874-75 ) It is a work by 
another Bhoja later than 1400 a d , as it quotes 
VijSanesvara and the MadanapHrijata. It was composed 
by an assembly of Pandits at the bidding of King Bhoja 
of Asapura, Son of Bharamalla . The MS was copied in 
Samvat 1695 (i. e. 1638-39 a. d )" 

Page 569 — " ^nIh^i 1 of ^rtei composed between 1400 and 1600 a. d " 
Page 719 — c irfc^r son of MKU^ ; King of ^^3. Between 1400-1600 
A. d . author of ^nfa^ta " 

As Dr. Kane has not identified the kings Bharamalla and his son Bhoja 
it is necessary for me to record the following evidence which throws 
some light on the chronology and history of these Kings — 

The Bombay Gazetteer, Vol V (Bombay, 1880), pages 136-137 gives 
us the following information about these Kings of Gutch and their chrono- 

Rao Khengar I of Cutch — A. D 1548-1585. 
RaoBharmall—A D 1585-1631. 

During his reign the Government of Gujarat passed from 
Ahmadabad Kings to the Mughal Emperors Ho was one 
of the greatest Zamindars of Gujarat. He died in a. d 1631. 
Rao Bhojaraj—A. D. 1631-1G15. 

Bharmal was succeeded by Bhojar&j, who ruling till 1645 
i.D was succeeded by his nephew Khengar II. 

• Poena Orkntalijt, XVI. Noj. 1-1. pp 

L. Aufixcht m t V i j tha folio Wng entries about DharmapratRpi and IU author la hlj 
CulJU£-i Cu-'ai^erum, Part I, p 203 — 

" tl^lfn by BhojiJiva of Kacha D A 13. B 3. 01 ( BhoJ-iraji ). 

Pjj* kO — a ITT-fvT. lox of Bhiraailb, Kln^ of Kacoi Wl^lq " 

Chronology of Dharniapradlpa 141 

I have no doubt that Bhojaraja, the reputed author of the work Dharma- 
pradipa (MS of a. d. 1638) is identical with Eao Bhojaraj of Cutch ( A. D. 
1631-16:15). Unfortunately the Bombay Gazetteer gives no information 
about the biography of Bhojaraja or his literary interests. It appears, 
however, that he had some interest in literature and patronised some 
authors. Though the work Dharmapradipa x is stated to be the work of 
Bhoiaraja it was composed by an assembly of pandits as stated by Dr. P. 
V. Kane. 

The B. 0. B. Institute" MS No 26 of 1874-75 begins aa follows.— 
" %ft vmsm *w. u sft grreng^ *m . it 

qV<j\i*wuawJii^dw«ai<i{OTRrtvF5rc : 
a*q^^;rat*ft§F«a%4<a<ft ^wmi foam: u ^ u 

^?tri^: ^aviit^ra ^h|^ *^ftoftfa: \ 

&^S^ray i*$is*<w u frftsrere: $€t it m ii 

^nqtjyreTOreregreft £Rtfa gqn feg grater 

u ^ u etc " 

The MS ends on fol. 5G a t— 

1. VUop. 01 CiLJejjc of XSS In prwato hbraricj la Gujirat, Ca*cJx etc., Paw UL 
lS7i~ll3 So. 163 ci iqifa<lq of VJFOT3 in tlu PaUco Library at Bhu] Indict ( ".J3W. 
■U^mtif^" ) Lt ttccidol by Babkr but tfu US bor« uo da'.=. 

142 Studies in Indian Literary History 

sutler wr^rat qRwy *rha n ? n 

^gt ^fara^tre^ g^fo^^^iglife.a 11 1 || 

The foregoing extracts from the beginning and end of the MS of 
Dharmapradipa supply us the following information about its author — 

(1) 2sapurH was possibly the tutelary deity of BhojarGja, the author 
of the Dharmapradipa 

(2) AsQpurd was identical with the goddess Parvatl, consort of God 

(3) King Bharamalla was the father of King Bhoja He was deeply 
devoted to God Siva and was a patron of poets. 

{4) BhojarUja or King Bhoja was also a patron of poets like his 

(5) The work Dharmapradipa was composed by an assembly of 
Pandits gathered from different quarters by the express order of 
King Bhoja 

(6) The colophon states that Dharmapradipa was composed by Jiao 
Bhojaraja ( " TTT sft sfcrcra " ) son of Rao Bharamalla 

(7) The colophon states that first copy of the Dharmapradipa was 
made in Vikrama Samvat 1095 ( " 5TT,3{^,to, *£") = A. D. 1G30 
at Bhujapura which is evidently the town of Bhuj, the capital of 
Catch, where Eao Bhojaraja was ruling ( A . D 1631-1615 ). This 
was evidently a contemporary copy of the work Dharmapradipa* 

Chronology of Dharmapradlpa 143 

The -work itself, composed by pandits by the order of Bhojaraja, 
can be assigned to the period of about 7/8 years — A. D. 1631 to 
1639 if the dates of Bao Bhojaraja given by the Bombay Gazetteer 
are correct 

( 8 ) The B. 0. R. Institute MS of the Dharmapradipa, No. 26 of 
1874-75, was copied in Vikrama Samvat 1726 ( a. d. 1070 ) or 
&aha 1591 at Bhujanagar ( modern Bhuj ) by a scribe of the 
na m e Govardhana. 

From the foregoing data we can easily conclude that the work Dhar- 
mapradipa was composed between A. D 1631 and 1639 and was subsequen- 
tly copied m the years A. D. 1639 and 1670 at Bhujapura or Bhujanagara 
( = modern Bhuja ) the capital of Cutch in Kathiawar. Both the 
Kings of Cutch viz. Bharamalla and his son Bhojaraja were patrons of 
learned men. Works and authors mentioned in the MS of Dliarmapradipa 
are as follows — 

^"frrqftfcre, ercros, *i«u<h, ^uh**^ 1*3, ^, sjjstostc, f^R<at 
( foL 4 ), jftfin?, ^t, hVw, m, ?mz, im, $w f qi^, ^^ zm^f, srreifo, 
^ftonsj^^sw ), snaraq, *jg, immi- wssw, «5ife?tgiiot, ^i^s^t, 

<F3*n, 5^ «N?ra, w^ «fc*ra, nfajnk, f^ncfe^T, gw i$mt «bgr, in^. 

ft<$*rofot, *&sswn, tostswh, irftft, vms, ^3^, 4twt^ ^fa, *nWi°i! 
i^fcftww, *%ai ^f^ftxnc, 4 um w , y&m<( M t etc. 

Aufrecht makes the following entry in his Catalogue Catalogorum 
part I, p. 418 — ' 

" *?t3«u-tw grammar, written in the reign of 

Bhojadeva of Each, by Vinayasagara. 

— B. 3. 16. 

— Bikaner 268, 

— Gu4. 

— "W. 1636 " 

■L VUa p. 533 of P Y. K^'* HUUay cI D W^tio, Vol I ( 1020 }. Dr. Kan, yl^ j 

144 Studies in Indian Literary History 

MS " Gn 4 " is identical with MS No 82 of 1871-72 in the Govt. 
MBS Library at the B OB Institute. This MS begins as follows — 

stolid III y^WMUKK. l 

The MS ends — 

g ft*mtit3d*i*f r gfa ^rt^nraV 

*T3*T JRTlfer fttpftdlH^W: II 

^fa sAf^jqHinfhnv^rmfg?^ sfhri^Trenw <jg)^f% qzubi ii ^ ii ii ssra; 

i<^<s m ^qre gfc o sgfa tV<lr *r>3ra\ *raiatafao ' 

This MS is a copy made for Buhler in Samvat 1928 ( — 1872 A. D. 
from some old MS in Gujarat. 

It is clear from the extracts given above that the BhojavijUkarana 
is a work on grammar composed by Vinayasagara, pupil of Kalyanasagara, 
by the order of Ling Bbojaraja son of Bharamalla 

I have no doubt that the Bhopraja son of Bharamalla mentioned by 
Vinajasagara as his patron king is identical with Bhojaraja the reputed 
author of the Dharmapradlpa composed between A D. 1631 and 1638 as 

I have shown above. 

The Bhojanjikirana 1 was composed while Bhojaraja was ruling as 

1. Vldo p. 115 of S'ji'emi of Saiu-'rii Gramn ar by 8 K Bclvalkar, Pooaa 1915. 
Dr BJvaUar ot^rtLg — 

" B*j>j2v<,i -uranj Ij \ u ^• J ii^nJara — written for tbo benefit of a Klntj Bhoja, eoaof 
•Q', .^ t-i1Ti. Tb'i vrorV hlo thj abo\e, U ma'rical ia form. fclloTring tho usual topical 
Viiaji*is»ra U tia author of tbb worx and not Vuiajiiundura te stated b7 
Dr. EUraluir. 

Chronology of Dharmapradlpa 145 

stated by Vinayasagara. As this king ruled between s. D. 1631 and 1645 
•we may fix np the date of the Bhojavydkarana between A. D. 1631 and 

Prof H. D. Velankar records the following MSS of the Bhojavyaka- 
rana in his Jmaratnakos' a (B. 0. E. Institute, Poona, 1944) — 

Page 299 — "wfa&iv?vn ( Gram 2000) by fejpTHFT? of AScala Gaccha. 

BO p 43 ; Buh. II, No 82 ; CC I. p 418. JB. 161 ; JG p. 

293 ; Limdi No 1187 " 

On p. 247 of the Jmaratnakosa Velankar records a work called cc *u*RW 

<^H1H " by Kalydm^Hgarasxlri of the Ancala Gaccha. Most probably this 

Kalydnasagara is identical with KalydriasHgara, the guru of Vinayasagara 

who composed the Bhojavyakarana between A. D. 1631' and 1616. 

The data recorded in this paper will, I hope, be found nseful in fixing 
the chronology of any other works of Bhojaruja, Vmayasagara and Kalya- 
nasagara, if they come to light hereafter. At any rate I have fixed up 
Within narrow limits the dates of the Dharmapradlpa and the Bhojavyaka- 
rana, which were left undecided by other scholars. 

The Prasaattsamgraha ( ed by A. M. Shah, Ahmedabad ), Part II 
contains the f ollowing dated pra'saslis in which Kuly&nasdgara is men- 
tioned . — 

Page 187— MS of Samiat 1678 ( = A. D. 16SS) -it was pre- 
sented to %^iui*wu«i<l J 3T ( mentioned as " a ^qmxj ifvr- 
*ra" ) by aFTFE of ^pRTR ( modern Bhuja ). 
Page 188 — MS of Samvat 1678 (= A.D. 1622 )- copied by sjRSTmr 
when <*<»*uuiUl»K«{te* was ruling at o^cNJmj, 

Page 195 —MS of Sarnvat 1684 ( = A.D. 1628) - it was presented by 
^-^I'nilf^M+^iiJiOTro^fir to *Rf«5 for study. 

Page 209 — MS copied at g^HH ( Bhuj ) in Sarnvat 3698 ( = A.D. 
1612 ) when q^TTOSFTT^fr was ruling at q -^&KZ , 

It will be seen from the above dated prasa3ti3 that Kaltjana3ilgara, 
the guru of Yina> asagara, the author of Bhojavyakarana, was livin* 
between A. D. Ib22 and 1661. * ° 

Part II of the Pra'sastisamgraha contains the following prasastis 
mentioning RRqemr . — 

Page 136 — A MS was copied in Samiat 1670 (=■ A, 2). 1620 ) by 
5WUWK, pupil of fkwmiH . 

146 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Page 195 — A MS was copied in Samvat 1683 (= A. D. 1637 ) and 

presented to fe«wum^ifoT 
Page 193 — A Ms was copied in Samvat 1667 ( = A. D. 1611 ) by 
f^TSTPRgft at f&t ^JR } when sr^ifiH qifafli? was ruhng. 

VtnayasQgara mentioned in the above prasastis dated A. v. 1611, 
1620 and 1627 was contemporary of Kalya.nasd.gara, who was living bet- 
ween A. D. 1622 and 1661. It is possible to suggest that this Vtnayasagora 
is identical with Vinayasclgara, the pupil of KalyQnasfigara, who com- 
posed the Bhojavyakarana between A. D. 1631 and 1615. More definite 
evidence is, however, required to prove the identity of Vinayasagara of 
the prasastis with his namesake, the author of the Bhojavyakarana. 

17. Authorship and Antiquity of a Stanza with 

Paleographlc Imagery in the Text Of the 

Mahimnastotra * 

Having published a paper on the History of Ink-manufacture, m 
India I developed some interest m the literary references about writing 
materials frequently found in Sanskrit sources. "While reading the popular 
hymn to God 6wa called the Mahimnastotra, -which is recited by some 
devout people every day, I was much charmed by the following stanza 
whioh contains in the form of sublime imagery references to writing 
materials viz. (1) ink, (2) pen and (3) palm-leaf or birch-bark and (4) 
mk-pot : — ■ 

( God S^iva 1 even though the Goddess of Learning ( Sarada ) continues 
recording perpetually your good qualities " on the leaf in the form of the 
earth with pen in the form of the branch of the heavenly tree and ink 
made of a mountain of black soot dissolved in. the ink-pot in the form of 
the river Indus, she will not be able to exhaust all your qualities ) 

In view of the sublime imagery of paleographio interest contained 
• in the above stanza I began to investigate the antiquity and authorship 
of this stanza. In the first instance I wanted to satisfy myself that this stanza 
is a genuine part of the Mahimnastotra itself. "While my investigation was 
going on I happened to read the edition of Aparoksanulhava ( with Jaya- 
raraasvami Vadgaonkar's metrical commentary in Marathi ) by V. L. 
Bhave, Thana, 1905. This edition contains the Sanskrit toit (in verso ) of 
the Aparoksanubhava ( also called AparokstinubhUti ), the authorship of 
which is ascribed to 6amkarac5rya ( 8th century A, D. ). Tho Marathi com- 
mentary was composed by Jayaramasvaini, who flourished between A. D, 
1300 and 107 a ( vide p. 8% of Madhyayuglna Canlrakoia by S. Chitrav 
Shastri, Poona, 19tf). 

Jajaramasvami (= JS) has divided his Ularathi commentary in 12 
Praka ranas. The 11th Praf>arana ends as follows: — 

* £ter-.M„a Tiu^,\cL XII < 1551 ), $;? 1SMU 

148 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Page 82 — " qftw ?tc"V ^qf I 

g^Rnrecrnrc srai^ilH^il" 

Commentary • SHRor yw<I si^uif II 

Page 84 — Prakarana 12th begins — 

^w«s=u*indl %^ft q^ff i 

a^fir <re jpiRitftar qR 5T ^ifcf n ^« 11 " 
Commentary. — " ws H^K q^r s^pa i 

f^cpE TTCTt %§ 3&T5IaS I 

fifr^ >^f qr^i sra^ i 
^rfter %qos ^=g«ra?r u q, u 
J55qf ficnf^n «w»<.m i 
snfa ^Vi%n u+aj^ttri 1 
jp^faqr ^afton jej^jtt i 
q^r %*jn ^rc^ft w&s u v» ii 

^Ifft 1?( ^ ^ro^t i» <s n " 

This occurrance of the stanza " arterafhf^ra " from the popular test of 
the Mahtmnaatotra m the text of the Aparoksanubhava came to me as a 
surprise but the commentary of this stanza bs JS ( A.D. 1599-1672 ) ' 
pleased me as it proved the following points connected with my inquiry. — 

(1) JS(AJD 1599-1672) had before him a MS of Aparoksanubhava 
with the stanza " BTfadfilfUw " as part of the test. 

(2) This stanza was in existence about A.D 1600 irrespective of the 
question of its authorship 

"With regard to the authorship of the stanza we have now to answer the 
following questions t— 

(1) Does this stanza form a genuine part of the Mahlmnastotra ? or 
(2) Does it form part of the Aparoksunubhava of 6amkaracarya ? These 
questions can be answered by examining all known MSS and printed 
editions of the Mahimnastotra and the AparoksdnubhUti ("bhava). To begin 
with I shall record below the results of my examination of the material 
avad^ble to mo . — 

Paleographic Imagery in. Mahininastotra 119 

(I) Mahimnaatotra — The Govt MSS Library at the B. O.E. Institute 
possesses the following MSS of the Stotra. — 

(1) Text with commentary by Krsna-nrpa — No. 742 of 188G-02 
— The stanza " stfaaftifohr " is given on folio lib as No. 32. 
Stanza No. 33 — " j j^-n i-H -4- " ^ the last stanza of the test. 
The commentary explains only stanzas No. 31 and 33. There ts 
no Commentary for Stanza No. 32. 

(2) Test with commentary — No. 645 of 1883-84 — On folio 11 the 
stanza " aiftrafhfism " is found as No. 32 with the following 
commentary . — 

fejfe gc^Tq gra jynwi m. ^ *nfe [\ \\ U " 

( 3 ) Test with commentary— No. 539 of 1891-95— On folio 17 
the stanza " gt fatifa P ffl H " appears as the last stanza ( No. 32 ) 
of the text with tha following commentry. — 

^nvn g^pft w^ u nf% ^tt^i «iv4^ ^€i re i*£tsn ^twerer fe^fcr ji s^fr 
?p* jjoitct qiT ^ 'Rife u ^ u " 

This commentary is practically a copy of that in MS No. G45 of 

1883-81 recorded above. 

( i ) Madhusiidana SarasvatI has commented on the Mahimnastotra . 
I have examined the following MSS of his commentary — 
No. 275 of 1334-37— dated &aka 1717 ( = AJ). 1825 )— Copied 
at sgffs* ( = Satara ?). The stanza " <afactfhft*w " is not found 
in this MS. There is also no commentary on it by Madhusiidana 

No. 75 of A 1870 SO — Text with commentary. Neither the stanza 
' 4 sifaafnftsra " nor its commentary is found m the MS. 

No. 33 ofl33J-34 — Text with commentary of Madhusiidana Sara- 
svatI. The last three stanzas of the text axa the following — 
( * ) <c ffJT^n^rrai &{&*: n ^ u 

(\)' 1 §**Trqfvn^ y^uufo It \} u " 

( ? ) " tafaafafaro ... .. . j£a to n *ifa \\ \< u '» 

( V ) " «l3^3g^'^...' ^faf^CT: tl }H It " 

15Q Studies in Indian Literary History 

It -will be seen from the above extract that the verse " srfe- 
^foro " is found in this MS among verses which are not 
accompanied with the comment of Madhusudana Sarasvatl. 
The attempt of the copyist to explain away the non-mclusion 
of these four verses in the body of the text of the Stotra 
accompanied with the commentary by his own endorsements 
viz. ( 1 ) " em^te: etc. " and ( 2 ) " i^^T ^$1 etc. " is 
futile and confirms our suspicion about their genuineness. 
No. 159 of 1881-88 — Text with commentary of Madhusudana 
Sarasvatl. The last stanza of the text is — "5*f*I ^ ( ; v?R ? ) 
^Ifll . . .wfan " followed by the endorsement " sm ^srte: 
W^^ld^d: ^pm^fa s?qr *T3" " but without commentary. The 
stanza " srftrafnfare " is absent in this MS so also any 
commentary on it is not traceable 

No. 206 of 1902 07 — Text with commentary of Madhusudana 
Sarasvatl. The MS is dated &aka 1736 ( = A.D. 1811 )— 
The last stanza of the text is the same as in MS No. 159 of 
A 1881 82 The endorsement following the stanza is also the 
same as in MS No. 159 of A 1881-82 The stanza " orferafhft- 
H*T '' and its commentary are absent in the MS 

The absence of Madhusudana Sarasvati's commentary on the stanza 
" 9*ftrafrtfTO*T " m the above four MSS leads me to believe that the text 
of the Mahunnastotra known to him as genuine did not contain this stanza. 
( II ) Aparoksanubhava ascribed to Samkarclccirya 

With a view to seeing if the stanza " 3rf?rafnft?w" of the Mahunnasto- 
tra forms parts the Aparoksanubhava ( or "bliRti ) I have to record below 
the result of my examination of the following MSS of this work in the 
Government MSS Library at the B 0. E Institute — 

( 1 ) MS No. S16 of 1892 95— Text with the Comm. of Vidyaranya ( c. 
A D 1350 ) — Contains 147 verses of the text. 

( 2 ) MS No 111 of 1902 07 — Text with Comm of Vidyaranya — Hi 
stanzas only of the text plus 3 extra stanzas. 

( 3 ) MS No 303 of A 1SS1-S? — Commentary called fagTHfcmRjvft by 

Balagoplla on Hi stanzas of the text. 
( 1 ) MS No 073 oflSS7-9l — Text only — 143 stanzas. 

Paleographic Imagery in Mahimnastotra 151 

( 5 ) MS No. 130 of 18S3-81 — Text only — 1-13 stanzas. 
' ( 6 ) MS No. 112 of 1002-07 — Text only — 145 stanzas — MS dated 
Saka 1643 { = A.D. 17 Si) 
( 7 ) MS No 3 of 1919-24 — Text with verse for verse comm. in 

Maruthi by Vamana — 144 stanzas. 
(8) MS No 741 of 1891-95 — Text with comm. called ' qtaftfasi ' 

which refers to the work " ^S^rfta " ( folio 27 ) — 142 stanzas. 
( 9 ) MS No. G56 of 1882 S3 — Text with Vamana's MarathI comm. 

( same as No. 7 above ) — 144 stanzas. 
{10) MS No 640 of 1887-91 — Text only— -MS dated Samvat 1837 

( = A.D. 1781) — 144 stanzas. 
(.11) MS No 589 of 1884r87— Text only— MS dated Samvat 1866 

C = A.D. 1810 ) --l<Us stanzas. 
(12) MS No. 626 of Vis I — Text with the comm. (ftj^oi) f 
" P wMV . K U H d-' ** " —144 stanzas — MS dated 6aka 1685 
( = A. D. 1763) — The commentator refers to god Yithoba of 
Pandharpur ( q<j(hr ) on the last folio 148. 

None of the above MSS of the text of the AparoksHnubhilti and the 

commentaries on it by Vidyaranya (c. A. D. 1350) and others contain either 

the text or commentary of the stanza of the Mahimnastotra viz. ''sf fadlTlKKfl " 

etc. I am, therefore, inclined to behove that this stanza did not form part 

of the AparoksHnubhfttt, though JayaramasvamI (A. D. 1599-1672 ) had 

before him a MS of the Aparok§HnubhUtt with this stanza incorporated 

into it as he comments in MarathI verse on this stanza considering it as 
genuine part of the text i 

In the light of evidence recorded so far about the textual history 

of the stanza m the popular S'lvamahtmnastotra viz. ''sri^raftlfterr mi 

*T *nfe " the following inferences can be tentatively drawn . — 

(1) This stanza is possibly an interpolation in the text of the 

(2) This stanza is also an interpolation in the text of the Apa- 
rok^anubhiUt available to JayaramasvamI ( A. D. 1599-1672 ) 

for his Ma rathI commentary in Oil metre. 

1. I ha\o tot cxaalcc<J all Uu^priatU culidonj of tho Aparok^aubhuU. Tha followicg 

cditioas cnniacd by zao do not ccatiin tho Siaari " 3 lfed , R [ftgq " c'c or its 
comrr.i alary — 

(.1) SanJarioIrya'a HbctlUneouj WoiIcj. VoL n, Uywrc, X633 — pp. 1-57 — T«i 
■with \idjixaKjtt*a Comnu^iUry, 

(li) Petti EJitka. B^aba), 1353-Tcxt i.jth eoata. or Vidjiranya (Print*! ia J:wiJlmr«* 
litbo ?tta). 

152 Studies in Indian Literary History 

(3) The authorship and the exact date of the composition of this 
stanza is so far unknown but it was in existence between A. D. 
1599 and 1672, as JayaramasvamI comments on it 

(4) Perhaps the stanza formed part of some other Stotra or was 
a stray Subhd§tta available for indiscriminate insertion in any 
text according to the caprice of a copyist or a devotee, who was 
charmed by the beauty of imagery contained in the stanza. 

(5) This stanza has a clear antiquity of more than 850 years. 

I await more documentary evidence for or against the inferences 
tentatively drawn by me on the basis of the data recorded in this paper. 

18. Studies In the History Of Dietetics — References to 

" Avaranna " in the Dharmasutras Of 
Baud hay ana and Apastamba And The Qrhyasutra Of 
Apastamba — ( Between b. o. 600 and a. d. 6C0 ) * 

In my paper on " Vardnna " and its history from the 7th century 
a.d. np to 1800 a.d. I tried to establish the following equation : — 
q*lW mentioned by *v f w^rra mentioned in sieFiaJTS 

the Jam author of / „_ \ {c.A.D.625) 

q<i^n qfre ( ~ "j and in sieft^^t 

{7th Cent. J.D.) J L {8th or 9th Century AJ).) 

= q^ra - mentioned by the Marathi -writers, Ekanatha 
( A.D. 1683-1599 ), by Muktesvara ( c.A.D. 1599 
-1619 ), by Eimadaaa [AJ). 1608-1682). 
= q*oi mentioned in sftaiNfttf ( Marathi ) of c.A.D. 
1250, in ^teu-ija ( Marathi ) of C.A.D. 1450, in 
Moropant's works ( A.D. 1729-1794 ). 
I further pointed out that the term " signal " of the AstQi'igasaritgraha 
( c.a.d. 625 ) has been explained by Indu in his commentary ( between 
c A.D. 700 and 900 ) as " fq^3-*req-<n«^ " i.e. food prepared from split 
grain or pulse. Subsequent commentators like Arunadatta ( a.d 1220} 
and Hemadri ( A. D. 1260 ) support Indu's explanation and clarify it by 
giving examples. According to Arunadatta the 3Wl«f was made of mtf 
and other grains evidently in the form of pulse or "fq^" 1 which Dallana 
(o.a.d 1100) explains as " snft\TRl-?nqqq:. " 

Since the publication of my paper I was in search of the usages of 
the term "Mqrra" in sources earlier than A. D 600 to enable me to learn 
the antiquity of this term in Indian dietetic terminology current before 
A.D. 600. Fortunately I have been able to trace the following usages of 
"cpRra" much ear lier than I expected in non medical - works * — 

* Puctta Qrut tain!. VoL XII ( 1313 ) rp. 1-0. 
1. Caro.^aai7 tii ( N. S. Prcj, Mil, pp. 150-457— fefqrSPWR VII, 137 ) mentions 
tho term $&& ( " t^: Jfcqiq: 3l«Tt 5[tqT fs$& HHiJq^MliJ," ) whlcl Is cipLJutd by 
CiirarirJdatta ( C. 10CO A.D. ) as follows-— 

0. In.cojJU!o,f tcajcwfcrt^&jtolhJtLrsa "R^B" ari "s^B" Ia-r.sT7 of Icda'» 
cqsit'cacr ZFKm with " fq^-g^q-STrt^. 3 ' 

( CcuUiued en 'U iiezip^a ) 

154 Studies in Indian Literary History 

( 1 ) Haradatta in his commentary on the Mval&yanagxhyasiXtra 
( Trivandrum, 1923 ) Chap I, KJianda 7, SUtra 1 ( p 33 )— 
" q#ra5<mr\ tjst ^R^< ^ht qe^Rr m 3* frn^a^rat *n II i n " 
mentions ' c antra " along with t%K } 55^1, as •will be seen from the follow- 
ing extract 

" ^HP*«for q^fo^^5fa• ?RqnfapT5^i fa*rrc *rcr **&** rr&mst <rfN^ • 

( Continued from the preceding page ) " 

(i) Sulruta Sainhita, N S. Pwbs, 1938 ( -d^Kd'H, Chop. 64 versa 1 ) refers to " Tflq- 
{^21^-fq^," Dallana explains fqST^T = d u ^riffelf3[ and f%^53 = H^yif^ — Dallana in his oom- 
maati on para G of Ohap 20 of *^*TR ( p 95 ) mentions "t^H 1 ^" ( y$(l<^5 3<t«£t^<J ). 
Sulruta rofen to "%^5T." in Sulrasthhna, Ch 46.27— 

" ti^H^^i^H^a^<^a^^w+tidlH%d^ u ^U'Ajp3^qr%^r- II ^ II " 

Dallana explains — 

qrw^ngr JFft qg^rfo T^rft ^ II " 
W^Q tfta^r g^rftg ftfa:, !w 3^3 
HiM^ri^i^: ^ faffing, ji fir !r %«t n ^«> || » 

(It) K. II, Vaidya la his 3ia|4|^q#T (Trichur, 13SG, p 32 ) oxplalns " 3TTOv[ " 
o£ STCFT^I ( *f&° <i ) aa " f^TsTH." which ho apeoifios by tho following varaea — 

n« farther qaolc3 Bhj.iamiha ( .\, V 15S0 ) — 

" sifrnn: fernn: Knft*reT: ^=qr^%^i: " 

and ( on p 2SC ) ho equate* " ^JJJ." of 3MJJ^T ( H3 ^\ ) with ^feft ( Haratbl 213) 
and quot<.j 2f9e» ; — 

Xho qFFFifa for ^r?I la given by VfflfiW In tha verses — 

" ^T3t 3 efeci w?i yi'Jii^-tftfgm: I sg^r ^himI w^ etc " 

1. Yidj D R. Pa til'* rematki on i*<^d-^rL.uu La his Cultural Ilii'ory from Vzyupunna 
( I'oc-a, 101C, p, ill ). I co'a como poinu from lhe_4 remarks in the following labia -— 

( Ccn'muid en the nez'.pa^e ) 

Beferences to " Avaranna" 155 

The quotation " f^g^f . ...<tfT33a" has been traced by me in the 
MWii^ ft {Patala III, Khanda 8, SMraZ) edited by Cinnaswami 
Sastti, Kashi Sanskrit Series, Benares, 1928, p. 114, where it occurs as 
follows with its explanation by the commentators Haradatta and Sudar- 
sanacarya • — 

Haradatta explains . — 

" qraqsjifirenr tUaw nfa^s- %u<iR«£ attq- srawnfr *lfrftviF?nfa mm- 
^ftft $mwvq tfe ■am.t^mft fo qfrgiira ^aqf^ fora:." 

Apastamba prohibits the use of ScTR, S^ot and srmw in a homa to be 
performed by a house holder. According to Haradatta ( C.A.D. 1100 accord- 
ing to Hadhyayugina Cantrakosa, Poona, 1937, p. 820 ) the term "«&T&", 
means "^sft vn^r" (seeds produced m pod or legume) like *m etc. and 
" ^i ^1^ " ( black or inferior grain ) like 'qure, ^t^r etc. I believe this 
explanation of "srarra" by Haradatta is in agreement with the explanation 
of Indu who calls it "fo^f-s^T-ora" i.e. food prepared from split grain or 
pulse. As a matter of fact we prepare in our cookery gxnr or ^n l of the 
pulses of ?nq, =3^5 etc. SudarsanHcHrua' 1 explains the Sutra of Apastamba 
referred to above as fo llows — 

( Contuuedfroni the preceding page ) 
Rgitda — T^T and Ml*^ mentioned — IW reference* to food grains — 
Food-preparation* — 

afr^r, gra^r, 5^=t, m&ifl, ansjr, qfo and srr?. 

23r j/.u onai-intf, UW-Mfj R13, 'T^JT> HPT mentioned — Oil from f^I 

JiUUs— Fic-'i ctors mentioned aio— 31^7, iftllj, cF 3 ^, ?&, ^T^T, ^ESFT, gi7I } 

^ra, fe, o^r, xrr, 3toP, foa?^, ?fa, arf^j, a^HAt- — 

Sugar-cane and its juica — Salt-muiera mentioned. 
Atitt&slra — Elabora'e account 

1 Prof K.B Kuliainl in Hi Y'jMpzi'^Li (1917, p. C12) maie* tho following entry 
aboat^jj] ;__ 

" *rci — h. ferf^qr srat^i q^*t. a diah of buIm. 

«. ^R -t- 3^vT JJ3 3^ ST^R tHrj,dl-K'J| ^R 5RT3 3T3TC." 
Prof. Kulkarai * tiatcrneat that the original word Zfttl may hava beca later Eamirltiitd U 
act Icrne est by tie hUtcry cf thf« ^rcrd and its uiagci In different fore* lilo 3^^RIvf, sTISI 
a~d ^10] a* recorded la tiU fajrer and tno pwtlonj ono on till subject From 3T^IvI tU word 
W3 waj derived aniHrcia 3*15?, tbellaraial q^. 

2. Tkoda'ocf S-A.rf'wnicifja has act bicn exactly determined. According to my otidcaca 
aoii^io' ^n iD ]~.0und(»r i(r .«n A.D JCia) Eeis'aivr tiaa EarJ.dc"j., wbcm ha 
<icctc» and rdctcj. and tailiet tiaa Kama'-uurabbatfa. tbo an'fccr of ZtrE~',M\niir.J, (A.D. 

( CcnJi-T-ii en ';.* r*:rf ja^ ) 

156 Studies in Indian Literary History 

*ky^ifa wrfasfaqt ^V*r sr^rf^R ^qfawftni - " Raqi^qdH. 

qfcnjra " ii } II 

feqr «rgq§* argq^fr^r =g itit fttmm ztti ^tm ^ flrei. qfcg$R* gsfafer 

w<K a**n^r ?rr*qT ?? sto^rfofa sfa: | " 
SudarsanQciZrya practically repeats the explanation of " aH<ra " given by 
Haradatta, whom he quotes and onticizes at times in his commentary as 
observed by the Editor in his Introduction, p. 7. The term '' qfererFq " of 
Sudarsanclcctrya appears to be identical with " eg tefoiiwr " of Haradatta. 
It is clear from the explanations of these commentators, who are later than 
about A. D. 1100 that the term " arerra " means pulse-grams used in 

In continuing his comment on SUtra 8 referred to above Sudarsancl- 
curya refers to a passage in snT^P^nR^T whioh refers to " STWTTvT " as 
follows — 

3?r ^-im-i 5 *, i\ ) ?(a etc. " 

The Sutras of Apastamba quoted by SudarsanacQrya in his comment are 
identical with the following Sutras in Buhler's Edition of Apastamba- 
DharmasUtra ( B. S. Series, Poona, 1932 ) — 
II, 6, 15, — Sutras 14 and 15 — 

dM N<W ^g^r ^ H 3>A II" 
On p. 179 we get the following extracts from Haradatta's commentary 
regarding the meanings of l '$fn" and " zmws " : — 

" ?«. *mz ^t<^totdi q^qat cn^hqara: g^ ^rrcn, n 

w ami>«( gt?r<nf^ a;a^m^*q jtRt ^ Orzrefr n " 
This explanation of Haradatta about " enrcia - " agrees with his explana- 
tion of this term occurring in snqwq-^njl^T as we have seen above 

It will thus be seen that through the favour of Haradatta I have 
been able to trace the term " snRra' " in the ( 1 ) STPT^*q *l#H;A and ( 2 ) 
srmarq-tr&jq as well These usages of the term " snrei^l " are further 

corroborated by the qrvrrcra*ra^£T ( Mysore, 1907 ) Pra'sna IV, Chap. 7, 
SUtra 7 as follows — 

( Ccn'utUid/rum tin ^needing page ) 
1613), ,ih.3 is. s* oajSjJjriu/».wIr J .j — Sadiriaaicjrja maatloru ^cqiTfJTC ( po-jlbly of 
MM* — C. A-D 11 J0-12J0 ) uxi tg^f^ "J ^1%!^. 

^References to " Avaranna " 157 

( Prayajcitta3) — " ^^^iwnTRrsrarcwg cPH?^qrg^5 ngms^s- 

Govindasvamin in his commentary on the above SUtra of Bodbayana 
does not explain the term " «rT*ra. " He merely states " twvmfa swi^tfH 

The foregoing reference to " srerna" in the Bodhdyana-Dharma-Siiira 
is very important for my present inquiry as Prof. Kane x has fi\ed up the 
date of this work between B. C, 500 and £00. If this date is correct, the 
history of " arrn«T ", which I have identified with Sanskrit " crcra" and 
Marathi ,c m<n » can bo easily taken back to c.B.C. 500 i.e about 1000 
years earlier than Vagbhata I, who mentions it in his Astahga-Samgraha 
( O iD. 625 ). Buhler m his Introduction to the Apa3tamba-Dharnias&tra 
( p. si ) refers to the " close agreement of the Hiraiyjakesa-DharmasHtra 
with that of the Apastambiyas." Ho further states that the foundation of 
the Htranyakesa school is earlier than Fleet's Pallava Inscription No. XV 
(Indian Anttquary, V, p. 153 ) which belongs to the " end of the 5th century 
A. D." and which mentions a donee " tiw**r qfe<§*n* ". He, therefore, 
asserts positively " that the readings of ^R^r^-i ^q^r, found in the %$*?- 
&T version are at least fourteen hundred years old. Probably however, the 
Miranyakesa school " dates from much earlier times. " 

The Susrutasainhita ( N. S. Press, Bombay, 1936, p. 250 ) mentions 
" enrtra " in SiitraalhUna, Chap. 46, Verse 491, which reads as follows .— 

'HiH. lu<^^ ^fTOTR? =g 7{ HHWl^ II y<u it » 
Dallana ( g.a,d- 1100 ) explains — 

This is the earliest reference 2 to "6T^ra»I have found in medical 
works. I give below a chronological table for the references to 5TRRT, ?m 
and ^ so fir discovered by mo and recorded in my present and 
previous paper on the subject — 

1 %i4aiTu'srjc/J)Mrr-aaj'ra,Yd.IlB.O B. Imtltuio. Pcosa, 1330 ). 

2. Xh, xcLtccco to " 3^^ » fc l!l0 s jtSBga-SaajaLa is an echo cf Sufiu^^u 
Kf^cc Tta A^ia^^nba «{«« to " 3FRT* " M fo!2o .* la C!u r . 10 c£ Sun^Lle* - 


Studies in Indian Literary History 



B. o. 500-200 


Eeference to " sr^ra", ^nT and ^nr in the Bodh 

Eeference to "ererra", $nr and Ss^tt in the 2pastaml 

Eeference to " ar^ra 1 ", $rre and 5*^1 in the 2past 

Eeference to " SRTra " m Susrutasarphtd 
" BTW^rer " mentioned in the Astdhga Saijtgraha 
" WiW " mentioned in the A§t&nga-Hrdaya 
" ^TRT " mentioned in the Var&nga-Carita. 
" «T^mr " explained by Indu as " f^n^-HFT-anr ". 
" «i<«H " explained by Arunadatta as' ' inTif^ ". 
IC bi^KW " explained by Hemadn as " gq '* 
" mm ", ^I^ etc mentioned m Marathi sflcoNf}^, 
" ^n " mentioned in a Marathi work. 
" 3vn " mentioned in Marathi ^r^new 
•' *RI?^ " mentioned by Ekanatha in his Maratl 

poem ^frflaft-*g*pnr 
" ^W^ " mentioned by Muktesvara in his Maratt 

a. d 1729-1794 " ^01 " mentioned in a Marathi work of Moropanl 

Having taken the history of our modern Varana ( with its differen 
apellations sm^i^, <W*, fa^l^r, fir^i-^^-sjPrr ) upto about B c. 500 W' 
are curious to know how this dish was prepared from the different pulse 
called " Vatdalas " by Su'sruta and specified by him as g^, '«M*J<yi, toH 
SjfEi nm, 32JMI, ■qore, H<fH, &$£& , ^oj, sn^ft etc Our curiosity will b( 
sufficiently satisfied if we read the following detailed description of fq^n*S 
fe% ( or preparation of mi from different pulses ) as recorded by kinj 
Somesvara in his encyclopaedic work MCtnasoUQsa 1 (<? Series, Baroda 
Vol. H, 1939 ) in the section called w^i^hr ( pages 115-136 ) — 

Before a. d. 500 
o. A. r>. 625 

c. a. r> 700-900 
a. D 600-700 
A. d. 700-900 

c A. D.1220 

o. a. D. 1260 

o. A. D 1250 

a. d. 1308 

o. A. d 1460 

A. D. 1533-1699 

a. d 1599-1649 

1 Tie data cf thh work U recorded as " A D 1J27 " in tho IJV^jfM ^f&fift! bj 
Ctitia* tahai'rl, Pcona, 1937 p BIT Somi^Tara ruled botween A D 112G-113B. Tho ohaptoi 
oti cooiery ( SHviWI ) recorda many dLhcj both vegetarian and non-vegetarian as current 
laths IXccan and Karnatak In the 12thctntnr> I cote below names of theui dlshu andthc 
e:*'j;iULj L-id la them.— 

( C<.n'inutd en the ntzt $age ) 

References to " Avaranna " 159 

" Tin?renre3*n q"tat ft^n ( qi ) ^smsr qfo || ho ii 

^ i^fa fo ii^ qegi^igg'-jiMiiH^ ant i 

( Continued from the pnviotu page ) 
( a ) **W from dlfforont kinds of rico ( ^f^ff^, JT^RTffe, JI5RT#, 3)f^fi, gogT- 
5TI&, y^Ml fe, ^IRIlfB, qfifti — voreca 5^5-56 ) (6) R<cim<ti from, dlffonmt pulses 
( voreca 57-05 ) , (c)^$ prepared of TRR, Wl, 5iC, fejj, 3TT&5, ^Rtfo, TCtf^fW 
fried in oil, ftqiri-41^, bits of *TW19, " ^: SH^lft" , qft^, HNh^, VllHUi, e&?3J, 
jfcjTC, *PTCnfe etc ( vortca CC-71 ). ( <U qFRt proparcd of qfitqfaq^, ( tf ) JPSTF prepared 
of Tft^TpSfai, SSqoi, Wfe^JT, (/)3 : rTRqlfeTT (82-83), U) gt^cfl (81). (A) M I ^H 
(85), (*) qfoFl(SO) (j), vfa? from tha pulsci of WfJ, HPT, IHIRR and q^PFfi 
( MaratM ^ISM ) , ( 70 qfotf ( Oi-33 ), ( I ) S^fart ( UOO-liOl ). ( m ) tflfcsi (2-3 ),(,») 
qn^M^Z? (i), (o) Other Undsof qZ3i (5-9), (p) ^ftuq&R (3-H), ( 2 ) qqfe^ 
(15-17), (r)=3q#:tf (llUWOMOqfy^ (59-65), (l) m^A-fr (81) and Ita vanotiea 
*jftq* (81). ^7 (83), qW^fSlJ and qfsq:&( 57 ),(u)qr^ift( 83-91 ),(t>) 

apqjpw ( a 2-03 ), ( u ) q%jsi; ( uoo-uoi ), ( x ) shei^t 3? ( i-9 ), ( j ) virc^r (3i), 

(O VTOFTC (W),(ao) ^R5^ (12). (uc) qfe ( 19 ), ( ad )W*mk ( 55 ). ( M ) <tfvT, 

<w, qfcrar, ftrafaft, q*3 ( 1570-1575 ),(«/) «rg^ ( 70-79 ), ( an ) vjtrsRfcn;, ( ah ) 
qrcq; ( et ). uo sr*, q^ and qR^ ( 63 ;, ( aj ) ^ qfe, m^u^ , mu^-h (oi), ( *'.) 
feafoft, irfei?! awra, gh, jgf^rs, irra with *n^, ^vt w itb 5rw. 

Soaoof tlii ip'clal dUheaiu tho abovo ll.t of about ^ D 1140 »ra not found la tho 
ohajUri on ^{^ In tan SafrvU-Samh»U and CataiajasahlO. Yio muit, thoicfow, m 
If tkuy can bo tr»c<J In othsr toarcci, SiaJmi or non-Samirit 

Scn.e va-Va clup'ct ou Vraqtn n^li to bo pjb'tih A with tranOation in Uamhi aad 
£nEUih by ttj Editor cf tL> -^lljn; t^asixu, Bombay. 

160 Studies in Indian Literary History 

3<fa- ^i^rr ( ^n^r ) T^l^i^teimi'lfa II W II 

In this extract we get a beautiful detailed description of the prepara- 
tion of 3Tn Somesvara tells us how the different kinds of pulse-grains 
should be ground in a *R5 and split in a qrsTHct and unhusked by a 3JW 
and then cooked with the addition of ftjrata", ^spft^ ( for colouring, ^^m ) 
and 4fc&. This process current about 800 years ago has practically remain- 
ed unchanged upto the present day. 

I hope some scholars interested in the history of Indian dietetics 
would throw some more light on the history of Varana, 1 which I have 
tried to clarify so far on the strength of Sanskrit and Marathi sources 
available to me. 

1 Tryambaka Nirajuna Mute, a Citpimin Brahmin, refera to Varans proparod from 
2?[ ( Marathl JJJT ) and 3ns*ft ( Marathi t^C ) in his Dharvtalaslra work called tho 3JNlV<£. 
( Jiiaiidiframa, roona, 1909, p. 309 ) aa follows — 

?k&' %'-h\h-hu: a^Jic^Riui: I gJire *m II 
faSwKltf^: *%$ fouiH$\ jp: l 3#% JR0J II " 
Ho alto refers to " <R0Jra\<3 g^ft " . — 

" qyivlfHdl VW ^tcT?I ^atften: I 
«^^^W^'J||^#<<iM41t3 arc, I qTroteggft II " 

Other artlclea of dlot mentioned by this author aro — 

3|fa*4MI 5IOT, JFSFfl SROTj ^1 fe^O (P. 300)— rpqr, jfl^ jftc^, ^T, 

jfn^r^RR:, 3^r% £fRi?j ; *&, viz or qrarr^ ( I ) ; wi, tjftpjqi: ( p. 301 ) — 

V^T, qlf^!, ?FX ^F^ft, ( P. 302 ) ^~ ^T^TT ( P. 29-i ) — STRfcg was compcKd in 

19. An Echo of the Siege of Jinji in a Sanskrit 
Grammatical Work « 

( Between A. D. 1690 and 1710 ) 

Varadaraja, a pupil of Bhattoji Dlksita * lived between o. A. D. 
1G00 and 1660. 2 He composed a Sanskrit conversational grammar called 
the Girvunapadamanjarl 3 in which conversation m Sanskrit on the daily 
life of a Benares Brahmin from morning to night is recorded in a simple 
but amusing stylo to enable junior students of Sanskrit to pick up the 
language quickly without frightening them with dry grammatical forms. 
The only imitation of the Girvunapadamanjarl of Varadaraja, so far as I 
know, is the Girvilnapadamanjarl of Dhundiraja which is called tftaWn- 
"TsriV at the beginnmg of the work. 1 As this work appears to bo an imitation 
of Varadaraja's work of the same name it is evidently later than about 
A. D. 1650. The evidence recorded in this paper tends to shift its date later 
than A. D. 1700 or so. 

The Olrvanapadamanjarl ( Ms No. 345 of 1892-95 ) informs us in 
its five preliminary verses that it was composed by Dhundiraja Eavi, 
resident of Benares. It further states the object of the work viz. to provide 
a sort of conversational grammar to the students of Sanskrit. The subj'ect 
of conversation, which fills the entire work, consists of all the doings of a 
Brahmin householder of Benares from morn till eve. Accordingly the 
work begins with the early rising of the Brahmin After some conversation 
with his wife the Brahmin proceeds for his daily bath to the Manikarniku 
Ghat on the bank of the river Ganges, but before he leaves his house he 
rebukes his indolent son still rolling in his bed The son gets up and 
receives his father's instructions to proceed to the market for some purch- 
ases to be made m connection with the dinner to be given to Brahmins 
at his house at noon. The Brahmin then goes to the Manikamika Ghat, 
recites tho usual Mantras and finishes his bath in the Ganges. He then 

* Jcunul of S. Zl { tttt.iT/, Taajoic. Vol V, No. 3 pp 1-13. 

1. Vldo ay paper oa tho dato of Bhattoji Dlkdta la tha Aar.nh of Tirupall Ori. 
Itttltuto, Vol. I, pp. 117—137. 

!», Vii) ray piper oa Varadaraja la too Festschrift P. V. Kaae, pp 16S-1S3 
3. Far llts ko Auficcht, Cata. GiUlo , p. 151. 

I. Tha B O. K. Icititnta ( Govt Uta library ) pcn-.«3 thrco Mti of Dlraadirija'e. 
trork — ( I ) Ko 21 of 101D— 31, ( 11 ) Mo 315 of 1S32— 05 and >Ja 13 of 1S08— 03 

( dit.4 §aka 170.: -A. D. 1S10 \ M» No 21 of 1910— 2i belonged to cao l ^f^lfll *&fa&\ 


162 Studies in Indian Literary History 

worships the God in the adjoining temple and then goes to a Matha which 
was the dwelling place of Benares Sanyasins There were many Sanyasins 
in this Matha, among whom the Brahmin noticed an old corpulent Sanya- 
sin Bowing low he approached this Sanyasin and invited him cordially 
for dinner that noon. The Sanyasin made inquiries about the caste of his 
host The Brahmin replied that he was a MaMra§tra (Brahmin). There- 
upon the Sanyasin accompanied the Brahmin to his house. The host then 
washed the feet of the Sanyasin, with his own hands and seated him on a 
special seat. The Sanyasin as also other Brahmins assembled were then 
served with sumptuous food. At the conclusion of the dinner the host gave 
a handful of cloves to the Sanyasin, while he distributed Tdmbilla and 
Daksina to other guests, who departed with their blessings for the host 
The Sanyasin then made some inquiries about the members of the host's 
family, including the women-folk. He also inquired about the studies 
conducted by the host in Bengal ( Gaudadesa ) and at Benares Then 
followed an interesting discourse on certain customs which were consider- 
ed evil customs ( Durdcdras ) in different regions of India, for instance 
the southern custom of marrying the daughter of maternal uncle, the 
fish eating by Brahmins of Bengal and the like There was also some 
discussion between the host and the Sanyasin on many matters of mutual 
interest Just before the Sanyasin took leave of his host, the host requested 
him to give him some particulars about his life as a householder. The 
Sanyasin requested his host not to raise this question as it will bring to 
him memories of his past glory, which were very painful. As the host, 
however, was very eager to know something of this past glory the Sanya- 
sin narrated his story as follows — 

Folios 12-13 of Ms i No 315 of 1892-95 ( = A ) 
' srr 151*1^ «rc«i$ ^B^if =EnftJTm H "£* ait i^riwflr stoti^ q^n I sffrrcrr 

1 There U a Ma of tho work iu tho India Offlco Library ( Vida p 1571 of Cata. Port 
VII, 1901 -lUKollM ) 

Thia Ma Lj described as "a colkctlon of eaay continuom watoncea on ordinary domoatio 

cccurrencea intended to icrva oa a primer ani \arionJy called ^I1^IHS1<J, ^iNl^MI'M^il °* 
Tftlijiy-'^HyR-f-.f compiled at B-'narea by Dhundirija, nan of &rlransabha(ta. Tho Ma 
ocdj — 

tfierr pwifanfa ar fan^n. g^un; i s'^n fa^g gmr %&* ^m II " 

2. M* Xo. 21 of 1310— ai = Broada -Jl^l^HR inatfad of ^"UTTO. 

:%o 13 of 15J3-3J ( = ) merely atatca ' HftXZT^ nW.' Noithor ^jff nor qfang?; 

U EuallotuL 

An Echo of the Siege of Jinji in a Sanskrit Grammatical Work 163 

^V( wt )3ftreji ^ i *n«wr I sit nqt <£iHct *q( q )*tqi*qi fere- *tf% 
r^^rpi 5HH1RI stHciqH ^fa'' a^is^r grf^irqi^ 1 sm^T fi[f3*nw 3 nFicr- 

^cT^t 3W 5r£2 «qi ^f^wN RRfct^l ct^I «RHT^ PP£2 **&*&* ^ , 3T V fc"^ 5 ' 

i?sra5'Ercfr3i<n: ( n : ? ) H ferai ^ifaixfotq- Hjqcn: I q^q> ^er: ferai: i q^[q> 
vn ferei. i a?r *wt **&*. q«q$-q: fomr: i $fafi> wnqiuvi: isrezr. fV«rai: i 
ttenq* ^ Ji«^w i: 3ifeg(^)^t fwi- 1 mm srnrnr q^* ^ w|W 1 
gistft 5th ^iqfa qitfta; 1 en: ^ *re «^i^ srfa crcqn ferci 1 aig qjsr «*fct- 
w«qi f^raT 1 ?ren. got: cren nb^r re q<qqta^ t ^»mi ^qisjwq feren 1 
g^pn *ro ^r=qi?ftq ferai 1 m faqi a^n «rfq ^ q«nfq qpicn?. 1 sit "^ *m fqq& 
spfe^t qrctqqi fi=qcm 1 ?n *w qi|qrafa% s%q «n^. 1 circqfq q^&T *rate <Mquq- 
qtft {V«rar t crpn «ysw «i*jq*fta'=E3nf^5 enn errem fqqqsN' ^3 §q srrq% 1 
BTvpnfa w ci^n: wi ^^ cr^i tm *iq ^nPr ^ ^ife 1 af& ^wi ^vrq?** 

dtWW . I eft 1<J «^5 Hc*T5 STcTH: illiyuil ??hER. f%*T^l- I It: HI5 T^TT ^gxil^- 

<srfct ^nj^rn 1 qqq qi^ft erarf^^Ecrar ^fozn mn-bi. 1 sn^fqr ^ q sn*iq nt nf?r 
oriTraT ?w *raqT nqtaifect ?pti ^ef mr n^jnqt H*q w««wik £tfo r<wmm 
qiqnq; 1 cp^ai^ft JT^prr ferar t srqqi sr-nj^mfq' cueq ^wmq *nsra » 
gppr ^rcntfa ?i^ft 5q*it *nqit 1 zfi i=qifaq: ^rent^it l^rf^vja. e^sr 
mm <gz *isra; 1 a=r 1$ $rc<n ^na^ 1 sit stdj I wqi *fw^ f^ ^fafj: 
H? ^fq ^hiPcTt fwt: 1 afei^ setI! ?m n^tiii snuifor. 1 fs^nf '*ni^r ^ • 
afqn; I ^Ik^^mk 1 ' ^atppq wm\ ?r tiot; » wr wJ\r«T 513^1. afqa. i craft 

^qi ^T TIcT (icft-biiuilti, 1 «l€ta ^. ?R ol^WIrC. <i<fc(W< TPm^a^H ' ^ 9^^3ETIVr- 

1 B ' q^r ^qW 3THTW 3I3KTR ^ ' 

2 B *^^HvW ' and C ' g^pn??^R: ' 

3 B, C ( fcfcRRwV 

4 B ' aj'jrerci:' 

5 B ' qi^ra: ' 

6 B f qiof3 J 

7 B adda ' hi sphjai 1 4 ■u^ujq q^n- q^T ^^ ^ tf 3^. i ^Hiqi«hay 

fj^mfell vm U TqjRq ^^q g?q ^giqqrqq^i iTO t M Up l i ft ^3>^r fqmirt It 

S B « ^q^j;' 9 B adda <<&q q^IWi:' 10 B c ^. ' 

11 B, C ' ei^ui^' 12 B « op^qqiq^^ ' 13 B ' ^^iiiiTn ' 
11 B'sjg^i:' 

164 Studies in Indian Literary History 

f feci i *rrafa rr^ten ws^?^' 1 fk*m 3tz i a<n sgqr arate ft^r&icnstj thh^ct- 
7^ a^r 5i^r| fwn^ i qgnp^rehR *m^ i af^rrcvr im ^fa srcfte argent 
5ira i a^ 3%pnM ?t?5T ( are^r ) ^ps^rsr ms i *tj? fetf^mfci Heft* srjjfsaq; i 
<nbr e^neV T$ta: i Tajrf^ wiJid^ i crif ^]fiR: sft5Rcit <ptf sot j^c^t $fcr 
^nf&i ^raifr i «r *m ^t^t w^nfoi 3 snaifa i mdwH^nW ^tote^r ^3rn i wra 1 

5fTfai#<uW+i ^sj qi^ dg<|u^jfcA II 
H^VE 3$ir* ' etc. 
The substance of the above interesting extract is as follows — 

The Sanyasin in his life of a house-holder belonged to "33ft or sftsrpjy 
village m the Karnatak. The Emperor of Delhi had a minister named 
Asatkhan His son Zulfikar Khan started on a military expedition and 
came to Karnatak. At this time this ( Sanyasin ) Brahmin was m his 
company for several days with 2000 horses, 10000 servants, 40 elephants 
and many camels and chariots He had in his house four palanquins and 
several coolies and carts He had in his house sixteen maid servants of 
unparalleled beauty who were extremely devoted to his service His own 
wife was not so beantiful as these maid-servants. One of them was extre- 
mely lovely and for her he developed a special liking She was always by 
his side, possessing, as she did, a sweet voice coupled with a proficiency in 
singing and dancing She was a veritable celestial damsel. Even though he 
had become a Sanyasin a recollection of this damsel unsettled his mind as 
it was no more than a dream. 

Formerly in his honse hundreds of Brahmins were fed. He also fed 
many beggars and others who needed food Daring the days of his power 
no person who wanted anything from him, went away disappointed as he 
granted the requests of every one, who approached him with any object in 
view Such was the glory of the householder of old but now it looked 
like a dream and brought a very painful memory. 

1 B'^:' 2B'gqt' 3 B ^ H fcti fo' 

4 B ' %-^m ' 5 B adds < fwarq.' 

I ha\o not noted all tha variants but only important onea. Though tho toit la incorrect, 
tLs t^ajJ ca-i bj caaily gathered aa the test ia written in tho PaEcatantra pro.a Btylo to a cortaln 
eiUaU ILj matted of teaching Saruirlt competition aa Uluatratcd by tho i\ork3 of Varadarija 
and hla irai-itorDhan.lirija about JiO jLara a^o haa a motLrnLtio touch. It ramaina to Lo 
dlico\i.rwd If our act. ani teachora of saiuknt adopted hinular mi-tboda to cr.ato .omo inttrojt 
aiion,; their aSuL-nta in tha manner of thu^j \.oria 

An Echo of the Siege of Jmji in a Sanskrit Grammatical Work 105 

On being questioned as to how and why all this glory of the house- 
holder disappeared, the Sanyasm stated as follows .- 

While the house-holder was absorbed in enjoyment in the company 
of young women he received orders from his lord ( Zalhkar Shan). "So 
attention was paid to these orders, so he sent a messenger a second time. 
Even then he did not leave the house, being absorbed in the enjoyment ot 
the highest pleasure derived from his addiction to the beauty ( of these 
voung°women ). Zulfikar Khan sent a messenger for the third time and 
still this grandee paid no heed to his orders. This conduct enraged his 
master, who immediately despatched his commander with 4000 horsemen. 
All the followers of this grandee were unprepared and consequently with- 
in a very short time all the property of the grandee was looted and the 
grindee himself was hand cuffed and brought before his master ( Zulfikar 
Khan ) who severely scolded the grandee and kept him in confinement for 
four months Later he was released. Since the day of his release the 
grandee was stung with remorse He then went to Kuruksetra ( Delhi ), 
abandoning his family etc , and there practised penance for some days. He 
then became a Sanyasm and then went to Benares. Twelve years had elaps 
ed since he became a Sanyasm. After wandering to different holy places 
( tirthas ) he resorted to Benares, where he had completed a four 
months' stay when his host l met him ( and invited him for dinner ). The 
Sanyasm expressed hts resolve to devote himself to Ifnmkarmkil. 

The host, after hearing this story of the early life of the Sanyasm, 
expressed his admiration for the step taken by the Sanyasm because it 
13 said . — 

" On this globe there is no parallel to the god Visvesvara, his abode 
Benares and its holy place ZJamkarnihil " 

I have now to make the following remarks on the Story of tha Brah- 
min (jrcindec of Karttatak as disclosed incidentally in the Qlrvliyipada- 
mcuijarl of Dhundira]i, the son of &rlrangabhatta of Benares — 

1. This story, though introduced in the work for literary embelli- 
shment, appears to mo to be a true historical story. The story was too vivid 
to be idealised by our author by dropping its reference to Jliathhun and 

1 TWj boat apipoaw to e.i w la identical v,itU D!mn}lr\j» him-df, tlu author of t!u 
Glr»lRJiaJaoafijJrl. I hava a uv gctvi iatLos^uJ tiu: tW* rjaial.o i orj cf t!u early hfj cf 
Il.lSiu)-^! Ua trLJ »'iry ii^:«-2 by o J£ aatlionn Iin .^7*. for bUrary cial/ U'lliituat. Ko 
t-cL»lorjaij^ariiatlioGlrtaai;al3ifljSjirIot Vanli^a. Dbu-*i Ifr^i tliouja &j im'u:-r 
cf Yitili-lji, Utiitikij cubical ia jauitlag tW« tojuntls ttssj ntliatrag.o touilj m -l» 
una >,bz« a~i th-urJ.&.lsu ta<s u^aoU-uy cf U.4 ju'.Utisa, 

166 Studies in Indian Literary History 

his son Zulftkar Klwn and their military expedition (f^fr^3jq) to Karnatak 
on behalf of the Mogul Emperor ( Aarangzeb ) at Delhi. 

2 Our Brahmin grandee was obviously in the employ of Zulfikar 
Khan or at least he paid his allegiance to this general and hence the 
latter is aptly called Prabhu or overlord of the former in the story 
before us. 

3. The identification of this Brahmin grandee of Karnatak and his 
relation to JZulfikar Khan has become difficult as the name of the grandee 
is not recorded in the story and further while one Ms makes him a 
resident of ^'sft 1 another Ms variant makes him a resident of 4\3ns*. 
The third Ms drops any reference to these villages. 

4. Jlsatkhan* mentioned as the minister of the Delhi Emperor and 
his son Zulftkar Kharfi are historical personages. 

5. I am of opinion that the Karnatak Digvijaya ( Expedition to 
Karnataka ) by JZulfikar Khan, son of Asatkhan, is identical with his cele- 
brated siege of Jin]i ( 1690-1698 A D. ). It was a long drawn-out siege- 
by the forces of Aurangzeb lasting for seven years or so. Bajaram Chatra- 
pati, the second son of Shivaji the Great, ruled at Gingee oi Jinji, where 
he was besieged by the Mogul forces under JZulfikar Khan for seven 
years and from which he finally escaped. This siege had captured the- 
imagination of the people of the Maharashtra and the Karnatak so much 

1 Canji = modorn Qingee, a once celebrated hill fortress In South Arcot, 60 mllea north 
east of Cuddaloro and 35 rmlea north woat from Pondiohorry and at one tuno tho seat of a 
Maiatha Principality It la Bpelt Bovorally aa Qmgie, Jutjee, Cheitgi, Clunjie ( Vide p 370, of 
Hoijoii — Jobson, 1903, by Yulo and Burncll ) Yulo observes — "Gmji or Jmjco, properly Chenju 

[Slienji, and this from Tamil Shlngi, Sltt Sringl, a " hill " Usages — 161C A D 
(Ginja), A D 1075 ( Chatgie ), A. D 1080 ( Chengy J, A D 1752 Gtngeo ] 

2 He la Idontical with Asad Klian, the pnmo-mlnistor of Aurangzob Ho had gono to 
Jiuj.e to help hlaaon ZulfiVar Khan ( Vida p 76 of Uadhtjayughia Cantrahoia ) &-3I0 in bis 
Or aital Bio^rapl ical Dictionary ( London, 1801. p 80 ) etatca that Asad Khan waa 
d—ct-nikd from an illustrious family of Turkmans. His former namo was Ibrahim Ho was 
&ado u.cond Baltsbl by Sbah Jahan. Ho held this offico till 1G71 A D Later ho waa mado 
U'tuir by Aurangzeb Bahadur Shah mado him Wat il Hutlaq ( an offico buponor to Wazlr ) 
and hla eon Itmail wai made chief paymaster ( Mir Balthi ) with tho titlo " Umra Zulfikar 
Kl an" Farrubihiar, hov.ovor, disgraced him and hla eon waa put to death Ho died 00 years 
ell in A. D 1717. 

Z. Ho U identical with Zidfilar Klian, tho son of Asad Khan roforrcd to abovo ( A p. 
1K7— 1712 j Uo laid ti^u to tho fort of Jlnjl for G/7 yuira ( A. D 1C01— 07 ) but it waa a 
Cw^fl-'o failure. Ha alio invaded Tanjoro and Tnchlnopoly Farralmhiar put him to death in 
A. D 171.2 (Vldop 117 of lludn^yjghia CaritraKo a. ) Bcal (OB Dict.)\> 480, doej not 
refer 'o tho Eie^o of Jlnjl laid by Zulfiiar Kban. According to Vincent Smith (p 411 of Oxford 
h i t j of India 19^3 ) "Zulfikar Khan deliberately played with tho dicgo of Jinji and purpo- 
lily aXncJ Bajaram to escape. " 

An Echo of the Siege of Jinji in a Sanskrit Grammatical "Work 167 

a. those dajs that it found reflection in contemporary documents and 
iterature. 1 It is no wonder, therefore, that it should capture the imagina* 
ion and busy pen of modern historians like Sir Jadunath Sarkar, 
^ao Bahadur G. S Sardesai, Kao Bahadur G. S. Srinivasachari and 
ithers. In particular Bao Bahadur Srmivasachari's monumental volume 
>n the " History of Gingee and Us ruler3 '' ( Annamalai University Series 
Vo. 2 ) recently published reveals that this history has besieged its 
earned author for about 32 years since he first brought out an account 
of it in 1912 and I wonder, if Bao Bahadur Srinivasachari has yet 
succeeded, in making his escape from this Gingee, like Ba]aram of old. 
Chapter YII of this delightful volume is devoted to the Mughal Siege and 
and Oapture of Gingee" ( pp. 286-350 ) 1690-1698 A. D. Some facts 
from this chapter miy be noted below to enable us to understand the 
historical background of the reference to the Kamataka Digvijaya of 
Zulfikar Khan iq the GlrvUncipaJamdiijari of Dhundiraja — 
June 1690— Zulfikar Khan ( =■ Z ) who invested Raigad, was despatched 
by Aurangzeb to Karnatak to crush the Maratta power at Jinji or 
Sept. 1690 — Z reaches Gingee. 

April 1691— The Hogal army under Z had become powerful and well 
provisioned for a serious assault — No decisive success for the im- 
perialists in 169 L. 

December 169 L— Asad Khan, the father of Z.and Prince Kam Baksh reach 
Gingee under orders of Aurangzeb. 

1693 — The procrastination of Z in his operations. 

1693 -- Z and his father in great straits - Emperor displeased with Asad 

1694 — Asad Khan resto red to King's favour according to a letter from 

lUiraai.r^SV^iJr^uilijj ,' lt , ,h <S,,i* v . ^ aw5h » commander uader 

1-,! n ,f r •"7 , ; r - U1 - 1 " A '»^ h j Stilhita Voru^tc'a tefati to tho tlcgo o£ Jinn (V£<Li v 

^<-U™ i'»n U j. tLo author c f IHJfC^^f^. 

168 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Fort St. George — Z renews siege operations, which were regarded as- 

a mere show to deceive the Emperor. 

1695 — An uneventful year Z receives 3 lacs of rupees from the Mogul 

Court and captures a few forts from the Marattas. A large Maratta army 

under Santaji and Dhanaji Jadhav approached Gmgee towards the close 

of the year 

1696 — Z feels extreme want of money Z defeats Santaji near Arm. 

1697 — Z renews attack on Gingee. 

1698 — Eajaram escapes with four or five thousand Marattas to Vellore 
accord ing to a letter from Fort St. George- Capture of Gingee by Z 
" between 28th December 1697 and 5th January 1698"-Z 'renamed 
Gingee as " Nasratgaddah " after his own title " Nasrat Jang "- Z 
appoints Gussafar Ehan as Killedar of Gingee Zulfikar Khan left the 
Earnatak after about a year from the fall of Gmgee. 1 

Such in brief is the chronology of the Karnataka Dtgvijaya of 
Zulfikar khan mentioned incidentally in the GlrvUnapadamanjari with- 
out any details. It is, therefore, clear that this work was composed 
some time after A.D. 1698. As regards the exact date of its composition 
I may note here the following facts which might enable us to fix this 
date within reasonable hmits.- 
1. The Brahmin grandee was in the employ of Zulfikar Ehan 

some time after September 1690 when Z reached Gingee Perhaps Z 

wanted to make use of him against the Marathas under Eajaram in the 

Gingee fortress. 

2 Perhaps the arrest of this Brahmin grandee took place about 
A D lb91-92 If this suggestion is accepted we have to suppose that he 
migrated to Kuruksetra or Delhi after four months, imprisonment by 
Z and subsequent release *We may, therefore, suppose that he wandered 
outside Karnatak in Northern India as a San} asm for 12 years as stated 
b> him between saj A D 1G90 and 1702 and then reached Benares. 

3 The grandee was invited for dinner by his Benares host 
within 1 months of his stay at Benares in the Matha of the Sanyasins 
say in A D 1702-1703 

1 As Dhundir5]a records the story of the Brahmin grandee as an 
event of fresh occurrence we may not be wrong in presuming that the 
GlriQtwpadaniaTijarl was composed say betueen A. D 1702 and 1701 

1 Mr \ L. Kilo of B.lgaum baa wrltttn a hiito'ical romanco In Marathl called 
1 fJnfniH 3 or ' OT^fcI *r3RIJP7{ircra ' which d<.:cntca how tho machinations of .Auraagzab- 
\,c:u n-cc>.. t fuUy chcciniaUd by tlu Marathaa und« Bajiram. An EngliJi tranjallou of tho. 
XuE-juco by Mw Ssith «a» j utli»fc-d in 1033. 

* An Echo of the Siege of Jmji in a Sanskrit Grammatical Work 16ff 

5. We may, however, tentatively fix the date of this work 
between A. D. 1690 and 1710. At any rate this grammatical work is 
definitely later than A. D. 1690 when Znlfikar Khan reached Gmgee. 

Having recorded the historical evidence to explain the story of 
the Brahmin grandee of Karnatak as recorded m a work composed 
at Benares after A D. 1690 and possibly before A. D. 1710, I now turn 
to the question of deciding the native place of this grandee. In this 
connection the following points may be noted - 

1. All the three Mss of the GirvUnapadamaTijarl before ma state 
that the native place of the grandee was in Karnatak country ($H T &fr $ ) 

2. One Ms mentions this native place as ' "q'sfrnnr, ' another gives us 
f Ejhn^prm ' while the third Ms does not specify the name. In view of 
the reference to the 3^fosf?frrH*J of Asat Khan's son Znlfikar Khan under 
orders of the Delhi Emperor as made in the work, I am inclined to 
believe that onr Brahmin grandee belonged to =3^W and not ^ftapjjtnR. 
Znlfikar Khan left for =^fr in June 1690 and reached it in September 1890. 
There was hardly any time for him to camp at Bijapur ( *tam of Ms ) 
and keep this grandee m confinement for 4 months after looting his 

3. Rao Bahadur Srinivasachari i, states that Gmgee was called as 
follows by different people :- 

( i ) Badshahad by Bijapur authorities, who held the fort between 

A D. 1660 and 1677. 
( "u ) Chandry or Chindy by Marathas. 
( in) Xasrat Gaddah by the the Moguls after 1698. 
( iv ) Gmgee or Jmjt, by the French. 
( v ) Chingee or Chcngy, in early Madras records. 
(vi) The fort has retained the name Gtngee, the English form of 
the Tamil word Senju 

It is clear from the above names of Gmgee that ^ of the Ms of 
the Gmanapadamaujari is identical with modern Gingee 
Y^nVU Sj T' b l e 'f 5 ^ 053 that &is Brahmm grandee of Gmgee 

o^ni^*^ tthmm ieSldbS ° D tbe *»**"* of the G»-ee fort 
or m the Gingee territory about A. D. 1Q90 He must have joined ZuS 
kar Khan about this time but Zulfikar Khan found him too much a ^ 

S^~ Watofca -^ ******* Z:*Z; 

170 Studies in Indian Literary History 

identical with Phundiraja himself, the author of the Girvanapadamarljarl. 
When this work was being composed the author may have invited 
this Sanyasin for dinner and learned this story of his early life first-hand 
from the Sanyasin. This real story being colourful, romantic and vivid, 
the author could not avoid the temptation of poshing it in his work in its 
appropriate context. 

I have given m the foregoing lines my interpretation of the story of 
the Gingee grandee as found in the OlrvSnapadarnanjarl of Dhundiraja. 
This interpretation needs to be verified by scholars like my friend Eao 
Bahadur Srinivasachan who have made a close study of contemporary 
sources regarding the siege of Gingee ( A. D. 1690-lb98 ). Dhundiraja's 
work as also Varadaraja's work of the same name ought to be critically 
edited and kept before the students of the cultural history of Benares in 
the 17th century. I trust, therefore, that the present paper would attract the 
attention of scholars to the valuable cultural contents of these works which 
give us a peep into the cultural life of the Benares Brahmins in the 17th 
century, which produced celebrities like Gagabhatta, Jagannatha Pandita- 
raja, Kamalakara Bhatta and others. 

It appears that Dhundiraja the author of the Girvd.napadamav.jarl was 
a Brahmin of the Madhva sect as will be seen from the following evidence - 

1. The Brahmin Sanyasin when invited for dinner by his Benares 
host inquired — 

( «n[^«l^ snfn ' ( What is your caste ? ) 
The host replied — 

'^FTtfirft 3T^ ugiti&ifcfcl' (My good sir, I am a Maharastra Brahmin) 
The Sanyasin said — 

( If that is so, I very much prefer to have alms in the home of 
Maharastra Brahmins ) 

The disguised identity of the Benares host with the author of the 
work is too transparent to be concealed. 

2. In the discussion on evil customs ( dur<lc(lra3 ) of different 
provinces the Benares host tells the Sanyasin as follows — 

: j?5irrc nnn wim ^nurj wj?j; ^farf^HKifwa^i JTsrcK^fa ^ T^n: 

( Among all castes excepting those in Maharastra some kind of evil 
custom prevails Even among Maharastra people the members of the 
Madhva sect have no evil custom whatsoever ) 

An Echo of the Siege of Jmji in a Sanskrit Grammatical Work 171 

The Sanyasin observed * — 
* ^ mm *m s3> h^iPt W3*jjt ^t ' 

( You have spoken the truth. I too have realised this truth. ) 

The host remarked •- 

( If I have not spoken the truth, do you think I have told you a false 
thing ? ) 

The foregoing extracts amply suggest that our author Dhundiraja 
was a MaMrdstra Brahmin of the Madhva sect. 

20. Some Distinctive Names of Horses recorded by 
Hemacandra in his Abhidhanacintamani , by 

Somesvara in his Manasollasa and by 

Jayadatta in his Asvavaidyaka — 
between A. D 1 000 and 1 200 * 

Hemacandra (A. D. 1083 — 1172) records in his lexicon, Abhidhcina- 
Cint&mam the following names of horses according to- their colours 
( varna ) * — 




Hemaoandra's explanation 



^Rr *£. ( Amarakosa mentions <p& 
as the name of a white horse ftra: 
i$h ) 




sfajEiq; «n?fcr wr $Nn^. 






^Si^ mW'hst 1 yft^if^K, wr- 


S^isV fq<^T<i3'3 ^dft^itf 




tfajq 1 «nj£ fTW m d^oifs^T tfcjq^: 


era- sft-wnijfcr 2pr tmf 




?fr ^n *nfa sfcr 

' 6 



g^n^a' g^nrf . 




fo*rt JTsnofir 




sfte «^ ^srqs 




^*nifo fa*j£ 




snr fa*[? inr ^mfcr 353^3 ^^15 




• J^rnJ. ofUP Hu'cn^l Society. Vol XIV, P*rta 1 aaJ 2, pp 03-109 

§omeT>istmctive Names of Horses 





Hemacandra's explanation 




sxsn ansfer sn?. 





§<3tH fofa y*<i+: 




Gf SF5T75? 



ttftfll ijRfil ^5^R: 



cggr^ snftnfni $wl£. 

(J— 13) ^n ^rra: 






^rgqgi^ ^5313". » 



*T ^ T^ld- $wKtSx,31<i: y^ spjfa- 






STto: 3lV<Wt' 





(J-8) 1 


1 51^5 

Do ' 

1 C^rd tf*U Sltffc: 


1 «{<*<!*'• 


Cf. ftresr 

(S— 20) 






fedftft 4%<<°1| <i<:!"KliiPd ^«IS , 

Hemacandra concludes the above list of different horses ( Bhurm- 
Linda, verses 303 — 309 ) with the remark " ^fr^i^r. 3T^T spriWn: I 
«jwi%^W ^m^fi Fhstot^" ( These names gfc?T5 and others are for the 
most part ^ft Their derivation is based on the different colours of horses 
for distinctive purposes). The statement of Hemacandra that these names 
for differently coloured horses are '' ^ftarer. " shows that ha was not 
sure that they were definitely ^fr words in all cases. It is, however, 
clear that these names wero current in Hemacandra's time, Le., in 
the Hth century. Let us now see if these names, or at least some" 

IT4 Studies in Indian Ijitetary History 

of them are traceable in other Sanskrit texts, not muoh removed 
in point of chronology from. Hemacandra's time. In fact in the Section 
on the game of Polo called the 3lfa3TSn^f^te m the encyclopaedic work 

-HRfllgtH l ( or srfWfatfwf^rraf&l) composed about A D. 1180 (%e, when 
Hemacandra was about 42 years old ) by King Somesvara of the Calukya 
dynasty we find some of these names recorded. In this section the king 
is advised to examine the different kinds of horses of different breeds 
and colours brought before him by the officer in charge of the horses. 
The king was to understand their kinds by the countries they came from. 
The names of different countries from which the horses took their 
origin are mentioned by Somesvara. He also mentions the distinctive 
marks on the body of a horse and classifies the horses according to 
colours and castes, which are four in number. He mentions further the 
peculiarities of different kinds of horses including those in respect of the 
formation of their bodies. Here he describes the q^*<r4|(Ji and mtiw^<a 

horses. The speeds of horses are then classified as, high, middling send 
low. Signs of bad horses are also recorded. The methods of punishing 
and breaking raw horses to make them fit for training are enumerated. 
When the training is complete these horses were to be used by the king. 
The best horse was to be fitted with the best saddle, ornaments, etc and 
used by the king 

Before recording the names of horses according to colour ( ^dr ) 
Somesvara observes ■ — 

( White, black, red and yellow are four pure colours. Mixtures of 
those are numerous and they will be stated and their distinctions pointed 
out ). 

The following Uble will show at a glance the names recorded by 
Somesvara for horses of different colours and castes. — 

1. EJ. la G O Scrxtt, Earcda, Vol. II ( 1030 ), pp. 311 It Eco abo Intro., p 31. 

Some Distinctive Names Of Horses 


Name i Dolour 


1. ^n^ ) 









qjs ^r^- 
qis: ma 



^=35 + 

qra + 
sfrn etc 

^s etc 
^ci etc 



%5nP5fer qren^: Kiln f'njnV *n? » 

*^3 ^ 5^? ^5T q^ 'st qrrr^ I 

5T^W5l(^T)tJHTOI ^ H^'W «^?t IKM> 

^45- qr^q <ri?3 qr^nWiw 4r vrafi; | 
r^^nn; q^%: ^ra. ^<tft ^iih RmNra: I 

jqr qr h£>" 7t •'ffs.'fcxiKW y^ ^t: IK^'I 


Studies in Indian Literary History 







5 n). 

«J^<* or 

%H + 


fsraw f^-^-i ^tt ^ran ?j£fm: aw?^: i 
3-tow ^nittg 5^wwi «<i^5t qf% 1 

On a comparison of the above list of Somesvara with that of Hema- 
candra we find that the following names of horses are common to both 
the lists -" 

(1) $*, (2) ?mf, (3) ifte or 3W, 
possibly (6) faciei or <m^ 

(4) 3^1', (5) f^m and 

This is not a mere coincidence. Though Somesvara was ruling in 
the Deccan and Hemacandra was living in Gujarat, there was constant 
mutual contact of both these provinces. Hemacandra's patron king 
Kumarapala twice invaded Konkon and king Malhkarjuna of the Sllahara 
dynasty was killed in one of these invasions * It is just possible to suppose 
that some of the horse-lore of the Deccan must have migrated to Gujarat 
and vice versa as it was of great value to kings engaged in constant 

Some of the names of horses recorded by Somesvara and Hemacan- 
dra in the 11th century are also found in a special treatise on horses called 
the Asiavaidyaka^ of Mahasamanta Jayadatta, son of Vijayadatta. In the 
list of drugs at the end of the edition, which the editor states, have been 
mentioned by Jayadatta, I find er/^^T or opium ( on p 3 ) If this state- 
ment is correct I have to observe that this treatise was composed after the 
Muslim advent in India as opium is not known to Indian literature prior 
to the Muslim advent 3 in the 8th century A. D Perhaps this treatise was 

1 Vldo Jjvqgift;} ^fcrlfar by 3 CHtraT Shastrl, Poona. 1987, p. 2J0 — Sco vonca 41—70 
of Hrj^T S3I-*PI<r7^I ( Canto VI ) which describe Kumiropula's march to Konkan 

2 Ed by Urccfa Candra Gupta. Bib . Indicci Calcutta. I860 — Vcr.ea 98—110 of Cteptcr 3 
dial with Ucdj of bortia according to colour ( or tf 3 !), pages 88 — 13. 

3 11a tecyrapUr M-Hrui visited Acahillapura. the- capital of Jayaainiha SlddharJja 
(A. D 1CjZ-1U3). thapa'rcaof \W3^. 

( Ccn'\ii~td en the tHxtpaje ) 

Some Distinctive Names Of Horses 


omposed between c. A. D. 800 and 1200 A. P. The treatise on horses 
ailed the *^f^ by *$3 edited in 1887 by the editor of Jayadatta s 
? ork in the BOhotheca Jnd,ca does not contain the names of horses recor- 
edby Hemacandra, Somesvara and Jayadatta. Chapters of Nakula's 
7 ork contains, however, a description of horses according to colours 
*n) with different names but these names are Sanskrit and not "^fWTCl:" 
s those mentioned by Hemacandra. I record in detail in the following 
able the special names of horses according to their colours mentioned 
>y Jayadatta m his «n^t?FS ' — 

ra ^vn 




(v. 1.- 










^-^ ) 




J (*-*) 

3rat 3te* *£n^: 

lis liiUj — " Ito ciij la frcq,t»3*«&d by a £itii a&nbvt of JJjw!«fi» &£ictaals who uwrt 
U 1. iu b-uam, licy iru well recJt.,1 by tf>3 EiSjj. " ( VUa f. e«W tf Islro. to tA^tli- 
SKGm ttf E. C. Pailii, EcisUy, 1M3 }. 


iStudies in Indian Liteiary History 


(v 1- 




few : *sfq^ ^jd. 


I<5(t>5l3/ $fa$V *4l«ft Wd^UeU^fy 


^15; f^ycrb'Ji^ 


<ms?i$: ^laifla^: 

• «\ , *V .N 



(v. 1.- 

(v 1- 


(v 1.- 



^HiHFP ^2^" ^'^ ^li"^ *j; w*|Rtd: | 


vd«h«rr^ *f fa^wV *=f«u 31$^ ^s^: 1 


*jttt;is: yj-^aii^: cht$<|g M-^prfd: 


y-Ul^ <W& (JJ 03 ^ 01 ) 

^m:... . 3H"*lS' ( y^y*! ) 




Some Distinctive Names Of Horses 179 

I have tried to tabulate the horse-nomenclature in Jayadatta's 
W53t?TO as best as I could understand it. This nomenclature is different 
from that given in the treatiso on horses by 5Tife£ter which is frequently 
referred to by Jayadatta. In Jayadatta's time the old terminology had fallen 
into disuse and consequently Jayadatta has recorded the nomenclature 
that was current in his time, as such a record had a practical utility. 
In fact Jayadatta expresses this object of his nomenclature in the following 
verses • — 

It will be seen from the three lists of the names of horses according 
to colours ( qoi ) tabulated by me in this paper that the lists of Jayadatta 
and Somesvara ( A. D. 1130 ) are more exhaustive than that of Hema- 
candra. These three lists together containing many common names give 
us a vivid idea of the horse lore current say in the 11th and 12th 
centuries. This horse lore is definitely connected with the foreign 
horso trade uith India that was going on in Indian ports after about SOQ 
A. D. as I have shown elsewhere. 1 Hemacandra says that this nomen- 
clature is " 3[!-ft:nT'\ I have reason to behove that some of these names 
aro either Persian or Arabic and they may have come to India along 
with Persian, Arabic, Turkish and other foreign breeds of horses that 
wero imported to India as vouched in detail by Harco Polo's Travels 
( A. 1). 1*298 ). Marco Polo's -account of the foreign import of horses is 
further supported by the following account of the horse-trade at a Ifalabar 
port called kJyal about A. D. 1290 recorded by Dr. S. K Aiyangar 2 — 

Ka'jal was a well sheltered port at the mouth of Tamaraparam in the 
Gulf ot ilanar in the south, not far from the far-famed Korku ( Kolkhoi 
of tho classical geographers }. Thoro was a prominent trade settlement 
at K&jal— about A 0. 1200, where an agency vras established by an Arab 
Chieftain, ilahku 1-Islam Jamalu-d-din ruler of Kis, and later the farmer- 
general of l-'ars. According to II ~a$±af , about this time as many as 10,000 
hordes Were imported into KJ>al and other ports of India of which liou 
were to be of Jamal u d Jin's own breed. The average cost of each horso 

1 \.2j ini'^i |B.aK. lev. a'e, Pmsu ), Yd. X\VI, r? 103-105. 
X YWo n 70-71 cf &.„< 1 I, J j _J { ., iu^. .^j^, /,.„&,,, OsLj.1 U-J. n .t 
Pt^, -.,11. } 

180 Studies in Indian Literary History 

-Was 220 dmars of ' red gold. ' The cost even of those that died on the 
way was paid by the Pdndya King for -whom they were imported. Jamalu- 
d-dtn's agent was a brother as it seems, Takiud d dtn Abdur-Rahman, son 
of Muhammadu-t-Thaibi described as Marzaban ( Margrave ). This agent had 
his headquarters at K&jal, and had the other ports of Fitan and Mali 
Fitan also under his control. This description means that he was the agent- 
general for the import trade of the Arabs in this part of the country, as 
according to the same authority the trade of this region in those days was 
very great, both in volume and value. In the words of Wassaf " Ma 'bar 
extends in length from Kulam to Nilawar ( Nellore ) nearly three hundred 
parasangs along the sea coast, and in the language of the country the king 
is called Dewar, which signifies the lord of empire The curiosities of 
Chin and Machin, and the products of Hind and Smd laden on large ships 
(which they call junks ) sailing like mountains with the wings of winds on 
the surface of the water, always arrived there The wealth of the islands of 
the Persian Gulf in particular and in part the beauty and adornments of 
other countries, from ' Irak and Khurasan as far as Hum and Europe are 
derived from Ma'bar, which is so situated as to be the Key of Hind " 
( Elliot, in. 32 ). 

The above graphic description of foreign trade of India in general 
about A. D. 1290 and the horse-trade in particular will explain the genesis 
of the horse-names according to their colours recorded by Hemacandra, 
Somesvara and Jayadatta. We note with special interest that out of 10,000 
horses imported into Kayal, 1400 were to be of Jamalu d din's own breed. 
In this connection I have to point out that the horse-name "gTWR" 
mentioned by Hemacandra may have been derived from some breeder of 
horses of the name qtWR. If this surmise is found to be correct, Hema- 
candra's explanation of this name "%ffrl ^fa gtwr^: " is pedantic and 
imaginary like his explanations of other horse names recorded by him. 
Hemacandra mentions the ^TWIH, horse as having qre^ colours. Jayadatta 
mentions '' £(35(W " or " qhspi " horse with res? colour. I think the 
terms " qt^H " and " ^^R " are identical. They may indicate some 
Arab breeder of horses of this name as I have observed above. 

In the present paper I have succeeded to a certain extent in link- 
ing up the hourse-nomenclaturo as found in three different Sanskrit 
sources which are more or less contemporary 1 1 have now to request all 

1 Out of 20 nomcj of horiCJ In in Hcmacandra's Eat about 15 aro found In Jayadatta'a Hat, 
Tola a^iQimin 1 - IcaIj uj to infer that Honiacandra and Jajadatta aro not much from 
each cthvr In tLcir chrojolo^y, c-p^clally when vro rom-mb-r that Uonucandri haa iLCOid»<l 

( Cont nu*d on ;/*» nati-nje ) 

Some Distinctive Names Of Horses 181 

scholars interested in this nomenclature to throw more light on it 
from non Sanskrit sources, which are likely to contain some special trea- 
tises on horses like Xenophon's Greek treatise ''and the Saoskrit treatises 
of feaiihotra, Jayadatta, and Nahula. 


^ j . 21, A Rare Manuscript of Rainacandracandro- 

daya, an Unknown Mimamsa Work 

by Bala Gadegila ( Between A.D. 

1675 and 1775)* 

In the Rajapur Pathalala Sanskrit Manuscripts Collection there is- 
a small collection of Mss called the Shevade i Collection acquired in 1931. 
Through the favour of my ever alert friend Pandit Baghunatha iSastri 
Patankar in charge of the above collection I could get fox examination a 
rare Ms of a Mimamsd. work called the RCtmacandra-Caridrodaya composed 
by one " ^RJ n reff irf " or Balasastri Gadgil. The Ms consists of about 77 
folios 2 on thin and worn-out country paper. The size of the Ms is 9 1 } ms. 
by 4 ins. Each folio contains about 11 lines, each line containing about 83 
letters. The Ms appears to be about 160 years old It begins as follows — 

*ftjjigiynsg g7q7fcggoitfa vvmfy IM 1 1 
^rufli^ cj^HNfe imf f^TOrar |j ^ i| 

%ftcPETm sgr?3**r ^^^ ^R3*t: i 

^c4Wc4|fVr5(Uiq4cJ tf^i\^f'. |) a |) 

sfWiw^wqufrer tftarensniirafofpsu i 
tftaiws^^fa m^t nrtftrersgqt u n || 

• ,/c> <r/ a/ o/G Jlia Iitiearch Institute, Vol 17 pp lOo-lll. 

1 Tho Mnj la tho Shovado Colkctioa bear tho following printed label — 

2 All thu folioj ara dimaged at oao corcer bj motbj , soma portions of tha tost on eooh 
folia i4T0 thsj Uva 1cj\ 

X Rare Manuscript of Ramacandra-Candrodaja '183 

g$su qjinft^iq m 

T^q «*n e ^q% ii v* n 

H3: uomm^tfJf jj^ftf SR^qq: it c 11 
<£t<farfiram^fa afcnrtqt u^sra li s, i| 

vt<T5ra IT. q^qifq H ^PT Jjsra ^q II lo || 

ft3fafctam+4*4 qq qi ^te^q s^qs i 
*nqqr?Tqq %fq?ar£j?qqTqpT sfq n 11 u 

q fij Hj^qqi it3^ ^fo^cqqt^ns 11 %^\\ 
qqi qrqfq^rcsqi qq^qmigeiftaft 1 
qT^farsqflTCtfq si^Miq^q srtwi 11 ix 11 

qc{W3i*K?q Jr ipnratq f^rvra imu 11 
nrefggq gilsq fefvra qnj<ftq*r 1 
srtq^tq ^m -«jcq q gfaqiw: 11 %^ 11 

Sl^iar q^fagrai 3HI q^ tiUHHai etc., 
The Ms contains references to a few works and authors as follows .- 
(1) x^j and his ^3*r— fol. 1 , (2) thRnft-fol. 1. 2 . (3) gsnfefec 
fol. 1 , (4) qrenrefqg ( author ) fol 2 ; (5) qnftnsiqi^ fol 2 ; (6) 3flcq. 

qrfqq; fol 8, 11 , 13, 71 , (7) *noran*— fol. 9 (s) *mqra; g^K. -- fol. io ; 
(0) siraflfqinqp*— fol 10, (10) srwgviKR -- foho 11, (11) qw^fiiTn 

foho 12, 3i, 40, 55 , (12) qTf£*$£q — foho 12, 23, 25, 52, 55, GO, 75, (13) 
ftwjjnSl—folio 13, (14) q*fiTOI§'J*Rtal *w— folio 18, (15) ^ivn^I^ —foho 
21,(16) q^;— folio 27 ( « ^RRmPpqrc: » ), 20; (17) ?i?nfrEHR(~ 
foho 23, 37, 10, 50 , (18) aif**l —foho 35, 43 , (10) ^4i*n— loho 10 , 
foho 41— Colophon — "»fowtaww - urn*^ ... . f^at .. fatfqq... 
^ ••• **&'- » «WJ3HR pRjwft " (the name " airfcgq » 13 ^ntten "in 
the margin near the Colophon), (20) qif.ft— foho 11, (21) vucq—foho 42; 
(22) q£tt<q— foho jiH ; (23) n?Fnpra!5^n^— foho 17; (24)Vrrq?l —foho 
43, Fcho £4— ''twhuri ft^qa 1 sqiVcwngTOiq* "; Folio GO— < ^qiqjqfq 
fa^qa 1 " ; FU\o 70— «« ^qwfofa lt vwig^rs^f^cq^ u »; (25) .i«nr^«ro- 
3fe. — folio 73, Foho 77 (a) •• -fo ^ff^WV^ft^^q^f^Rc^; aT Ji. „ « __ 

184 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Folio 77 (b) — " bpt ^t Eng,mtf ". The Ms breaks on this folio and ends- 
with the words " ... %$ ftw^ T . . ." 

From the foregoing data gathered from this Ms we get the follow- 
ing information — (1) The author of this tnimdmsa work is '<■ ^r^ TT%- 
fires " ( See verses 2, 6, 15 ). (2) The name of the work is " ^n-^WU^ '* 
as stated in the colophon on folio 77 (a) The name " craMNgT " has 
been recorded in the margin near the colophon on foho 41 (3) The author 
may have been a pupil of " sfUm-j^m^mfl^MK " as stated in the colo- 
phon on folio 41 and as appears from the name of the work viz. " jjjj- 
•*F«1j£U^ " recorded m the colophon on foho 77 (a). Some later hand has 
scratched out the expression " S^^cR'j^pn^ " from the colophon on foho 
41 viz. "sftai+H^nWdH^WKftl^ui eto «" ( 4 ) Tlie present work "{i«^^> 
^q" was composed by etrt TiiSfj|<3 with a view to supplementing the work of 
^03%cf viz ^3^T or ?ftafHT-sil^J*T ( verse 2 "sraPfim? ftv^d" and versa 
5 " sigf^re 3^ ^l^ " ). Perhaps this statement is responsible for the title 
" d^^^ti *! " entered by a later hand on foho 41. (5) Verse 1 at the begin- 
ning uses the expressions, " sffal+Jlftfdy^W. " » n( l " afWlHl(wutU«id: " which 
may suggest that the author was a devotee of God affair? and a pupil of 
a guru of the name sftTW. The title " ^n^T^^T^T " is m harmony with 
this suggestion 

As the present work mentions the great mlmamsaka of Benares, viz., 
JUiandadeva and his work " Kaustubha, " it is later than him. In my 
paper on the " Chronology of the works of Khandadeva " in the D. i?. 
Bhandarkar Volume, I have recorded the following dates of Ehandadeva 
and his works — 

A. D. 1641 — Date of a Ms of his *Tis^ffeT. 

A. D. 1657 — Signature of Khandadeva on a Ptui^Mir, 

drawn up at gforrsT at Benares. 
A. D. 1660— Date of a Ms of his tftarflra^T at the B. 0. E. 

A. D. 1664— Date of India Office Ms of WS^RnCT. 
A. D. 1665 — Date of Khandadeva's death recorded by his pupil 
5I*g*T5 in A. D. 1708. 

In view of the above chronology we may safely conclude that Bala- 
GUtlegtla, the author of the EUmacandra-Candrodaya is later than A. D. 
16G5 and is possibly earlier than A. D. 1800 in view of the age of the 

A Rare. Manuscript of Ramacandra-Candrodaya 185 

ijapur Ms of tlaa RUmacandra caiulrodaya as observed by mo already in 
is paper. Accordingly wo may tentatively put Sola GOrfegila between say 

D. 1675 and 1800. 

The surname " Gadegila is current among the Chitpavan Brahmins 

Maharastra at present. As Bala Gadegila does not record his parentago 

other particulars about himself or his family it is difficult to identify 
m. However, let me attempt his identification on the strength of Mara- 
a records of the period, A. D. 1700 to 1800 

The Gujarati poet Deva Samkara in his AlaipkaramanjftsU ( edited by 

L. Katre, TJjiain, 1940 ) refers to an eminent Pandita of the name " m<£- 
zJisnfe ",( highly honoured by Peshwa Madhav Rao I ) in the following 
irse — 

Por identifying the Bulakrsnasdstn of the above stanza myself and 
r. Katre searched in contemporary records. The result of this search is 
icorded by Mr. Katre in Appendix B ( pp. 289-297 ) of his edition of tho 
lamkuramanjU^Q The name-sakes of BiUakr§jia &dstn found in contem- 
jrary records are as follows • — 

(1) 5d/« tjsya Dlkstta JPQtankar, holding great influence with tho 

( 2 ) A list dated 10-8-1773 ( Peshwa Da/tar Vol 33, Pages 107-112, 
locument No. 192 ) mentions charities given away by Bamabal, wife of 
eshwa Madhav Rao I, prior to her committing Satl. This list mentions 
no m«i£vjraifi3 to whoso wife some jewels were given away by RamlbaT. 

( 3 ) Peshwa Daftar Vol. 13, Page 33-Document No. 38 dated &-L- 
772 addressed to Peshwa Madhava Bao I, is a letter by one Kuppa £lstri 
f Kumbhakona, in which ho binds himself not to carry on medical 
ractico in future. 

This document is ondorscd by witnesses among which we find the 
ignature of one Balakrbna Stein Janlrdan £a*tri Gdlcgila" as follows— 
"mm — 

■<i^-ii?reft ^Fn"^5t\?3i nrcfiw ^m^urot ^rupnuwat r£j**" etc . 

( 1 ) P. D. Vol, 32, Document Xb. 191 dated 3-G-1773 is a list of 

harities gucn awaj at tho Sail of RamJLIi to persons of Peshwa's rojal 

trcle. This document show* a recipiou u 3gjfrn? TTTTtfte " rcceivm" 


186 Studies in Indian. Literary History 

Es. 2000. Mr. Katre suggests by way of a guess that this Laksumlhat 
Gfrlagila may have been the wife of ^j^avsorcrreft *nf fira referred to above. 

(5) Grant Duff in his History of the Marathas (4th Edn. 1878), 
Vol. I, Chap XXI, Page 623 mentions one " BOX Kishen Gargeel" as head 
of the Poona Nyadensh, or Court of Justice,' assooiated with Bala]t II, 
who appointed him about A.D. 1749 as his first ^Nitfter or Chief Justice. 
In 1759 Bama !§astri Prabhune succeeded this Bala Krsna ^astri. 

I am concerned in the above references with the name-sakes of 
" «n^ TT%ftra ", the author of the RQmacandra Candrodaya ( see Nos. 3 and 
6 above ). In particular the form of the surname "Jii3fii<s" m the signature 
<c ctiagimmnJt tfdl^iHsft ifcjfiitf " on a document of 3rd April 1772 is 
exactly identical with that recorded by the author of the R&macandra- 
Candrodaya, who calls himself " ^T5f *TtaRltf " m three different verses in 
the introductory portion of the work. If this identification is accepted we 
are led to conclude that the author of the mimiimsi work before me in the 
form of the Bajapur Ms was living in A. D. 1772, presumably as a highly 
respected old Pandita at Poona. Whether this Balakrstia Sdstri GMegila 
is identical with " Bal Kishen Gargeel," the Ny&jOdhlsa of the Peshwa, say 
between A. D. 1749 and 1759 as stated by Mr. Katre, cannot be definitely 
determined at present 

It is difficult to say what other Sanksrit authors of the Gadgil family i 
flourished before A.D. 1800. 1 know only one such author viz , Yaidyanatha 
Gadagila, the author of a commentary on the Tarka Samgraha of Annam- 
bhatta, called the Tarkacandnka represented by Ms No. 736 of 1882-83 
( folios 37 ) in the Government Mss Library at the BOB. Institute, 
Poona. This Ms was written in 6aka 1644 (=AJD.1722) by one Jayarama. 
The colophon of the Ms reads as follows — 

" ^fa sftarsRi^miH* *w^ui^!rra!3im^2£dd<t>4f^ET h ii $ n " 

It is clear from this colophon that the author of this commentary 
is Vaidyanatha R&macandra Giklgila, who is evidently earlier than A. D. 
1722, while BtJla GMegila, the author of the Mim&msd work R&macandra- 

1 I noto Eomo names of persons of tho Gadgil family, which I noticed whilo studying tho 
subject of tho presont paper — 

(1) Sairrratipatm of Benares Pandita dated 1805 X.D bears tho signaturo " Jll^ilrilmcg 
9lflTOWy£ , ''ls" ( Seo p 31 cf Appendices to E. B. GunjUcar'd, y<^d)H^ Bombay, 1831 ). 

(2) SoaTOqi^ OTrefa by N G Cbapeiar (1937). pp. Hi ( ^lt%), ^P75, Si, 
#?nfnra% 2tS.— "^niT?" *W?lf[& tfMK<K" (p-81) is reforrcd to in a document of 
JLD 1777 Jur p«rioai are of later date 

A Bare Manuscript of Ranucandra-Candrodaya 187 

Candrodaya is later than A. D. 1700. In what way Vaidyanatha is connec- 
ted with BQta cannot be determined at present I hope some members of 
the G&dgil family, who may be interested in the history of their family, 
will try to trace in their genealogies these tViO Gadgila authors, one of 
whom belongs to the 11th century, while the other belongs to the 18th 

22. A contemporary Sanskrit tribute to the musicial 
talents of Tanasena, the greatest musican 
of Akbar's court, and its historical 
Perspective * 

For any Indian National Biographical Dictionary, if such a work 
is undertaken by our National Government in future years, the reconstruc- 
tion of the life-history of every celebrity of ancient and mediaeval 
India is absolutely essential. Such a life-history must be based, as far as 
possible, on contemporary sources During the last twenty-five years I 
have published papers on numerous Sanskrit authors and their works. 
In these papers I have taken care to record every bit of information about 
the life-history of these authors, based on documentary evidence I 
have also brought to light many authors and historical personalities, 
unkown to the historians of literature, culture and political history. 
Eecently I published a paper * on Vidyadhara, the Bengali architect of 
Sevai Jaipur, who was a minister of Maharaja Sevai Jaising of Amber 
( A. D. 1699-1743 ) and recorded in it some contemporary tributes to 
this great Bengali from his contemporaries. It is necessary to record in a 
similar manner contemporary tributes to other celebrities in the domain 
of literature, music, art and allied subjects with a view to getting an 
authentic picture of their life-histories. 

I propose in the present paper to record a contemporary tribute to 

Tanskn, the celebrated musician of Akbar's court, about whom we hear 
many stories, sometimes of a mythical character. 

In the Madhyayugina Caritrakosa by S Chitrav Shastri ( Poona, 
1937, p. 424 ) I find th e following information about Tansen — 

* Journal of S V, Oru Institute, Tirupati, Vol VIII, Part I. pp 1-8 
1 Vido pp 285-291 of Dr C KuttTian Iiaja Volume, Madras. 10i6 Sinco the publication 
of this papor I have recoived the following additional information about Vidyadhara from my 
friend Mr. Bimalacharan Dob of Calcutta in hl3 lottor of 4-12-1916 - "You will bo Interested 
to know that about 42 years ago ( to bo preciso in 1311 Bongal stylo, corresponding to 1901-05 
A C ) an articlo on Vidhjidhara appeared in tho Vangl'ja Sihitya Paruhat Patrifo of 
Calcutta. In this articlo a fair amount of information was gl\ea regarding him porsonally and 
hU family and descendants and alco tho times in which ho flourished In that articlo thoro is a 
Ualf-tono reproduction of a painting, showing Vidyadhara and his eldest Bon Murlldbara. 
Tab painting, tho writer says, was in tho poiiCalon of Surajbux, a descendant of Vidyadhara 
Tho painting Is " old style ", but tho writer doej not say if it was contemporary or not. " I 
have to thank Mr Dob very much for tho abovo information, unknown to me. I havo requested 
Mr, Deb to publuh a summary of tha Bjngali articlo on Vidyadhara in somo Onont&l journal 
along with tii fcio'uio of Vidyadhara and hh eldest son. 

A Tributo to tho Musical Talents of Tiioasena 139 

" TlNSEN— ( c. A. D. 1560 ) Ha was a Qauda Brahmin 
by caste. His father's name was Makaranda Pande. Ho was 
resident of Gwahor. His father made a vow to a Muslim saint 
Muhammad Ghosa for the birth of a son. Tansen was born as a 
result of this vow. Tho previous name of Tansen was Takka- 
iimu. Ho had an extra ordinary imitative faculty. He could 
lmitato the sound of any animal perfectly. Once a saint of the 
name Handasa Baba was staying in his garden. Having observed 
Tansen's imitative faculty the samt requested Tansen's father to 
give Tansen in his charge with a view to making Tansen on 
expert musician. The father agreed to this request and Tansen 
learnt music from Handasa Baba and then returned to Gwalior 

Later the fame of Tansen reached Emperor Akbar, who 
brought him to his court where ho was included among the nine 
jewels of tho court. Akbar honoured him very much. 

Ho has composed many dhrupadas in different ragas, some 
of which are his own inventions. In some of these dhrupadas 
he has incorporated the name of his royal patron, Akbar. Ho 
died at the age of 63 years. The rdgas invented by him are 
J/jl/a Zfalhtir, 3Jiua Tail, MvjH Sarang etc. 

Once Tansen and Akbar together listened to the singing 
of Tansen's guru. At this time Akbar questioned Tansen . Why 
should there bo so much difference between your singing and 
that of your guru ? Tansen replied that his guru Handasa Baba. 
sings according to his mood but ho himself has to sing in obe- 
dience to Akbar's wishes." 

In tho abovo account of Tansen's life and achievements tho editor 
ottho Cantrato'sa has not recorded tho source from which he has drawn 
tho information about Tansen ; honce it is difficult to verify it. 

In the Oriental Biographical Dictionary by T. W. Bealo ( revised by 
KG. Keen, London, 1894 ) page 400, 1 find the following remarks on 
Tansen * — 

" TANSEN — A celebrated Hindi musician or Smgcr who 
flourished in tho time of Akbar and was employed by him. He 
uw originally t.i the tcrxtce of a Itoja wv.icd liamchmd and wa» 
ientto court at the special request of tho Emperor. Ho died in 
tho 3ith > ear of that monarch's reign A. D 1SSJ.A.U OOu. " 
Tho musjc.aiu m India, both vocal and instrumental,^ er smco tho 
ilusalman conquests, .vho have been h.ghly esteemed and ftbosoaanw* 

190 ~ Studies in Indian Literary History 

are handed down to posterity with much respect by different authors, are 
as follows — Gopal, Amir Khusro, the poet, Bainl, Bhano, Pandwa, Bakshii 
Lohang, Sultan Husam Sarqi of Jaunpur, Eaja Man of Gwalior, founder 
of the dhurpad, in whose time also lived the four following — Gharju, 
Bhagwon, ,DhondhI and Dalu Tansen, Subhan Khan, Surgayan Khan 
of Pathapur, Chand khan, and his brother Sura] khan, tantabang- khan, 
the son of Tansein, Madan Bae, Eamdas and his son Siirdas, a blind 
moral poet and musician, Baz Bahadur, Mundia, Mian Pand, Mian Daud 
Mulla Is-haq, Shaikh Khizir, Shaikh Beichu, Hasan Khan Teini, Siirat Sein 
and his brother Lala Deibi, Mirza Aquil, Mian Shori, Ghutaml, Lal 
Khan 1 Nilam Prakash, and the Bin players, Piroz khan and Naubat khan." 

Beale's account of Tansen is evidently based on non-Sanskrit sour- 
ces. I record below a tribute to Tansen and his musical talent from a 
contemporary Sanskrit Kavya called the VlrdbhciniLdaya KQvya, composed 
by its author Madhava about A. D. 1555 according to Dr. Hiranand 
Shastri Canto X of this Kavya deals with the reign of Bamacandra, the 
Baghela ruler of Bewa, who was a patron of Tansen. This Bamacandra 
is identical with Baj Bamchand mentioned as Tansen's employer in 
Beale's article on Tansen. This canto tells us that Bamacandra was a 
great patron of music He lavished his munificence on Tanasena, the 
renowned musician of India, to whoni, being pleased with his dhrupadas 
he gave countless wealth. Tanasena was music incarnate. His dhrupadas 
became very famous and are sung even now. The following verses of 
Canto X refer to Tanasena and his enchanting dhrupadas and rdgas 
which had made a name for him before A. D. 1555, when this Kiivya was 
composed — 

Page 121 - 122 

TFT Ucftf ufauwfla^ JTfeTq«*tfo<rcn$3gi: || ^ || 

qqif^sic* *mm% *r&? hVs^fth air ( sgrTnir^r ) frowra^ u Rv\] 
^i^iff (?) g*sp?ru^m w>fo?z. wFm, ^r^j mfct ft^n I 

^ vSi^-Aft ^im^t * *m&t srcrfV ( ^r?mV ) wnrnj; 1 
a*n (s) Jifa^m faf^sfir jt^t %3wn £t<zmmih& l| ^ it 

1. Edited by K K Lclti and Anont Shastri Upadhyaya with Text and Translation into 
Essl'ah togothsr with a critical amlyola by Hlranaad Shajtri Published by tha Eowa Darbar, 
lOZi — Ttu rare MS of tbo Vlrab' iuuda^ii Klvya wu written at B-nartj by a h.jyastki, 
TuMJu^. ion of KpnadJUa m J D 1501 

A Tribute to the Musical Talents of Tanasena 191 

3,<S^u$iotqftfa^r^ $qinRi$(£fq) fair n3r ^ i 
wmq^fr3jj*nF*ik£i w gqrHk ftf ^-ewj^ u 30 n 
a^r atfa q^t ik&mi qtfa ( *nfcr ) ohisrH^ | 

The free translation of the above stanzas as given by the editors is 
follows : — 

" 26. TQ,na3ena, the celebrated singer of his court, was indeed music 
incarnate. Earaacandra gave a crore of silver tahkas for 
every tune he sang. 

27. He passed the whole day in listening to his songs and con- 
sidered the succession of seasons as an instant m duration. 

28. Tanasena was conversant with all languages and all the niceties 
of the art of singing and seemed to surpass the celestial 
songsters HSha, Huhu, Tumburu and Nlrada. 

29. TUnasena had no equal in the past and present times and 
probably none would equal him in the future and in the 
heavens also there is none so proficient 

30. Immortal are his strains, which pervade the universe and 
are steeped in the nectar of Ramacandra's glories, 

31. Wherover human speech shows its excellence Tdnasona'* 
songs are sung. " 

From the above Sanskrit tribute to Tanasena of c. A. JD. 1535 wa 
lay now turn to Am i-Akban l of c. 1590 A. D , in which we get the 
Mowing information about this greatest musician of Akbar's court - 

'aualOG- "89 Mjah RUmchand Baghclah Ranichand was tho 

patron of the renowned musician and singer Tunsin, regarding 
whom udo the List of lEusicians at tho end of this book. His 
fame had reached Akbar ; and in tho 7th year tho emperor sent 
JalaloddmQurchi(Xo. 213) to Bbatb to induce Ttnsln to come 
to Agra Eumchand feeling himself powerless to refuse Akbar's 
request, sent his favourite with his musical instruments and 
many presents to Agra, and tho first time that Tdnsln performtd 
at the cou rt the emperor made him a present of tuo M.u of 

»<, l ' **;-■*- ^ u ^«'-»-aa-a. Vai(I»i, a,-**) C*'cs:m, luti »j* t3 tl a l7 ' a- 

CM a- i\^^ i 0Q P Jj4 Gll », } E'cciusa wi-^ ^\< . T '' 1 or ' ™, *'"' "~ 

nZ 'i Y ^•n--^WJ I ob W c Mi .cabling ctznof M_ fi ,^-. .. 


192 Studies in Indian Literary History ' - 

Rupees. Tansin remained with Akbar. Most of his compositions 
are written in Akbar's name, and his melodies are even now-a days 
everywhere repeated by the people of Hindustan." 

Page 475 - "213. Jalal khan QiLrchi — Akbar was much attached to him. 
In the 5th year, he was sent to Bamohand Bhagelah ( No. 89) 
With the request to allow T&nsin to go to court" 

Page 61S - " Imperial Musicians His Majesty pays much attention to 

music musicians at court, Hindus, Irams, Turams, Kashmiris, 

both men and women Principal musicians. 

1. Mvjan Tansen. A singer like him has not been in India for 
the last thousand years. 

2. Bdba Belindas of Gwalior, a singer " 

( names of 34 more musicians are recorded here ) 
Page 613 - footnote 8 : — " During Shah Jahan's reign we fmd Jaganath 
who received from Shah Jahan the title Kabr&t ; Dirang Khan 
and Lai Khan who got the title Gunsamundar ( ocean of 
excellence ) Lai khan was son-in-law to Bilas, son of Tansen. 
Jaganath and Dirang khan were both weighed in silver and 
received each 4500 Bupees " 

The statement of Blochmann that Rdmchand gave one crore of 
tahkas to Tansen as present is corroborated by the VirabhanUdaya Kavya 
( X 26 ) which states •— 

Eamohand gave one crore of tankas for every dhrupada Tansen sang. 

Vincent Smith in his Akbar the Great Mogul ( Oxford, 1917 ), p. 50 t 
states that Baz Bahadur, the king of Malwa, was an expert in music and 
song and " like Tansen, was reputed to have received instruction from 
Adall or Muhammad Shah Adil, the last of the Sur kings ( BadQoni, tr. 
Bonking, i. 557 )" 

The VirabhanUdaya Kavya (X. 13 ) refers to ^fe in the following 
stanza — 

" h £%i%Ttf *nimrats^^ j^'^tl-m^ifi nun " 

Dr. Hiranand Shastri has identified grsuora^fH? ^fe with Sultdn 
Muhammad Sur Adah ( vide p 17 of his Critical Analysis), who gave 
instruction to Tansen in music. It is interesting to note that this reference 
to ( Tansen's guru ) ^f^fe or Adah occurs in the very canto in which wo 
find the verses referring to Tansen and his musical talents ( X. 26-31 ) 

A Tribute to the Musical Talents of Tanasena K 

Speaking of "TUnsen and music" Vincent Smith observes (pp.Gl-4 
of Akbar the Great Mogul ) • — 

" Akbar, although engaged in so much troublesomo businc 
in various departments, was not indifferent to the pleasures 
life Ho took special delight in music and song and seems to ha 
had a considerable knowledge of the technicalities of thoso ar 
About this time ( 1562 ) he required Raja Rainchand of Bhath 
Rowa to send to court Tanscn of Gwalior, who was universal 
recognized as the premier musician and singer of tho ago. T&nst. 
who became a Musalmdn subsequently was received with mark 
favour and liberally paid He is credited by Abu-1 Fazl wi 
having introduced * great developments* into his art Conservati 
Hindu musicians take a different view and accuse him of havi 
falsified tho traditional ragas, tv-o of which, Hmdol and JArr 
have disappeared since his time. Such critics hold that the 
fluenco of Tanscn was deleterious to the musical science 
India. 1 It would seem possible that he may have violated t 
ancient Hindu canons and sought to modernize his art by maki 
changes to suit Muslim taste Few people have a right to oxprc 
any positive opinion on tho subject and the author of this book 
not included among those few. " 

On p. 100 of his Al bar, Smith gives an account of the aurrend 
of Kalanjar by Raja Rlmchand of Rlwa A D. 1569 and refers to tl 
Raja as " the chief who had surrendered Tdnsen, the musician, to Akba 
demand. " On p 50, Smith mentions the personal friends of Akbar, call 
the "nine jewels" (Blochmann, Jjtj, Vol i, p 174, No 205, and t 

nauratna picturo in tho Victoria Memorial Collection, Calcutta T 

nauratna or '* nine jewels " meant nine friends namely liaja Blrbal, i?< 
Maimngh, Jiljl Todar Mall, Halim Hamam, MuHa m P vjiza. Fai 
Abu I Fazl, Mirsa uHdurrahlm, Khan Kh-lnan and Tiin len ) " On pat 
J2X-ii>3 Smith makes tho following remarks about Tauten — 

" All authorities and traditions are agreed that the h 
performer at Akbar's court was Miyln Tdnsen whom AkLar 
tho 7th >ear of the reign had required the Raja of Ri w j 
surrender.AbuI Pa=J declared that "a singer like him bos i 

194 Studies in Indian Literary History 

been in India for the last thousand years. " He was a close friend 
of Sur Das, and like many of his contemporaries, received much 
of his musical education at Gwalior, where Baja Man Singh 
Tomar ( 1486 - 1518 ) had founded a school of music. Tansen 
became a Muhammadan, assumed or was given the title Mlrza, 
and is buried in Muslim holy ground at Gwahor. Unfortunately, 
he permitted himself to be ensnared by the prevailing vice of 
Musalmans in that age. His talents included the composition of 
verse The date of his death does not seem to be recorded but he 
certainly continued to serve in the court of Jahanglr ( For Akbar's 
music and Tansen see ante chap m ; 2ln, "Vol. i, pp 51 ( Aln, 19 
with plates ) and 611, .4. N, n, 279; Gnerson Vernacular litera- 
ture No. 60 etc , A, S E , n, 370, with description of Tansen's 
tomb, A. H Fox Strangways, The Music of Hindustan, Oxford, 
1914, p 83. Jahangir confirms Abul Fazl's opinion of Tansen's 
skill (Jahanglr E B , i, 413 ) Tansen is labelled as Mlrza in the 
nauratna drawing E5]a Man Singh Tomar of Gwahor must not 
be confounded with his namesake, the Kaohhwaha of Amber 
(Jaipur) A good fall length portrait of Tansen, on a small scale, 
is included in a well executed picture of Jahangir's reign, 
depicting a court-group, which is in the possession of the Royal 
Asiatic Society) 
On p 484 Smith refers to the Portraits of Akbar's friends and 

contemporaries About Tansen's portrait he writes — 

" The Sketches in Vol. lvn of the Johnson Collection, 
already mentioned, include some worthy of reproduction. The 
best is No. 44, a slightly tinted sketch of TCLnsen, the musician 
A good full-length portrait on a small scale of the same personage 
is included in a picture of Jahangir's time, belonging to the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society, and hung on the staircase." 
The foregoing extracts from Vincent Smith's Akbar the Great Mogul 

give valuable information about the life and achievements of Tansen but 

they do not contain any information about the career of Tansen at the 

court of Eamachandra, the Baghela king of Eewa. 

Some information about Tansen has been recorded in the Maha~ 

rH^trl'ja JTiUnako'sa by S V. Ketkar I note some points from this 

information — 

Vol. XV {tOSo) (g) a^ ara?n n*ra a Oauda Bruhmana — tradition about 
his acquiring proficiency in music from a Gandharva. — Akbar's 

A Tribute to the Musical Talents of Tanasena 195 

favourite — His original connection with a Hindu Raja, Rama- 
candra. — Tradition about Akbar going as a bearer of musical 
instruments to hear the music of Tansen's guru Handasa SvamI 
— picture of Tansen, available (see tjpntor Vol. V, p. 181) — 
Death of Tansen in A. D. 1568, thirtj four jears after Akbar's 
coronation — His namo is so much respected among musicians 
that at the baro mention of his name they twist up their ears and 
bow to him — His tomb at Gwahor [ <x, Jgtar, sr. ^\. ^f% ] 

Vol. V ( 1022 ) pp. 183-181 — ara^T ( in the article on the history of 
Indian Music) — Development of court in Akbar's reign. — 
Tansen was one of the pupils of a Hindu Saint, Handasa SiHml 
residing at Vrndavan on the banks of Jumna, Tradition about 
Akbar's visit m disguise to Handasa Sidvu — Raja Mansingh of 
Gwahor, a great patron of mnsic, supposed to bo the originator of 
dhrupad music — Two classes of Tansen's followers: — (1) ^iftrqr 
and (2) tfte+K — Tansen invented a musical instrument called 
Ttnqr — He also used 4Hl or ^m\ — These two classes of Tansen's 
followers are still found at Rainpur. 
I close these notes on Tansen wjth a request to my South Indian 

friends to record any references to this celebrated musician in datable 

South Indian sources, Sanskrit or non Sanskrit. 

23. Vastusiromani, a work on Architecture 

/ • / - — 

by Samkara, the Guru of Syamasaha, 

son of Mananarendra — After 

c. A. D. 1550* 

Aafrecht records the following MSS of a work on architecture 
called the Vdatustromant — 

CO I, p. 568 — " qrresfeRtaf&I arohit Pheh. 9. 

— by Maharaja Syamasah Samkara, N. P. 92 " 

CO II, p. 224— Do — Ul war 1963 

All the MSS mentioned by Aufrecht in the above entries are in- 
accessible to me. 

In 1947 my friend Sri P. A. Mankad of Sabarmati presented to the 
B. 0. E Institute a Devanagarl copy of a MS of the Vdstusiromam. 1 This 
copy was obtained in 1927 by Sri Mankad from Pandit Bhavani Dutt, 
late Secretary to the Maharaja of Tehri ( Garhwal ) through Pandit 
Narahari of Badrinath. The original MS from which the present copy 
was made consisted of 83 folios, each folio containing about 10 lines on a 
page. The present copy consists of 153 pages, eaoh page containing about 
18 lines, and each line containing about 26 letters 

The MS begins as follows — 

&w \u nk m\ fc iiufo j i'm k ii i ii 
gfa^p^favr Jig?* qteT*?rc ^ind«j«rf^a II ^ II 

* MmnlJ of tks Bi«lndarr^r Omitldl Pe^arch Tnsliluli. VclXXXV. £?. 35-tl. 
1 Sri iliaiad & taiononiLnt on tbi3 IIS rea&j m followi — 
" qiFJ^Rfafrl compU.a by lJ53in at tho of King WTSir^ of Toliri State" 

Vastasiromant 197 

zn$i&w* Vtvsftn jvr?: zftm^ *[€> 5T5*ft 
w* ^ifa .^vtHn^qV fircat^.^rsq?:. 

fc^sfa tiuRt H<jft gram iptm: 
Tho MS ends as follows on p. 123 — 

This copy was prepared by tho scribe Madhavananda for tho uso 
at brldharananda m Samvat WW (=A. D. 1872). V&tuUromani is tho 
work of Sahara, tho guru of Kmg ^jamaiaiia. References to works and 
authors mentioned in the MS aro as follows .— 

(1) «Hw?ai^^i:-p 1. 

(2) 55: v*l -p. 1. 

(3) wwRsft-p 2, 4, 9, 10, 13, 1G, 31, 52, 3C, 41, 42, 43. 

(4) *tvTSWT-p 2,6,7,13,11, IS (^^ ), 20, 31, 52, 53. 
{ 5 ) ^qfsarai^- p. 2, G, 9, 17, 18, 23, 24, 7 1 ( ^ ), 134. 
( G ) TO^F^n*. p 3, 4, G, 7, 13, 76, 90 ( q-xm ) 

(7) wi:-p. 3, G, 0, 10, 12, 13, 23, 32, 33, 135. 
(8 ) ata*-p. 4, 5, 15, 21, 35, U, 43, 52, 120. 
(0) ^qq^-p 5, 

< 10 ) a^f^tw^-p. 0, S, 11, 12, 52, 5.3, 03, G7, 71, 82. 

198 Studies in Indian Literary History 

3faBHftapn^-p. 6, 17, 24, 41, 91. 

«*iHSm$f p. 7, 

nter^T-p. 8 

tmsre -p. 9, 63. 

3ftlg:-p 10, 12, 15, 19 (mftfc ), 29, 30, 32, 42, 49, 52, 75. 

#*ww;-p. io. 

fe^ftl-p 11, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 37, 80, 120, 138, 140 

"srsraoiV - p. i3 

snt-p 14, 16, 17, 18, 25, 27, 30, 81, 32, S3, 35, etc 

Page 14 - "^fa sfturTTSTO^nf^TCPT ^TW «l^J^rg;<gaV m^ftrfojoft ^ffift- 

^W*ftf-p 15, 17. 
\^ p 16, 23. 
?T5WI^-p. 18, 136 

ri^r.-p 19 
fawwrfcrc-p 21. 
^I^j j ^ -p 23, 27 ( v 4£<t& ) 
*rcRJsft~p. 23 
gft?fo -p. 28, 38, 41, 141, 153. 

fcftwi^-p 29, 49, 52, 58, 59, 74, 75 
«T^3^r-p. 29. 
Er^rRRi: - p. 29 

>lrHl«-44t^l-p. 30 

wst-p 39. 

t mdd^ -p 42, 76 

Page 48- " ifit gft *MJgKMlRKM 41l*mil <jWM $«V Jm^faftfloft 

WfcTOT^-p 58. 

fas g iff oft- p 60 

^ I^^M^ -p 62, 76 ( «tKdE<fl«0 , 141 

sUidfa«lWW.-p. 63. 

Page69-''%fo ift^gmw ftnrra <ll*gfo»Wl 31* ggfrT SF&cnrj? 

^km%- p 70. 

gpEpn%-p 75, 87 ( ^n^wi-w+Ki: ) ' 

Vastusiromuni 199 

(•iO) 351%3^-p. 75. 

(41) fa^^fcftwn V-p. 77. 

(42) qriq?a^r- p. 77. 

(43) s^njltfar^ - P- 77. 

( 44 ) ; wm .- fo qK - P 77, 90. 

Page78-"?fe «WH*UU-n ferei IK-qifrfo^m snst 'gg* 

(45) 5T>?5ig:-p 78 
(40) 5TIT^:-p. 78. 
(17) q^trq.-p 86 
( 48 ) Vijwftftfe - p. 90 

(49) WT^lfe^-p. 90 

(50) fat u iKada -p. 99, 103, 116, 117. 

(51) ^fann*fr- p. 100,111. 

(52) «vm»r4.-p. 103. 

(53) g^Kft-p. 105. 

PaQa 106 -" $m wwHiiuwiftrere tyju^wt^g nr? w* wt qjm 

(54) ^-p. 108. 

(55) vrc^nf-P- 121. 

Page 1S1 - " ^foyfT^H^TCPnfarre . .iH^^I 3^1*4^ ^IFR * Tg 35>TJTq," 

( 56) rqtfdq^riifta'jft-p. 15'-'. 

Page 146 - tl $p$ vfU4^£UU-{|ivF?FT X^m HTH H£PT iWiq " 

The foregoing list of references gives us a good idea about the 
literature made use of by the author of tho Vdstusiromarii m tho eight 
chapters [prjkarams ) of his treatise on architecture I shall now con- 
sider tho chronological \alue of sorao of these references for fixing tho 
earlier terminus for the date of the VastuUromam as follows. — 

Na.Sl — TguTz -Possibly Ilemadri's v.ork on dharinailstra called 

tho Catururgacintamam is referred to. IlcxnJdri's date ii 

about -I. D. 12C0. 
Xo. £2 — TraJTTi"^ - This appear* to be a v.ork onjycM by King 

Bhoji of Dhara (ciD./05O) 
No. Z7 — Wtckt - He "is too author of some astronom-cal irorka. IIo 

flourished about A. D. 1050, 

198 Studies in Indian Literary History 

( 11 ) ^foTOfcawm-p. 6, 17, 24, 41, 91. 
( 12 ) siftfenJf p. 7. 

(13) *tercm-p 8, 

(14) <m3R -p. 9, 63. 

( 15 ) *fcre:-p 10, 12, 15, 19 ( snfifc ), 29, 30, 32, 42, 49, 52, 75 

(16) sftfroram-p. 10 - 

(17 ) ft^fa-p 11, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 37, 80, 120, 138, 140 

(18) ^raoft-p. i3, 

(19) «nfc-p. 14, 16, 17, 18, 25, 27, 30, 81, 82, 33, 35, etc 

Page Id- ''^rffartigKMlf^RTST 3Vm<HI$jj53l%Tg3V ^n^jftlfoqft ^Tft- 

(20) Tc^^-p 15, 17. 
( 21 ) ^nit p 16, 23. 

(22) reroiW -p 18, 136 

(23) fl%^.'-p 19 

(24) fsrwjfvwf'iK-p 21. 

(25) sreeg^-p 23, 27 (*(&&). 

(26) *npteft~p 23 

( 27 ) sftgfo -p. 28, 38, 41, 141, 153. 

( 28 )~feSnCTq^-p 29, 49, 52, 58, 59, 74, 75 

(29) ajfiq^Fi-p. 29 

(30 ) srsransn-p. 29. 

(31) s wir-Mlt^ -p 30 

(32) m^t-p 39. 

(33) gR3^-p 42, 76 

Page d8- " %fa gfta^giqsi ifei w gqrranr ^Wq* $<ft ^T^ftt^hrnV 

(84) wnren$-p 58. 

(36) P^jwotV-p 60 

( 86 ) ^I ^^^V p 62, 76 ( m^M<0^l), 141 

(87) qK d Rw iW K -p. 63. 

Page 69- l£ ?fa s fo^gmmfiu ift qft$Pr»qui *mr ^qH st^m^i" 

(88) ^km^-p 70. 

( 89 ) grerarm-p 75, 87 ( gr^^rrewm: ),' 


(40) gjJR^r-p. 75. 

(41) fa^i^ferft^ -P- 77. 

(42) mN*trer- p.77. 

(43) grr^Wigg^ -p. 77. 

( 44 ) W^nn^R- P 77,90. 

Pago73-"\fe ntwviKmfoixz re^ifffigyn 1W ■ag* 

(45) ^5t3:-p 78 
(4G) WOT- -p. 78. 

(47) 3TW-P. 86 

(48) UTtnqftftre-p 90. 
(40) ^TC?fire& -p. 90 

( 50) f W uKt uu -p. 90, 103, 116, 117. 
(51) 3^fe*i1%- p. 100,111. 
( 52 ) ftfvnnH: - p 103. 

(53) ?rataft-p. 105. 

Page 10G-" %fo * AH'm<\* $W& WtMWrR- mfT ^^ ^ TTO 

(54) q^I-p. 108. 

(55) W(5ra.-p. 121. 

Page 124 - " ^f3W r ^fl5Rr^fwS ..?JXkX&* a^^^nm T3 357^" 

(56) ^faqcrafafmofr-p 15'J. 

Page iit>-"$ftt vftiFH^Ttntrivnr^ stfyn ^W H93T g^rrm " 

The foregoing list of references gives us a good idea about tho 
literature made use of by tho author of the Vistuuromanl in tho eight 
chapters (prakaranas ) of his treatise on architecture I shall now con- 
sider tho chronological value of some of theso references for fixing tho 
earlier terminus for the data of the V&stusiromam as follows — 

Xa. £1 — ypufz - Possibly Hemadn's work on dharinasastra called 

tho Catururgacintdmani is referred to. Hemadn's date is 
about J. D 12<J0 A 

Xo. 2S — TTam^'J - This appears to be a work on jyolt? by King 

Bhop of Dhara (ciD. 1050 ), 
Xo. 27 — «fnfh - He is the author of some astronomical works. He 

flourished about -1. D. 1050. 

200 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Na. 8 — 3)WT<frf - This work is quoted freely in the Vclstuiiro- 
mam. It is a work on jyot is by Kesava, also known as %*nft 
or 5jni5q^Rr. This author flourished about A. D. 1496 
( see p. 258 of History of Indian Astronomy by S. B» 
Dlksita, Poona, 1896 ). 
No. 41 — f?ra[l?af$r<(tofui - This is the celebrated work on astronomy 
by Bhaskaracarya composed in &aka 1078= A. D 1150 
( see p. 246 of Hist of Ind Astronomy by S B Dlksita ) 
No. 48 — ^lf^^n=5T - This is the work on jyotis by Viddana, son of 
Mallaya It is not much earlier than &aka 1400 ( A D. 
1478 ) See Hist of Ind Astronomy by S. B. D. -p. 292 ). 
No 44 — im siT3PT*ft - One of his works is dated Saka 1871 = A. D, 
1449 ( see p. 476, foot-note, of Hist of Ind Astro, by S B D ). 
No. 49 — 5TH^lfdc!i+- This tantra by Laksmana Desika belongs to the 
11th cent. A D (see p. 276 of J N. Farquhar's Outline- 
of Beligious Literature of India, Oxford, 1920 ) 
No 48 — aq^nfa qr^- This work on judicial procedure has not yet 
come to light Its author Bhavadevabhatta lived about A 
D. 1100 ( see p 305 of P V. Kane's History of Dharma- 
sOstra, Vol I, B O. B Institute, Poona, 1930 ). 
The references to Kesavapaddhati ( about A. D 1496 ) and Bama- 
vajapeyt ( A. D. 1449 ) in the above list of datable references enable us 
to conolude that the VQstuhromam is definitely later than c A D. 1550. 
The exact date of the work can be fixed if we are able to identify King 
SyQ.masd.ha, son of King Mana, by whose order Guru Samkara composed 
the Vastusiromant as stated by him m verses 4 and 5 at the beginning of 
the work. 

In the Gazetteer of United Provinces, ( Vol II, Calcutta, 1908, pp, 
280-281 ) we find some history of Garhwal Dist. No genealogy of the 
Garhwal Chiefs is recorded in this history The names of some Chiefs 
recorded in this connection are aa follows — 

Mahipat Shah — ( 17th century ) founded iSrlnagar. He was the first 
m his line to establish independence. 

Pirthi Shah — In 1654 A D Shah Jahan sent an expedition against 
this Baja. He was driven from Srlnogar by Jagat 
Chand ( A D 1708-1720 ) 

Pradlp Shah— He ruled from A, D. 1717-1772 

Lalat Shah— A. D. 1779. 

Vastusiromani 201 

Parduman ShQh- son of Lalat Shah, perished with his troops in A. 
D. 1801 fighting against the Gurkhas. 

The names Syilmasdha and his predecessor Jlilna-narendra men- 
tioned in tho Vdstusiromani are not found among the names of the Garh- 
wal rulers mentioned above. Without a complete genealogy of tho 
Garhwal line of Kings I am unablo to identify Syamasilha and Mana- 

In the List of Inscriptions of Northern India by D. E. Bbandarkar 
( Vols. XIV to XXIH of Epi. Indtca ) we find Inscription No. 988 ( p. 133 
of tho List ), which is dated Vikrama Saipiat 1688 — A. D. 1632. This 
inscription is of the time of tho Tomara Mtlrascna found at Bohtas 
( Jhelum Dist Panjab ). The genealogy of the Tomara family of Gopacala 
( Gwahor ) as given m the inscription is as follows . — 






J _ 



^nwsnfir iswH ( A. D. 1032 ) 

(ccntcmporarj of qifij ^cjrejR ) 
Canou,!/ .nough the names m^S and ; Jr ^ 1T ( = SR ^ ) mentioned 
m tU rwi-.i.NMir,. arc fouad m the abo.'e genealc^. If these names 

202 Studies in Indian Literary History 

are identical with the names jwiuaifij and JTRHTfij in the Gwalior line of 
Kings the date of ^iw«T€ would be A. D. 1632. In the Vdstusiromani 
3MWW% is ealled " fiRVRr^r " born of ttr King. Normally the epithei 
would mean " son of king jth " but if we take it to mean " born in the 
line of king *TFT " we can reconcile the genealogy of the V&stusiromant 
with the statement of the inscription of A. D. 1638. 

The above hyphothesis about the possible identification of 3*TTfl?nf 
and 7iM«iVji needs more evidence in support of it before we accept it as 
final. Chronologically there would be no difficulty as the Vastus iromani 
has been shown by me to be later than c A. D. 1550. I hope students of 
the history of Garhwal State would throw some light on the names sprR- 
*U! and «i«W'^ mentioned in the Vilatusiromani . 

24. The Contact of Bhattoji Dlkslta and some Members of 

• * • 

his Family with the Keladi Rulers of Ikkeri — 
Between c A D. 1592 and 1645 * 

Bhattoji DIksita, i the great grammarian of Banaras, lived between 
c. A- D. 1550 and 1630. He had a circle of pupils, some of whom com- 
posed works on grammar and other subjects. I have published papers on 
the works of some of these pupils like Varadaraja, a Vanamah, 3 Nllaka- 
ntha Sukla. * His influence on subsequent authors ° is also very great. 
The family of Bhattoji was a learned one and appears to have enjoyed 
some patronage of the Keladi rulers of Ikkeri in the Shimoga District of 
the present Mysore State I propose m this paper to record some ovidonco 
of the contact of Bhattoji and other members of his family with the 
Kejadi rulers of Ikkeri between c. A. D. 1592 and 1615. 

Dr. E. HulUsch in his Beport H on Sanskrit MSS in South India 
(Madras, 1896 ) describes a MS of the Taltvakauatubha of Bhattoji 
Diksita as follows . — 

Pago XII — " The Tattiakaustubha ( No. 1243 ) was written by Bhattoji 
DIksita at the order of Venkatendra of Keladi. According to 
Mr. Sewell's Lt$ts of Antiquities, Vol. II, p. 177, Venkatappa 
Najaka of Keladi reigned A. D. IflOi to 1626. " 

Pago 122 of Appendix — MS No. 1213 begins as follows — 

vTTinitfaj^r q^ttr^t^a a^thnvK || 
<Hfa*nfq<nTi'^ns>} w^$V?3*t ^p. i 

* J^rnJ of in* OrutScl InAii Jj, Cu-ia, \\L XV, .Vj I. SfJ. IMS f p. S3-:o. 

1. AUut, tL-jiia'^ct Ulii to'l toj »/ Hl"^ In wj "S'-id\ti in Iw**iii Z,ii v rar/Ifc'„r,, " 
\\ll,l'X3. ir-CI-71. Vis..iUUaJw;l> >'<Jj*. 1 ^i-tz bvS IS* \ rp. 75-7d. 

2. iuj. ir- aic:.j 

? to.lj^r Lv'r^rj B^lc ix, Vol. X. Tlrtl. ijv 2ai-2;5. JXc. 1310. 
i. fc^4 ay ±U~U), \& I, 5 p. i^S-170. 

5 £.0 sjyH^r*-U 'li di*iu£ Itoa'iUii'A iu sbo .l^^r LCrzry ui~!tl\it a~i ca 
li.« JuwU't.j C'j.k v jj <■/ u~ W.i'icf .Yj_ .jili'j'uh Or. rUX XI ,w ■> „' (Hft-ii J, VvJ. 

204 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Dr. B. A. Saletore in his remarks on the age of Bhattoji Dlksita in the 
Karnatak Historical Review, Jan.-July 1937, identifies king " Venkaten- 
dra ", by whose order Bhattoji composed the Tattvakaustubha, with 
"Vehkatapa Nayak I, who ruled from A. D. 1582 till A. D. 1629, and states 
that this King was noted for the patronage he gave to learned men. x 

There is an incomplete MS of the Tattvakaustubha in the Govt MSS 
Library at the B. 0. E. Institute, Poona ( No. 319 of 1899-1915 ). At the 
end of the third Panccheda of this work ( folio 6 ) we find the following 
colophon — 

Prom the extracts from the Tattvakaustubha quoted above it is clear 
that Bhatton had some contact with the court of King Venkatappa Nayaka 
I, who ruled at Ikkeri and belonged to the Keladi line of rulers. The 
regnal period of this ruler is given differently by different scholars as 
follows : — 

1. Hultzsoh — " A. D. 1604 to 1624. " 

2. B. A. Saletore — " Prom A. D. 1582 till A. D. 1629. " 

In the pedigree of the Keladi rulers given in the Vtjayanagara Com- 
memoration Volume, 1936, p. 269, the regnal period of Venkatappa Nayak 
I is given as " A. D. 1592-1629. " If this period is correct we can infer 
that the contact of Bhattoji Dlksita with this Keladi King must have 
taken place sometime between A. D. 1592 and 1629. 

Bhattoji' s brother Bangojibhatta was also a very learned man. He 
also appears to have enjoyed some patronage of ihe Keladi ruler Venka- 

1. There is a MS of the Tattvakaustubha in the Gov t Ori. MSS Library, Madras (No 4683 
desonbed on p. 8417 of Vol IX of the Descriptive Catalogue, Madras, 1910) The three 
versea quoted by roe from the MS of this work desorjbed by Hultzsoh are also found in this 
MS. The reading in the first line of verse 2 in this MS is " ^KcS^^^q " which h 
evidently a wrongreading for the oorreot-reading e ' tjxri^^i's^ " 

2. The Italian traveller Pietro della Valle who visited the Court of Venkatappa Nayak 
I of Ikkeri in A. D 1628 refers to Spft^gR as follows on p 272 of his Travels, VoL II ( 1892 ) — 
" Vciik-tagi Naieke had a great and partioular devotion to the idol AgoreBuar, who is here 
worshipped. " 

The Contact of Bhattop DIksita with Rulers of Ikkeri 205 

tappa Nayaka I ( A. D. 1592-1G29 ) who was a great patron of learning. 
He had a son named Bhadrappa, who died daring tho life time of his 
father, leaving a son named Vlrabhadra. This prince assisted his grand- 
father Venkatappa m the administration of the province and in course 
of time succeeded him. Vfrasaivism appears to havo been the faith of the 
Koludi Najakas. They were great devotees of the Advaita Math of 
Srugeri. Venkatappa Nayaka I wrote a commentary in Sanskrit on 
kivagita. He patronised sorao scholars, like Tirumalabbatta, Eaiiganatha 
DIksita, Asvapandita, etc. 1 In view of this information recorded by Shri 
N. Lakshminarayan Eao in his article on the Nayakas of Keladi in tho 
Vijayanagara Comm. Volume we must take tho following verso in tbo 
yaiynkaranabhdsana of Bangoiibhatta's son Kondabhatta as genuine. — 

( 6co pp. 053 ol VaijlkimnoiftuKina In B. S. Seriu, 1215 ). 
Tho first two lines in the above verse expressly state that Rahgop- 
bbatta, the brother of Bhatto]i and father of Kondabhatta, defeated in 
dobato at tho court of King Ke{adi Vehkatayya a Madhva ascetic of the 
name " tarteru " and got tho honour of riding in a palanquin from Venka- 
tappa Nayaka I ( A. D. 1595-1029 ). 

Prom tho evidence recorded so far it is clear that both tho brothers 
lis. Bbattoji and Eaugoji had an intimato contact With the court of tho 
Keladi ruler Venkatappa Nayaka I, though they normally resided at 
Banaras and carried on their learned pursuits there. This Keladi ruler 
must ba\o entertained great respect for theso brothers, who wero follo- 
wers of the AdvaiU doctrine, which appears to have been followed by 
Venkatappa also m view of his being tho devotee of tho Advaita Hath of 
£rugon like other rulers in tho Keladi lino of rulers. At any rato Konda- 
bhatta mentions with pride and satisfaction tho honour bestowed on his 
father by Venkatappa for defeating a MJdhva ascetic of the Dvaita School 
of Vcdanta, 

Tho patronage to Bhattoji's family given by Venkatappa Nljakal 
appears to ba\e been continued by bis grandson Vlrabhadra ( A. D. 1G29- 
lO^), v. ho succeeded hrni as will bo seen from tho following evidence.^- 

206 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Kondabhatta, the nephew of Bhattoji composed a work called 
" Tarkapradlpa " by the order of King Vlrabhadra, son of Bhadrendra as 
stated by Kondabhatta in this work An incomplete MS of this work has 
been desonbed by Hall in his Bibliography (1859), p. 79 In my article* on 
Kondabhatta, I have tried to prove that this patron "Vlrabhadra, son of 
Bhadrendra is identioal with Vlrabhadra Nayaka ( A. D 1629-1645 ), 
the son of Bhadrappa Nayaka, who died during the life-time of his father 
Venkatappa Nayaka I. It appears, therefore, that Vlrabhadra enjoyed the 
patronage of this Keladi ruler in the same way as that enjoyed by his 
father Bangoji and his uncle Bhattoji at the Court of Vlrabhadra's grand- 
father Venkatappa Nayaka I ( A. D. 1595-1629) 

The following table shows at a glance the contact of Bhattoji's family 
with the Keladi rulers of lkkeri between A. D 1592 and 1645 — 

Bhattoji Family Keladi Boyal Family Begnal period 

1 Bhattoji (c. A. D 1550-16b0) Venkatappa Nayaka I A.D. 1592-1629 

2. Bangoji ( — Do — ) — Do — — Do — 

I n I 

Son Grandson 

3 Konda- (o. A. D. lbOO 1660) Vlrabhadra A. D. 1629-1645 


Bangbji was a devotee of god 5M5#?r ( Kalahastlsa ). He refers to this 

god in the last portion of his Stvollasa as follows — 

There is a railway station called KalQhasti, m the Ohitoor District of the 
Madras State about 15 miles to the North of the Benigunta junction. 
Nearby is the Kalahasti Zamindari. There is a village of the name 
KGlahaati, near which is the temple of god Mahadeva, with five faces. 
This god is the celebrated Kalahastlsa referred to by Bangoji. Bao Bhadur 
W. A. Bambardekar 2 thinks that the native place of Bhattoji's family 
must have been in the vicinity of the Kalahastlsa, which appears to be 
"the family deity of the family of Bhattoji Dlksita. 

In view of the South Indian origin of Bhattoji's family explained by 
my friend the late Bao Bhadur Bambardekar it is easy to understand the 
contact of this family with the Keladi rulers of lkkeri in the Shimoga 
District of the Mysore State as explained in this paper. 

1. See Adyar Library Bulletin, 1954. 

2. Bee p. 800 of Bhat\oj\-Dlhij*ta-JRatwwcka, Bombay, 1939. 

25. The Chronology of the Works of Kondabhatta 

( A Nephew of Bhattoji Dlksita ) 
Between A. D- 1610 and 1 6 60 * 

Aufrecht records tho following works of Kondabhatta, the son of 
Rahgojibbatta and nephew of Bhattoji Dlksita 
Catalogus Catalngorum, Part, I, p. IdO. 

( 1 ) ^t^rCtT written at the instance of King Vlrabhadra, Hall, p. 

79, Ben. 165. 
( 2 ) a^ Hall p. 78 
(3) ^wm& flfiret 
( 4 ) ^rai^ptdfe^Rt^ar 

(5) tiqi^mfa^l^^FIQIT 

(6) ^qqi^mfH^FgwpJran Oppert — 5397 
( 7 ) 3qramfa3F3<0foET K. 88 

( 8 ) ?&zws Peters. 1. 121 

I am .concerned in this paper mainly with the later limit for the 
date of tho ^nsrnfa^^CFr or ^qi-ttuivyui of which the ^i-HYW^iyu 
is an abridgment by Kondabhatta himself. The Bhandarkar Oriental 
Research Institute MS of «. ^ar^ir, ( No. 22G of 1882-83 ) is described 
by Dr. Belvalkar on p. 259 of his Catalogue of Grammar MSS, Vol. II, 
Part 1, 1938. The age of this MS as recorded by him is " Samvat 171C 
or 1760. " If wo accept " Saqivat 1716 — A. D. 1660, tho later limit for 
the date of this work would be A. d. 1660. If wo accept " Samvat 1760 " = 
A. D. 1710, the later limit would he a. d. 1710. 

A Ms of amwujqst by Kondabhatta No. 1610 m the Desai Collec- 
tion of tho Bombay Univorsity is described by Prof. H. D. Velankar on p. 
270 .of his Catalogue of this collection (1953). It is dated " Samvat 
1762 " =5 a. d. 1700. 

Eggeling describes a MS of tho tpn**cr.£ T j raK lu the India Office 
Library on p. 188 of his Catalogue of I. O. MSS., Pact II ( 1889 ) — MS 
No. 711. This MS is dated " Sami it 1706 " = k. D. 1Q50. If this dato is 
correct wo may fix a. d. 1650 as tho later limit for the data of forcTsrura 
and its abridgment *c. *«£. sir. Possibly this MS was copied during "the 

* T^ J-Vr L^i^r-j i-2<Un. Vet XVHl t r a:l 3-i f jw 210-2XC. 

208 Studies in Indian Literary History 

life time of Kondabhatta If a MS of the abridgment is dated A. D. 1660,. 
the original work viz the ^qTR<n*nT<JT must have been composed by its 
author many years prior to A D 1650. 

K. P. Trivedi in his edition of the VaiyakarariabhUsanasdra etc.,. 
describes a MS of the %qi^or*moi«i{ on p. 13 of his critical notice of 
MSS (from Dehla's Bhandar, Ahmedabad ), which is dated " Samvat 
1729 " = a.d 1663. This date is in harmony with the date a. d. 1650 of 
another MS of this work described by Eggeling 

Kondabhatta's ^n^l^i^fw or T^pf^fosT published in the Benares 
Sanskrit Series contains the following references by Kondabhatta to his 
other works vis. ( 1 ) thn ; ET <I i 5 £l tr r and ZFfc&l, as pointed out by K. p. 
Trivedi on p. 19 of his introduction 

P. 32 " %*TRJ*oma: g *gw srenfa treffrgg^ " 
( see also folios 44, 46, of MS No 774 of 1887-91 atB. 0. B. Institute). 

P. 51 " ft^Rra»reinRwa^_" 

In view of the data recorded above we can safely conclude that 
Kondabhatta composed the following works before A. d 1650 — 

( 1 ) ^n^T' J i'jjr o T 

(2) ^i^ui^uw k MSS of A.D 1650,1660 
Kondabhatta's TflsffffoPT was written later than his W^&^JUgtjnr and y&fiu, 
smce these two works are mentioned in it. Kondabhatta mentions the- 
following authors and works in his VaiyQkaranabhftsana ( appendix II to- 
B. S. S. edition, pp. 730-731 ) — 

arfhrcnd^, args^n^TR, grsrecftfqrff, aror, «fK«rwqT?fcrchrf3r, ar^, 
^wnwj s&t**, ^>^t, ^^rr, sssqa^, s^qa^rc, ^is^jj^rt, *i^M*i*i+nr, 

i^f, *njfjftr> ^f^Fft^T, 5rafMi$«f*<iii*>iW, ftrcreR, &\$tk<*>\<, gregigrer, mm- 

q(CT3r, <nfafc, ii^n^ifJisT, jthi^t, SREiheppgwg-, *ts, *rgffir , ^ft, irnnrer, 
*rm<ft, wro?, ^R^r, wrgnftivr, J7«w, «^?jjt, fl^rwccTt w^^rgi^, m<s*r, 

sr^Hfogw," srream, sindsftfircji, *ft**renft^, «$muO*$<, fiHM'iftjjfo 

Among the above references, the following are-important — 

Chronology of Tho Works of Kondabhatta 203 

(1) ST^R^lf^, tho guru of ^fe^fsjra 

(2) sjf^nsisni, the guru of «£tfir£tf$Rr 

(3) ^jjtfa, (ha uncle ( ft^r ) of Kondabhatta 

(■i) iritun, ^is^5V^vt and fa<l«i^gcft aro -works of ^ftfa on 

(5) Tfftfe, the father of Kondabhatta. 
Hall on p. 79 of his Bibliography ( Calcutta, 1859 ) describes a fragment of 
Kondabhatt*' s 3&^(ta as follows •— 

" This work was compiled at the instance of Raja Vlrabhadra, son 
of E5]a Bhadrendra. Vlrabhadra ia eulogized by the author for having 
given an impulse to the revival of the practice of sacrifice " "This work 
cites «rpre5Wpi?ft and sr^ fa -a m frT. " Tho dato of aferfiq can be deter- 
mined if we can identify tbo patron king Vlrabhadra, son of king Bhadren- 
dra Very probably this Vlrabhadra is identical with King Vlrabhadra, 
son of Bhadrapa Nayak, about whom the following information is re- 
corded in the Madhyayuglna Caritra Ko'sa by Chitrav Shostri, on p. 747 — 

" Vlrabhadra ( j d 1629-1645), King of Bednur, son of Bhadrapa 
Kaijak... . He was originally king of Ikkeru "When Shahan and Bana- 
dullakban conquered Ikkeri l in a. r>. 1637, ho began to reside at Bednur. 
He died without issue. " ( see ftumi'UKdNHi , pp 105-106 ) 

If tho above identification is accepted the dato of 355^7 could bo 
fixed during the reign of ^V-xz i»~ , A. D. 1029-1645. King Vlrabhadra, the 
patron of Kondabhatta, belonged to tho lino of Keladi Chiefs, whoso 
capital was at Ikkeri first and at Bednur later. Kondabhatta's father 
Baugopbbaita hid sonio contact with the Keladi court as will be scon 
from tho following stinza at the end of the ^[STumT^ ( p. 259 of B. S. S. 
edition ). 

Um\ ;^^:r-fc£W4Rft\is<=qF^rfe<fT snsn^ i 
mix gfa w^f^'a fH^pa^trn svr 
qr^TFU <m^ 3v«J<ttf> ^-niftj^i *tri u " 
KoMibhatU clearly tells us in tho first two lines of tho above stanza ho.v 

I. Ucc UUriiiurw'Wci Vol. Vdlb V .rtuICj.;/w cf Jttdui, l:cJ. IiU-2 It 

c{ X<UU CiU f t. Tta cril'o cf iLi l]~mj v. is v. Kv^il J.n SiLi.^a s »U cV. F.ii'!/ lb > 
<l]-z>tly ttudlU t ilittati XX.J — u: £Mc;r i.m ^'zul 1/ lia la Au U ltc.3 
n-UU^m ^rtaWS.dsZiQLL'i i=4ii^i-i to 'I*,;:*. 

210 Studies in Indian Literary History 

his father Eahgojibhatta conquered in debate a Madhva ascetic called 
Vaderu at the conrt of King Keladi Venkatayya. 

KavTndra Paramananda's S'tvabh&rata ( ed. by S M Divekar, B. L 
S Mandal, Poona, 1927 ), composed* between a d 1661 and 1674/ contains 
the follwmg references to Vlrabhadra, King of Bednur - 

( ^ft^^r srai^R etc. ) 

( Chap. IX verse 37 ) 
King Shahaji conquered Vlrabhadra and pleased Kanadullakhan - 

(Chap XI, 6) 
Vlrabhadra was helped by King Shahaji to re ascend the throne 
from which he had been removed by Eanadullakhan .- 

( Chap. XVn, 7 ) 

The verse refers to the conquest of Vlrabhadra 's kingdom by All 
Shah of Bijapur. 

The Italian traveller Pietro della Valle in his Travels (a. d. 1623- 
1624 ) describes in detail his visit to Erkeri, where Venkata^ pa Naik was 
ruling In his account of the 21st November 1623 on p. 284 ( ed. by 
Hakluyt Society, London, 1892 ) Pietro della Valle refers to " Vtrabadra 
Naieka, a young boy, his sotls son, whom he ( Venkatappa Naik ) designs 
for his successor. " I believe this " Vira-badra Naieka " is identioal with 
Vlrabhadra Nayak of Bednur ( Bmdupura }, mentioned in the S'tvabMrata, 
Whom I have identified with Vlrabhadra, the patron of Kondabhatta. 

The dates for Vlrabhadra recorded in the Madhyayuglna Carttra 
Ko'sa are A. v>. 1629-1645 If these dates are correct we have to presume 
that Venkatappa Nayak or Keladi Venkatayya who ruled at Ikkeri in A. b. 
1623-1624 may have continued his rule upto A. D 1629. Very probably 
Eangojibhatta defeated in a debate the Madhva ascetic ' Vaderu '* at the 
court of this Venkatappa Nayak of Ikkeri sometime prior to A. D. 1629. 

1 Possibly this MSdhva ssoetlo named ' Vaderu ' belonged to the Vftlsnava Ma$h of the 
Sarasvata Brahmins at Partagall In the Canoon division of Qoa NSrayana Tlrtha -was the 
founder of this Math He was honoured with the title ' Vadera * by Siddanna Nfiyaka of the 
Keladi family The date of admission of Naxayana Tlrtha into the Madhva fold Is the 8th 
March 1475 ( see article by 3 E Khare on the Archives of the PartagcUt Ma\h In the 
Procndw&softia Indian Historical Records Commission, 1951, pp 60-55 ) 

Chronology of the Works of Kondabhatta 211 

In tho genealogical tree of the Nayakas of Keladi, given on p. 269 
of the Vtjaijanagara Commemoration Volume ( 1938 ) by N. Lakshmi 
Narayan Rao, we find the dates of Vehkatappa I, Bhadrappa and Vlrabba- 
dra Nayak represented as follows :— 

VEHKATAPPA NlYAKA I (4. d. 1592-1629 ) 





(a. v. 1629-16J5) 

Baugoji Bhatta's contact with the conrt of Keladi Venkatappa I must have 
taken place sometime between A. D. 1595 and 1629, while Kondabhatta's 
contact with "Virabhadra must have taken place between A. D. 1629 and 

26. The Relative Chronology of some Works of Nagojlbhatta 
Between c A. D. 1670 and 1 750 * 

Dr. P. V Kane 1 has given us a good account of Nagoj'ibhatta of 
Banaras and his literary activity of an encyclopaedic character. According 
to him Nagoji " flourished towards the end of the 17th century and the 
first half of the 18th century. " " His literary activity must be placed 
between 1700 and 1750 A. D.". This chronology is fairly correct, but it 
needs to be corroborated by a study of the extant works of Nagoji and their 
relative chronological order For want of leisure I cannot undertake such 
a laborious study, but as a first step in this direction I record below the 
results of my study of some works of Nagoji from the chronological point 
of view. It is hoped that these results will clarify at least to some extent 
the relative chronology of these works and also substantiate the views of 
Dr. Kane about the chronology for Nagoji' s life and literary career referred 
to above. 

Before recording the results of my present study I note below the 
names of the works of Nagoji so far known. — 

( I ) Aufrecht records the following works of Nagoji ( Cata. Catalo. 
Part I, pp. 283-284 ) — 

( 1 ) aRS^R^vn Ǥ3<MM<iin<CT 

(2) areiwTPftrre 

(3) WWlVg«HSK 

(4) sirafaftifoT 

(6 ) +l«IW«ftd-i4 

(7 ) ^i^urf^-^whr 

( 8 ) ItHHTWA*! iiw4jj*i%+i 

( 9 ) <&tiizi or 


(11) a4iwiqi<n*T gfcgThHtf) 

(12) aiptfflfirw gr. ( on what P ) 

* Oriental Thought, Vol. I pp 45-62. 

1. Vide pp. 458-458 of Histary of Dharmaiasira, Vol. I, Pcona, 1930. 

Chronology of i?ago^bhatta 213 

(IS) fare^rairs 

(14) fa»%to 

(15) ^%nor 

(16) frwJ&3(?) 

( 17 ) *uam#r 
( 18 ) ^ronr?w 

( 19 ) <r?w£tfc<fl ny. 

(20) qftw^&vre 

( 21 ) Tdy««5^% yoga 

(22) qia^e^2fawqnn3i«yR<n 

( 23 ) srfli-b^^-4 <5^rftftF5FJtan gr. 

( 24 ) rrcmsifrr tantxa 

(25) rrrarird^ktt 

(26) jnify^viu^^ss 

(27) sjn^T^unfrfoira 

(28) raatfntfte't^ 

(29) tot^h^ict 

(30) *rawn£V5i 

( 31 ) GtjRTPTOlfe^T dh. 

( 32 ) Rnnif t as^g^^T 

(33) ^h^tf? 

(34) sri^T^ifrst 

(35) ti ij ^ fui ^ tjw ( ? ) 

( 36 ) ^TlWUftWd^I 

( 37 ) *qmHJ*^grt 

(38) a^(!) 

(39) 5J*Xi^WTOnjvi 

(40) g^a^^aniTOg^w 

(41) "Z$F&teR 

(42) H^CPC^Jn^l 

(43) ^wqniq^PEftt 
(•14) mfas&vrtt 

(45) ?nui=nftf<rci 

(46) s^Rteri^ 

(47) ^jiTnfRjtq; 

214 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Dr. G. V. Devastbali's Descriptive Catalogue of the Bombay University 
MSS (Books I and II) records the following works of Nagojibhatta — 

MS No. 40 — JT^(*n«Tfl^q)^r 

MS No. 62 — ^tg^ls^Dlft 

M8No. 63— Do — 

MS No. 64 — Do — 

In this work Nagoji refers to his " ^a^^fosK " — ( " ft*d<*ji 
S^sd-K 1 -^^ ^25^ " ). 

MS No. 71 — m^g^j n f i — MS is dated Samvat 1902= A D. 1846. 
This is the shortest of the three editions of Nagoji's treatise on the philo- 
sophy of grammar viz. yqT^^PTfH^P^TJT^n. 

MS No 89 — q$*nq^N(T 

MS No. 982 — arrefrgfa<for — MS dated Saka 1728 = A. D 1806. 
Works and authors mentioned in this manual are - <nv$x, ^PlcH^f, stotq- 
rarejra, ftifarfafg (A. D. lew ), t^rr, qiferra, nqtamfcma, asn^sTFJi, jt^t- 
*&f, 5FT5, *n*nr, ftraigm, gRijJta^, fe^ftw, fa*m, ^<m4«i*. 

MS No. 988 — Do — MS dated " Samvat 1644. " 

MS No. 984 — Do — MS dated Saka 1734 -AD 1812 The date of MS 
No. 988 recorded by Dr. Devasthah is " Samvat 1644. " If this is correct 
it can be interpreted as follows . — 

( 1 ) If the date 1644 belongs to Vikrama Samvat it is equal to A. D. 
1588. This date for a MS of Nagoji's work is impossible as Nagoji lived 
definitely after c. A D. 1640. 

(2) If the date 1644 belongs to &aka era it is equal to A. D. 1722. 
This date for the MS is possible as it does not conflict with the chrono- 
logy for Nagoji's works fixed by scholars. 

MS No 1198 — *n ft "gqq< (W — MS dated Saka 1725 — AJ). 1803. 

Authorities referred to in this work are ■ — 3Hd^<», enrsg*^ ' 'ST'hjST, 
jftft^fe, fom, "srgfwsrfejm H^nfea, *bfafa 3 ^Tfa, gtenTJr, «u^iuj 3 ?^r- 
qrf^ner, ^ ( or Tig&ifk ), m&&, wan ( and flifcHi^-niRw ) ; JTi^srnr, 

*ftflKJWli$P, ^^9^, ^5, *n§^ ( WS ^T^l^ ), fay WW, SRHH, greTWg , 

^j srrasiTH, «M5>iw, s^nw, ^p=3, w^fn^smrfa^, %wz, t^rfc 

Among the above references the following three are important for 

the chronology of Nagojibhatta and his works - _ N 

( 1 ) 5T3nPTS — Between A. D. 1540 and 1600. He was the nephew of 

5 ti3t» l*Tg author of ft^^g ( A D. 1612 ) and composed f[3R<jfa and 

Chronology of Nagofibhatta 215 

other works on dharniasastra ( Seo p. 717 of Vol. I of Hist, of Dharma. 
by P. V Kane i). 

(2) arm^t — the author of ^id^tt^^r and other works. Ho flour i-' 
shed " between 1645 and 1075 J. D. " ( See p. 452 of History of Dharma- 
sMrct, Vol. I by P. V. Kane ). 

(3) qq qfcd — tho celebrated writer on dharinasastra. Ho flourished 
*' between 1595 and 1630 A. D. " ( Sea p. 432 of HisL of Dharma. VoL I by 
P. V. Kane ). 

MS No. 1358 — ^frcnsit^ciirenH. ^ s dated ^ a; «<* 1702 — A. D. 1810. 

MS No. 1359 — Do — 

The Descriptive Catalogue of MSS ( Vol. VI- Vyakarana MSS ) m 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal records the following MSS of Nagojibhatta's 
works - 

MS No. 4222 — ;?5WiujJj<0qh3hj 

MS No 4223 — Do-MS dated Samvat 1794 - A. D. 173S. 

MS No. 4263 — ft^Nd^l MS dated Samvat 1828 -A. D. 1772. 

MS No. 4281 — snp^F£?raT — ( See also other MSS of this work, 

Nos. 1285 to 4290). 
MS No. 4331 — ^qt*wi^3^a«^n — ( Other MSS Nos. 1332, 

4333, 4434 ). 
MS No. 4434 is dated Saka 1745 = A D. 1823. 
MS No. 4343 <TRWiq^$n3* 

MS No. 4314 — Do — MS dated Samvat 1911 = A. D. 1855. - 
MS No. 4345 — qiTH^^'^^TiCT^T by Vaidjanatba Pdyugundo ( MS 

dated Samvat 1910 = A.D 18G0 ) 
Nagofibhatta wrote a commentary called sifar on the ^i^rofur 
of Govmda. Tho B. 0. B. Institute has a MS of this commentary, No. 119 
of 190'2-07. References to works and authors found iu this MS are .- 

xirnm, <lfon, trszissR^;, ^i^'^fa, ^ijamw-er:, «a&3^r«, 

Nagoji refers in this work to his ^im^ra^^a;^ as folio ,73 * 

Folio 7 — " %ps ^iM^sa «2^it anrnr^ruwiiH: » 
Folio 14 — " tfk 13Z q^t ^^rv t^Tfit^pg^^pn^ '' 

Fo.'jo 15 — {{ <rra:re?re ^urafa^ra^tn ^^^rm^R 1 ' 

cJ nJj, VcJ. 1 ), 

216 Studies in Indian Literary History 

It is clear from these three references that Nagojibhatta's zrlts 
on the 9i«4iM<{ta of Govinda was composed after the composition of his 

There is a MS of Nago]ibhatta's Vaiyaharana SiddhQnta-ManjUsQ. 
( No. 1295 ) in the library of Scmdia Oriental Institute, Ujjain, copied in 
Saka 1630 = A. D. 1708. My friend Sri S. L. Katre, the Curator of the 
Institute has kindly supplied to me the following extract from the colo- 
phon of this MS ' — 

^^^qfi^d^ftc^ fererefJn? ^itr ( -scored ? ) *wi*Rft<niOTi || gvn^ i| " 

One Batnakara TripathI copied this MS at Almoda ( Almora ) in 
the Kurmacala ( Kumaon ) territory at a place near the house of Viresvara 
Pandita on Budhavara, ldth day of the bright fortnight of the month of 
Caitra of &aka 16S0. This date corresponds to Wednesday, 24th March 
1708 according to Indian Ephemeris, Vol. VI by Pillai, page 218. The 
date of this work must, therefore, be earlier than A. D 1708. 

The B 0. E. Institute has a MS of the ttareyn fa^Klti^ T ( No. 33- 
of 1907-1916 ) dated &aka 1699 = 1777 A. D. I have gone through this MS 
cursorily. Works and authors mentioned in this treatise are — 

^nwi, I^tri^. *«uRi*^r, vnvs, sjfKw, ^foft^rer, sfV5^«gd<4«^, stwwi^, 

WN<m$., ^rrag# ; si<iii<j<s<jtw, foircr^o^tK, R^a>*n<^ ; ^is^sr+i^, ma^^,. 
qsqjftsRraT , a$fm ( fol. 73 ), *r% , fadutui, itwi^t, v«ut4i4Y, snrNft^Ti- 

nn w Meflq tefcn^ f^w " ( folio 140 ) 3 sfo^nfa, ^rsnt , ^tfht, «p , 

^L ( S^ 01 )> ^S^ qjET«f|gT, <|"l+*d;, cftft^ER , fft#I%<J ( the guru 
of Nagoubhatta in irf^nTTni ), nmm ( guru of N. in w4Wd=T ), ww*gn*ft5T 
*(H ( the patron of N. ) - Colophon on fol. 221 - " fra8ftfT gn*m*ft'rai*n> 

In the above list of references, the reference by Nagojibhatta to his 
own " wam^tftefar " on folio 140 of the MS is important This work is 

Chronology of Nagonbhatta 217 

no other than the Tr^PTi^m^W-^tg of this anthor. It is, therefore, clear 
that Nagojibhatta's ^raitror^n - ^at?c was composed earlier than his 
Wsmfag^awHxn of which a MS dated A* D. 1703 is availablo in tho 
library of tho Scmdia Oriental Institute, Uj]ain. 

I gratefully record below references in Nagojibhatta's works to his 
other works supplied by my friend Prof. K V. Abb>ankar — 

( 1 ) In 3ij*ij^t (Benares Edition ) Nagop mentions his wtV^w*.- 

Page 1033 — " i$r«i iH^ra qsj^Jitfirflt q^ ^g,^M< " 

Page 108S — " ^rer s&nvc jw'ftdq, " ( according to Vaidyanatha Paja- 
gunde, the pupil of Nagoji 3T^=^=^T^?^tvR ). 

( 2 ) In H^nrFUlf tqtistct ( Benares Edition ) Nagop mentions vzvfl on 
the following pages- — 

Page 8 — " ft^iqij %3tj; tfajjwm." ( see also pp. 14, 54, and the 
following sutras.-l, 2, 53, I, 3, 72^1, 4, 5-1 ). 

( 3 ) In st^i^^yy* ( Benares Edition ) Nagoji mentions his ( n^l ) 
TT^ra^tqhrtcr on the following pages . — 

Pago 437- "<£crctj -.flwrsrfkqfrsfter i^SlW ( see also pages 527 and 5?2). 

From tho gloss of Vaidyanatha Payagunde on the gggis yaftvU wo 
find that there are many indirect references in this work to Na^oji's 
other works indicated by sF*nr as found on the following pa<*es of the 
Benares Edition ~ 

[ 1 ] sp^=£^I ( pages 136, 140, 137, 144 

[ 2 ] 5T^^r=^rra ; and \i«u< * of sfc${\Ttf ( pp 212, 268 ) 

[ 3 ] 5T^nr=^0b3, ( pp. 54, 111, 262 ) 

[ i ] 3i?qg-=5i^sT ( pp. 160, 203, 270 ) 

[ 5 ] €n=q^=Jj^Ku t t^ ( p. 62 ) 

( 4 ) In his commentary on the Rasagaiigadhara of Jagannatha 
Panduaraja Nagoji mentions his jqrqr ( see p. 360 of Nirnaja Sagara 
Press Edition of the Jiasa^angSdhara ). 

( 5 ) In ^fbnqT^aor ( ed. by Elelhorn, B. S. Series ) Nagoji mentions 
his other works as follows.— 

( 1 ) si^to ( pp. 2i ? 31 04, 104, 114 ) 

( li) -^^:r<tqh:hf ( pp. 43, 72 ) 

(ni) *T?T (pp. 79, 109) 

Prom tho commentary cf Vaidyanatha Payagurvla on tho Pcribhd- 
$<!nJuscKhar,i we ^ct the following indirect references to his worismidii 
by Nu^i— 

218 Studies in Indian Literary History 

( 1 ) *?q^ = 32ifcr ( pp 7, 22, 29, 31, 38, 56, 70, 74, 84 89, 96, 97, 98, 
103, 104, 105, 111, 112, 115 ) 

(2) 5n=Et=r=?pi{cn (p. 8 ) 

( 3 ) 3J5^=3i-qV«^sW ( pp. 37, 107 ). 

(4) Bfwras&inr ( pp 61, 75, 78, 90, 96, 99, 110). 

From the data recorded so far we can tentatively draw the following 
conclusions — 

( 1 ) In his ausftelft'frr Nagoji ( =N ) mentions fSprkfag (A. D 1612). 
In his Slffiq ^m ftT N mentions 5T^*rs ( between A. D 1540 and 1600 ), 
mA*q* ( between A D. 1645-1675 ) and n^qfer ( between A D. 1595 and 
1630). Nis, therefore, later thane A D. 1670. 

( 2 ) The Uyam MS of N *s WraToif^Tau^qi is dated A. D. 1708. 

( 8 ) The A. S. B. ( Calcutta ) MS No 4223, of N *s voluminous woik 
tt^W i m m foregftcf is dated A. D. 1738 

( 4 ) In the % fa. fl^l N mentions his ^^ncqucftq^ht, which in 
its turn mentions % fa. fl^nri This cross-reference proves that both these 
works were being composed simultaneously some time earlier tban A. D. 
1708, which is the date of the Ujjain MS of t fa n^n. 

(5) These voluminous works viz the tr fa wjqT and *l5Wlw4M<{ta- 
<refar are the products of N 's mature intellect and scholarship Presuming 
that N was about 30 years old at the time of their composition sometime 
before A. D 1708, the date of a copy of one of these works, we may easily 
infer that N was born say between A. D 1670 and 1680. This inference is 
in harmony with his reference to Anantadeva (AD 1645-1675 ). 

( 6 ) Very probably N composed his %. fa. jj^qri and fffW imMJW- 
giftcr between c A. D 1700 and 1708. 

( 7 ) N composed his commentary on the Tsrosrft of Bhanudatta 
called the **TO3rftsP5TCT sometime before A. D. 17 IS, which is the date of a 
MS of this work in the India Office Library ( See p. 355 of India Office 
Catalogue, Vol. Ill ) as pointed out by S. K. De in History of Sanskrit 
Poetics, Vol. I ( 1923 ). 

( 8 ) N composed his commentary on the BasagahgSdhara after his 
composition of the%. fa. M*£{\ as he mentions %. fa. wnm in this commen- 
tary. Very probably this commentary was composed by N sometime after 
A. D. 1700. 

( 9 ) N composed his *i5qn<{W-^iter, -which mentions 1r. fa. ^?T ; also 
after A. D. 1700. 

Chronology of Nagojibbatta 219 

( 10 ) N composed his amiNft'fa' sometime before A, D. 1722, which 
is possibly the date of a IIS of this "work ( No. 033 ) in tho Bombay 
University collection of MSS. 

( 11 ) N composed bis < 3^3m sometime after his q. fa. 5R^n ( bet- 
ween A. D. 1700 and 1708 ). 

( 12 ) N composed bis tfuA^qi after his sr^r^rrr (=£S-ivJK'£0lvTC ) 
as be refers to 3r*^«$k-fl m the srEpfcrqf 

( 13 ) N composed his srercis^sivH' after bis iij*«;»^^tnT. 

( 1-1 ) N mentions ^TW^sr^W-T^jte (Between A. D. 1700 and 1703) 
in bis d y i ^^ C K - U Evidently tbe ^^i^-^K^ 1S latt2r 'ban A. D. 1700. 

( 15 ) N composed his qft xfu^KH after bis q fa snjqi and J^r«n^r- 
U^fa-3^rhcr ( both composed between c. A. D. 1700 and 1708 ) and also after 
•i^vi'-V^lvU as these works are mentioned by him in the qfirTt^^TvlT. 

( 16 ) N composed his 3W5l5^*£$i'3* some time before A. D. 1721 as 
we have tho following dated MbS of this work in the library of the Oriental 
Institute, Baroda. — 

Accession No. 846- qS^t^r^R, MS dated Samvat 1777 ( = A. D. 
1721 ). (seo pp. 71-1-715 of Alphabetical List, Vol. I, 1942 ). 

Accession No. 11703 — «3yy*3-*;kw with comtn. ' f^fwnsn ' by 
Nagoji's pupil qsnrnrqpiTpT — MS dated Samvat 17S0 ( = A. D. 1724 ) 
(see pp. 71G-717 of Alphabetical List, Vol. 1, 1942 ). 

Evidently N composed bis <I5v5^5;ivr* earlier than c A. D. 1715 
as the ssg^Vs^rc is an abridgment of the "TW-'^twf. As tho 33*1^5- 
STCTTmentions q. fa. JT=jqT( between A, L\ 1700 and 1703) it is later than c A. 
D 1700 and earlier than A.D 1721, the date of the Baroda MS of this work. 

( 17 ) N composed Ins ^iniftt-Ttrfa before A. D. 1751, the date of 
MS No. 1293 of this uork m the Desai collection of MSS of the Bombay 
University (seo p 23G of H. D Velinkar's Cata. 1953) As this work 
mentions $. fa, j^qj ( between A D 1700 and 1708 ) it was composed 
before A. D 1751 but later than c. A. D. 1700. 

( 18 ) N. composed his nvqarra* with commentary before A. D. 1733, 
the date of MS No. 1402 of this work m the Desai collection of tho 
Bombay University (see. p. 253 of Velankar's Cuia. 1053. ) 

( 19 ) Besides the Uyam MS of q fa. inrn dated A. D. 170S tluie 
is another MS of it dated A. D. 17,17 in the Desai Collection of the 
Bombay University ( No. 1025-^ec p. 209 of Winner's Catalogue, 1033 ). 

27. Date of Vasudeva's Commentary on the 

Karpuramanjar! of Rajas'ekhara 
( Between A. D. 1450 and 1700 )<* 

The following commentaries on Ea]asekhara's KarpuramaffyarX have 
been recorded by Aufreoht in his Catalogus Catalogorum — 
CO I, p. 82 — ( 1 ) by Kamaraja ( Premaraja ) 
( 2 ) by Krsnasunu 
( 3 ) by Dharmadasa 
( 4 ) Eatnamafijarl by Pltambara 

( 6 ) KarpUramdnjariprakaia by Vdsudeva K 70; Peters. 3. 393* 
( 6 ) JCarpUramanjarichdyS 
CO II, p. IS — KarpHramdnjarlpraka'sa by Vasudeva L. 3288, Peters 4.25, 
Stein 77 ( inc ) 
I am concerned in this paper with Vasudeva's commentary which is 
available in a published form 1 Its editor has not determined the date of 
the commentator Vasudeva. I propose in this paper to put some limits to 
his date. 

Vasudeva was the son of Prabhakara and GomatI as stated in the 
following stanza at the beginning of his commentary — 

In all the colophons found in the commentary the name of the 
author, the name of his father and the name of the commentary viz. 
^ymiftsraTCT are recorded as follows — 

According to Aufreoht ( GO I, p. 667 ) mfj?^ composed a work on 
tftHTHT called the qqtJf^-HH^I-JT^R dealing with the substitution of milk 
for intoxicating spirits in the msftn ceremony ( See Hall's Bibliography, 
p 292 ). This work oites fa+ - io<jnu<j«f, ssrterrof&T and the (Jwiski of f^i^ j ar 
( c. A. D 1070-1100 ). The MS " Peters 4-25 '' mentioned by Aufreoht is 
identical with MS No 662 of 1886-92 ( ^fir^fV with JraiST by mg^ ) 
in the Govt MSS Library at the B. O B Institute, Poona Another MS 
pf Vasudeva's SP5TCT mentioned by Aufreoht is " Peters 3'393 " which is 

* OntntaX Thotight, Vol. I, No 1,]®. 68-6S. 

1 Published by Nlrnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1949, edited by N B. Aoharya. 

Vasudeva's Commentary on the Karpuramafijarl of Rajasekhara 221 

identical with MS No 278 of I33i 3d in the Govt. MSS Library. Both 
these MSS bear no dates. They appear to bo at least ICO years old. Tho 
MS " K. 70 " of srew recorded by Kielhorn in his List of C. P. 3fSS t 
Nogpnr, 1874, p. 70. is mentioned by Kielhorn to be about 125 years old. 
If this statement is correct tho MS appears to havo been copied about 
A. D. 1750 which is, therefore, tho later limit to the dato of Vasudova. 
Tho earlier limit to tho dato of Vasudeva may now be fixed on tho basis 
of references in the commentary. Works and authors mentioned by 
Vasudeva m his ^{H^flsunsr (N. S. Press, Bombay, 1919) are as follows .- 
( 1 ) ?R^ate<J3RT<Ji — p. 1, 2, 10, 18 
(2 ) <tfj**r — p. 2, 10, 14 lb, 16, 17, 22 28, 30 
(3 ) WOT5KI — p. 2, 4, 10, 11, 1-1, 36, 38, 42, etc. 

(4) w-p. 2, 6, 7, 8, 35 

(5) mJWT — p 2 

( 6 ) w»fc-bim^ — p. 5, 34, 37 

(7) ^qsnffa — p. 6 

(8) <j5PF&— -p 6, 13, 35, 63 

(9) *TCW5Rt — p. 6, 8 

(10) witaBii<& — p. 6 

(11) Jn^gargft- — p. 7 
(12) " Hrc^refcft — p. 7 

(13) g^_p 10, 34 

(14) ST-Jcta^ftft^IF*. — P 10 

(15) srrtRftreiS; — p 13, 14, 46 

(16) tfnta^PST — P. 35, 

(17) «lfijOT?qFl — p 41,46 
(IS) nuun — p. 41 

(19) ft*. — p. 45-A. D. 1111 

(20) s& -p. 52 

(21) qnfe^W-p. 59 

(22) vvntpgi ^far^T-p. 66, 69, 81 

(23) fw^fr-p. 70 

Tho dates of some of tho v,orks and authors mentioned by Vasuicv* 
aro as follows — 

No. 17 — en^T^ — Between .1. D uoo anJ 13 JO ( Seo p. 236 cf 
Sani^nt Potties Vol I, 1923, by S K. Do). BuU.ecn A D. 1300 and 13fa0 
( See p 121 of P. V, Kan-Vs San*' nt fWicj, 1951 ). 

222 Studies in Indian Literary History 

No. 9 — ^WM*J5T — This is obviously the ^HU+ur by Saradatanaya — 
between A. D. 1100 and 1300 ( See p. 242 of g. K. De's Poetics, Vol. I ). 
between 1175 and 1850 A. D. ( See p 405 of P. V. Kane's Sanskrit Poetics). 

No. 7 — qi<faw<{\7 — A work of this name was composed by g^cfasr 
ifon'lft in A D. 1613 ( See p 402 of P. V. Kane's Sanskrit Poetics ). 

No. 13 — &m*5? — Very probably this work is identical with the 
^lul^wi'H of fcr^jrres- A. D 1340-1360 according to A. N. Krishna 
Aiyangar ( See p. 411 of P. V. Kane's Sanskrit Poetics ) 

No. 16' — gr fltUHl ^T — Sarngdeva, the author of this work on music, 
was patronised by the Yadava king Singhna (AD 1210-1247 ). ( See p 
419 of P V Kane's Sanskrit Poetics, 1951 ) 

As qi^%3 mentions and quotes from the mf^T^oT (c A. D. 1300- 
1380 ) we may fix about A D 1450 as the earlier terminus to the date of 
his commentary on the q^jcussift If the work ^TtcKIJT^frr quoted by him is 
identical with the ^rcqrr^VT composed in A. D. 1613 by Sundaramisra 
Aujagan this earlier limit can be pushed up to about A. D. 1650, the 
later limit bemg about A D 1760 fixed by me already on the strength of 
the age of a MS of Vasudeva's Prakasa recorded by Kielhorn 

Vasudeva records the following vernacular equivalents in his 
commentary — 

Page 18 — " H^rcisJWJFTTOC. ' f^TS ' %fo nf*K^ " 

Page 27 — " s^qft gsTTra^ I ' itqcn ' % fa Wiirrat I " 

Perhaps Vasudeva hailed from Maharastra and knew the Marathi 

In the light of evidence recorded above we can arrive at the follow- 
mg conclusions regarding Vasudeva's date — 

( 1 ) The date of Vasudeva definitely lies between A. D 1450 and 

( 2 ) If the the work Natyapradlpa mentioned by Vasudeva is 
identical with the Natyapradlpa oomposed by Sundaramisra in A. D. 1613,. 
the date of Vasudeva can be fixed between A. D. 1650 and 1750. 

28. Some Puranic Extracts quoted by Apararka 

( c A. D. 1125 ) and their 

bearing on the History of Indian 

Paleography and Education * 

In my paper 1 on the History of Ink-manufacture in India, I havo 
recorded some recipes which appear to bo later than A, D. 1200. The 
earliest among these recipes is that from a work on alchemy called the 
BasaratnSkara of Nityanatba Siddha assigned by scholars to about the 
13th century Since this paper was published I happened to read somo 
portions of the commentary on the YHjnavalkuasmrtl by Apararka, who is 
assigned by M. M. Prof P. V. Kane to A. D. 1125 

In tho danaprakarana of the Yajilaialkijasmrti (chapter I, prakaram 
8,) YajSavalkya extols A®%tt or fafll^R in verso 212, In commenting upon 
this verse Apararka quotes several authorities 2 such as *m, sj^qfa, ^faWt- 
xT*, WWii<M, ^fH3*m, etc Tho long extracts from tho threo Puranas 
portaining to feuKCT aro important as they contain some literary and 
paleographical material. These extracts deal with tho following topics 

( 1 ) VTfacqteR' — Worship of g^TE (manuscript ), description of ;rfT 
( ink ), nftRra-s ( ink-pot ), formula of ink, qualifications of a 
W^ ( writer of AISS ), instructions regarding the wntin" of 
Mss, depositing MSS in a tt or monastery, tho merit acquired 
by donating ilss of Puranas, Ramayana, MahJblurata , 
endowment for the maintenance of a preceptor ( <rm vmq £ {%. 
^TH ) ; endowment for providing food, raiment eto. to students 
and making provision for students pursuing a study of technical 
sciences and arts ( <y<Wiy+fcMfod), endowment for the constant 
reading of religious manuscripts in the temples of gods, Siva, 
Visnu and Surya. 

(2) 5R*CTgtPT ; — Donating of the 11SS of the following Puranas 
according to sj ecific udhis :-— ( a ) s*r I 0000, a*r$*PT, ( b ) °m 

55000, TOjmn, ( c ) a* 23000, frwysflpi, ( d ) m 2iQG0, --nyjTPT, 

* JPwrtJ C'nmUuf Vd. XUI, Kti. 3UI IV 3-1 1. 

1 Ylda Frac-ilT, \d 1U ( i<Jtv \ rp . I-r 

2 V.da nu i;3-£C3 <-f Yd 1 c{ t*jZ~-~~ ,.u }f '., 

{ i_4-diai.-*3 biz j j. S-r.ii, Jv-~ ., I.. "3 ) 

324 Studies in Indian Literary History 

( e ) &r 18000, ^rnwagnui, ( f ) sro 25000, ^1*33*1^ (g) 5T*t 9000, 
=Hl4w^, ( h ) 3J3T 16000 3n&^5^"JT, ( i ) mr 14500, flf^regnoi, ( j ) 
m 18000, EruW, (k)jw 11000, fe^gn&T, (1) jHt 24000, 
^RT^gnoi, ( m ) H«T 81100, ^^g^oi, ( n ) sm 10000, «<UHy;<iui, 
( o ) jut 17000, ^Hgwrr ( P ) *w 13000, wwgwr, ( q ) sw 18000, 
i53g«w, ( r ) m 12200, gjsn«sg*w. 3 

( 3 ) «<E^a« U| — Importance of HKd^R, 14 Vidyas Vedas, 
Vedcinqas, dharmasQstra, purclna, mimciTiisd, tarka, Ayurveda, 
S&mciveda, Jtmavtdyd, kalavtdyS, silpavidyS, sasyavidyi i etc. ^T»f 
of ^6 } U%fcJ5I, mn\ jpnfacr etc. may be regarded as HiflKW — 
worship of a qualified ^«rM-ii<:H*^W to be carried out in a f$R~ 
wf^T-worship of WM<*s and STR^s — qualifications of a m^& .— 

^o^isifawmsw? fMfmt JrEnrrf^r. n 
— Qualifications of a 3^ — 

The cfi-cjcfe- should read out Mss in the following manner — 
" 3T3f^fhar % «*rwi+iwji«unf^ ^ ^3<t II 

8 The extant of eaoh Purina in granthas indicated here as part of Apararka'a com- 
mentary would be an important testimony bearing on the extent of ieaoh of the 18 Parana*^ 
about A. D 1100, provided these grantha figures are found in the earliest dated Mss of Apa- 
rarka'a oommentary and corroborated by other reliable evidence. 

i ti*^\\k'H\ means possibly the soienoe of agrioulture.. It 1b also oalled «w)<^ Ib the 
following lines of the 7jf^3^|0]: — 

f% ^m ^ i*r cpi 3°t -m^s srracm. n " ( p. 397 ) 

Evidently there were some treatises on tKrHpl^i, whloh are now lost. The only treatise 
we know at present is fjf^TOSR 

History of Indian Paleography &. Education 225 

vnHrrmgwT sifewr ^ m^n^ \\ 

The effect of listening to the vrras is described as following • — > 

The merit of persenting manuscripts on different 5TP33 to learned 
Brahmins is very great Equally great is the merit of presenting 
writing materials like q^t ( leaves ), JjqtTIvT ( ink-pot ), ?.?^ft ( pen ) and 
H<J2 ( box for keeping writing materials ) etc — 

The foregoing brief analysis of the Puranic extracts quoted by 
Apararka gives us a good idea of the importance attached to flun^ra and 
its beneficial effects on the educational activities of ancient times prior to 
a. D, 1100. In tho mechanism of education, so graphically described in 
these extracts every part had its own importance as the following series 
of these parts will show — 

"%^tb <r?as — qp35 — m: — un^s 

The idea of acquiring merit ( pun) a ) by fmi^FI prompted the rich 
and pious public of the day to contribute its mite for keeping this mecha- 
nism well oiled and in smooth working order. 

The romarks m tho Purumc extracts about Vnrs ( scribe ) with his 
writing accessories have a pileographic interest, while those about w? 
( reader ), ip: ( preceptor ) and -a\ts (disciple) possess an educational 

Tho following lines m the extracts from the Bhau^ottarapuruna 
refer to a formula for ink which appears to have been current beforo 
A.D. 1100.— 

" «1TOT ST^ft vmi ft*? <* ♦itq.tnwj, I 

The pen should Le uiaJe of gold, the ink-pot should bo inula of 
siHcr. The mk should La prej ared fcrm lampblack inu<.d up with 4t*j{q 

226 Stndies in Indian Literary History 

( juice of aloes or gum myrrh ) and pounded with hand in a tray or vessel 
( snre ) of Audumbara wood 1. e wood of the udumbara (Ficus Olomerata), 
which is one of the seven holy trees in India I cannot say what special 
purpose was served by the udumbara wood and its contact with the 
mixture of <*«!<£ and «lte. In some of the formulas of ink recorded by me 
the use of cooper vessels for mixing up the ink-ingredients is prescribed, 
though in these formalae ^srs and qVs> remain as main ingredients In 
the above formulae from the Bhavisyottara purana we have the simplest 
process of making ink, which appears to have been in use more than a 
thousand year ago in India in writing manuscripts on palm leaves, as 
paper had not then made its appearance in India The writing outfit 
then consisted of a box with ink, ink-stand and pans, as also blank leaves 
( t ren<?fanJWtjR\H!£;i|R{*i{ ) as expressly stated in the Nandipuriua extract 
quoted by Apararka This out fit was presented to the learned men of 
the day ( ^3\ siTCnfasjgnq' ) with a view to acqiring merit ( g<nT ) Even 
today we present to friends sets of writing materials like fountain pens, 
ink stands etc but it is doubtful whether these accessories have stimulated 
or facilitated any literary effort in them They remain on the tables of our 
friends only for display, at times with a dry ink pot and a broken holder 
or nib or a leaking fountain pen. 

As regards the lamp black used for ink-manufacture in India from 
ancient times, I have to state that some product from soot or lamp black 
was exported to Greece and Rome for the manufacture of blaok colour 
used by painters in these countries as stated by Dr. Albert Neuberger. 6 

6 Videpp 194-195 of Techn\cal Arts and Sciences of the Ancients ( Eng Translation 
by H L, Brose, Methuen and Go ( 1930 )— Speaking of Inorganfo Dyes and Painter's Colours 
Dr Neuberger observes — 

" For making Hack, soot waB the ohief souroe It was produoed as nowadays in speoial 
works Pitoh, resin, chips from the pine, beeswax, dried remains of the grape and other sub- 
stances, were burned in ohambers, whose walla were as smooth as possible and in many oases 
made of polished marble. The soot whioh deposited itself was soratohed off Farther bane Mack 
was also in use, it is supposed to have been discovered by the most celebrated painter in Greece 
namely, Apelles ( about 326 B. ) who produoed it by charring ivory Bo'ie Hack was extra- 
ordinarily dear and was only seldom employed. On the other hand wood-tar was sometimes 
used, as well as a black derived from India, which w probably identical With our Indian wk, and 
so likewise represented a product from soot 


By A. D. Pusalkar 
Note . " Asterisk (* ) " refers to tho particular pigc number and 
the foot-note thereon, while u n" to the foot-note on that page 
a Amarsmg 27n, 23 

Jbhtdhdnactntamam 172 
MhidhdnaciuUxmam 44 
Abhinavagupta 51 
Abhyankar, Prof. K. V. 217 
Abu-1 Fazl 193, 194 
SLararatna S2n 
Jcartindit 160n 
Acurendusekhara 212 
AdiattasudhH 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 
53, 54 

Agnipuraila 1, 5i, 198, 224 

Ahiphena 176 

Ahmad Nuam Shah 138 

Aim-Albari 191, 193*, 191 

Aiyangar, Dr. S. K. 179 

Ajaya 45 

Akara 214 

Akbar SOu, 188, 189, 191, 192, 

193, 191, 195 
Akbar, the Great Mogul 192, 193, 

2klvjMa\,\da Tippanl 17a 

AlamKaramaujit'Sl 185 
AlamU'iriuudhl 212 
Al-Idnsi 17Gn 
Alt Shah 210 
Amara 50, 121, 130 
Anuira^o's-i 1, 25, 20, 15, 208 
.-xuuracar.dra CO, 129 
-Imuran. l.'d sO 

Amurusataku 37n 
Anahillapura I76n 
Jtiandavrndaianacampil 136, 137 
Anantabhatta 132,131136,137 
Anantadeva 214, 215, 218 
Aflcahgaccha 145 
Annambhatta 1S6 
Antyestipuddhah 132, 133, 13J, 
135," 136, 137 

Anup Sanskrit Library, Bikaner 

Anupsing 27*. 28 

AparJrka 223, 224n, 225, 226 

Apurokfimubhaia 147, 148, 1^0, 

Apistamba 20, 51, 134, 153, 155, 

156, 157, 153, 215 
Appaya Dlksita 38, 52, 203, 209 
Apte, V. S. 8 

Ardo 17, 18, 19, 20, 21*, 22« 
Artba 7 

Arthasaslra 1, I65n 
Arun^datta 153, 158 
Ar}Jvuru 78 
Asatkhan(AsidKhan) 161, 165, 

106*, lo7, 169 
Ari!.ura(a) 110,141 
AUuca ..rm, i 212,211, 218, 219 
McJr'j us injjrl 45 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Astangahrdaya 45, 163, Win, 
"l57n, 168 

Astahgasamgraha 46, 163, 167*, 

AsvacikitsS 177 

Asvapandita 206 

2.'svald.yana Ofhya S&tra 154 

Mvavatdyaka 172, 176, 179 

Atale, Babadeva 76n, 77n 

Aufrecht, Th. 2,*13, 17, 18**, 20, 
26, 35, 36n, 37n, 41, 42n, 43*, 
44n, 46, 47, 52, 76, 79n, 90, 
100, 117, 118, 128*. 136, 140n, 
143, 161n, 196, 207, 212, 220 

AuraDgzeb ( Aurangasaha) 91, 93, 
94, 166«, 167, lG8n 

Avaranna 153, 154», 155, 156, 
157», 158 


Badrmath 196 

Bagbela dynasty 26, 26, 29 

Baghelakhanda 26*, 27, 29 

BatjayUra pdka 3, 7 

Bala Gadegila 182, 183, 184, 185, 

Balaji Bajirao 77n 

Balambhatta Payagunde 23, 24 

Bslambhatti 23, 24n 

Balamukunda Arde 19, 22, 23 

BMaramQyana 51 

Banibardekar, Eao Bahadur W. A 
29n, 38, 206 

Banabhatta 44, 93 

Banaras 203, 205, 212 

Bappacandra 44 

Baudhaycma Dharma S&tra 163, 
156, 157, 168 

Beale, T W. 166n, 189, 190 
Bednor 209*, 210 
Belvalkar, Dr. S K 144n, 207 
Benares 17n, 18, 19, 22, 23, 28, 

46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 

54, 80n, 81n, 82n, 83n, 84, 

137, 161, 162, 165, 168, 169, 

170, 184 
Bendall 25n 
Bendre, V. S. 81n, 100*, 101, 

Bermer 46n 
Bhadrappa ( Bbadrendra ) 205,. 

206, 209, 211. 
Bhagalpur 39n, 40 
Bhagavadgita 37,61 
Bhagvanlal Indraji 94, 97, 98n 
BhQgavatapurana 51, 121, 208* 

216, 224 
Bhamaha 93 
Bhamatl 51, 208 
Bbandarkar, Dr D. E 201 
Bhandarkar, Sir B. G. 76n, 90,. 

Bbanubhatta 100, 122, 126 
See also " Hari Kavi " 
Bhanudatta 218 
Bhanuji Diksita 25, 26, 27, 28, 

29, 30, 31, 45* 
Bharamalla 140*, 141, 142, 143„ 

Bbarata 1 

BhQratabhavadlpikQ 52 
Bharata'sastra 198 
Bharavi 45, 93, 130 
Bbartrhan 37, 61, 93, 130, 208 
Bhasa 130 



Bbaskaracarya 200 

Bhattadipika 134 

Bbatta Kamalakara 131 

Bhattikuvya 51 

Bbattoji Diksita 13*, 1^, 15, 20, 
25, 26, 27n, 29, 30, 45*, 
49. 52, 129n, 161*, 203,., 204, 
205, 206, 207, 208, 209 

Bhattoji Dlk$Ua JTiMtviveka 29n, 
38, 206n 

Bhavabhuti 37, 45, 51, 129 

Bbavadevabhatta 200 

Bhavamisra 44, 154n 

Bhavand 3, 6 

Bbavanl 104, 114 

Bhaiapancaiiku 38 42* 

BhavaprakOsa 221 222 

Bbave, V. L 147 

Bha> ifyapuratja 51, 143, 224 

Bhauyjottarapurana 223, 226, 


Bheribbaukara 93 

BbiLambbatta 30, 39, 41 

Bhoja, king 1 

Bho]a of Dbara 199 

Bhoja 51, 129, 136 

Bbojiruja (deva) of Kaccba 110*, 
141-*, 142, 113, 1-14*, 145 

Bhojaijakarana liO. 143, 144*. 
145, 116 

Bbuj 14111,112,143, 115 

Bible 2q 

Bibliography of Indian Philoso- 
phical Systems 89u, 206, 209, 

Bittutu 93 

Bubal, Raja 193 

Blochmann, H. 191n, 192, 193* 

Bodha 7 

Bodleian Library 25 

Bombay QazclUcr 140, 141, 143 

Bopadeva 44 

B. O. B Institute, Poona 1, 15, 
20 25 42, 43, 46, 48a, 49, 
62, 76, 77n, 82. 99, 164m 
115, 117, 128, 130, 133, 134, 
141, 143, 145, 149, 161n> 
186, 196, 204, 207. 208, 215, 
216, 220 

Brahmandapxiruna 143, 214, 216, 

BrahmaprakaU l .(l 13*, 15 

Brahnapurana 51, 143, 211, 223 

BrahmavaivartapurHiia 224 

BrahmavidyopantSad 86n, 87 

BrhannHradiyapurilna 61, 143 

Brhatsamhitil 1 

Britisb iluseum 2n 

Brose, H. L. 226n 

Bucbanan 8 

BudhabhUsatia llin, 115 ^ 

Bubler, 9*7 100, 118 14 In, 144, 
156, 157 

Burneli, 18a, 22, 52, 135, 136 


Cakradatta 51 

Cakrapam 110, 111, 114, 120, 

Canaka loin, 155, 159 
Canada 93 
Candranandana 45 
Candraiokbara 37 
Candrasenlja 7 J 
Ciraka 51 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Carakasamhita I63n, 159n, 
Catalogue of Alwar Darbar MSS 

49, 79n 
Catalogue of Bombay University 

MSS 132 
Catalogue of British Museum MSS 

Catalogue of Desai Collection m 

Bombay University 207, 219 
Catalogue of Grammar MSS 207 
Catalogue of India Office MSS 

18n, 40n, 207 
Catalogue of Jammu MSS 13n, 

20n, 24n, 43n 
Catalogue of Kavya MSS, B. O. 

B. L 49n 
Catalogue of MSS m the Bodleian 

Library 43n 
Catalogue of MSS m the B. B. B. 

A. S 21n, 36n, 39n, 46n, 47n 
Catalogue of MSS in private libra- 
' rtes m Gujarat, Cutch, etc. 141n 
Catalogue of North-Western MSS 

Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS in the 

Anup Sanskrit Library 14 

Catalogue of Tanjore MSS 22n, 
136, 136 

Catalogue of Ulwar MSS 79n 

Catalogus Catalogorum 2, 13n, 17j 
18n, 20, 25n, 36n, 38, 41, 42n, 
43*, 44n, 46, 47, 48, 62, 76n, 
79n, 89n, 90, lOOn, 117, I28n, 
136, 140n, 143, 161n, 196, 
207, 212, 220 

Oaturbhuja 43n, 46, 47 

Campa 101, 102, 103, 104, 109, 

122, 124, 126, 126 

Champaka oil 6n 

Champavatl 39n, 40*, 41 

Cliandoratnavall 37, 39, 41 

Ohaul 40*, 41* 

Chiplun 58n 

Chitrav Shastri, S. V. 136n 
139n, 147, 158n, 176n, 188, 

Ctmanicarita 129n, 13$, 131 

Cmtamam 38 

Cintamani 107, 108, 126, 198 

Cttale bhafta-Prakarana 24 

Citpavan Brahmins 185 

Citragupta 79 

Cttramlmamsa 60, 52 

Cittapavana 73, O. Brahmin 19 

Classical Period of Sanskrit Lite- 
rature H2n 

Colebrooke, 23, 24 

Cosmetics 2n, 6, 7 

Cadamani 198 

Cultural History from Vayupu- 
rana 164n 


Dabhol 80n 

Da Ounha 40n 

DaivajSa Damodara 90, 92, 94, 

Dalapati Baya 80n 

DaUana 44, 51, 163, 154n, 157 

Damayantlkavya 45 

Dandefear, Dr. B. N. 26n 

Dandin 129, 221 


Dasarilpafca 51, 221 



Datta, U. C. 1 

Datta Mtsra 14, 15 

Do, Nandolal 40a 

De, Dr. S. K. 35, 218, 221, 222 

Deb, Bimalacharan 18Sn 

Debates of House of Lords 23 

Delhi 146, 163, 164, 165, 166, 

167n, 168, 169 
Desastha Brahmins 19, 29 
.Descriptive Catalogue of Bombay 

University MSS 214 
Descriptive Catalogue of Kuiya 

MSS (A. S B.) 30n 
Descriptive Catalogue of MSS m 

A. S. B. {Vol. VJ) 215 
Descriptive Catalogue of Vaidyaka 

MSS 36a 
Descriptive Catalogue of Vyilka- 

rana MSS {li. A. S. B.) I4n 
Deshpande, K. N. 55, 64 
Devala 44, 216 
Dcva isamkara 185 
JDevasthah, Prof. Dr. G. V. 132, 

Detlpuruva 216 
Dovrukh 58* 
Dey, N. L. 81n 
Dhanafljaya 38 
DhanvAutari 44 
Dharani 45 
Dharma 7 
Dharmadasa 45 
Dharmopradipa 140*, 141*. 112, 

Dnartinslilrasaqigrdhii 23 
DbanmsU 45 
Dha.uLakavt 37 

Dhundiraja 161, 162n, 16-1, 165 >• 

167, 168, 170, 171 
Dhupana 3, 7 
Dhurtasvami 20, 150n 
Dldhiti 18, 38, 216 
Dikshit, S. B. 37*. 80n, 90, 200 
Dinakarodyota 78, 
Dlpika lb, 198 
Divekar.S. M. 210 
Dman]!, Rao Bahadur P. C. 129n 
Dolapaka 3, 7 
DravyadipikH 46 
Dravyaguna'sata'sloki 45* 
Dravjas 5 
Dvirdpakosa 44 
Dupiyaza, Mulla 193 
Dvivedi, Sadbakara 136, 137 


Eggelmg, Dr. 40, 50*, 135, 207, 

Egypt 2n, 8 
Ekanatha 153, 159 
Elphinstone, Mount Stuart 78a 
Encyclopaedia Britannica 2n, 3n, 7 

FaizI 193 

Furqubar, J. N. 89 *, 200 
FatesiDgh ( Fateh Singh ) 2l>*, 

27*. 28 
Fattesimha 63 
Fleet, J. F. 157 
Fonda 58n 

Gadadharabbatta 123 
Gadaihurhrtti 17 u, 18 

GagabhatU 77n, 78. 7<J», 170 
Seo Yisvcs.ara 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Ganapati 201 

Gandhasara 1, 2*, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 
OandhasOstra 1, 2, 6, 8, 12 
GandhavOda 2n, 8, 10, 12 
Ganesabhatta 66, 66 
Gangadhara 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 
Gangesa Upadhyaya 18 
Garga 197 

Garbwal 200, 201, 202 
Gartapaka 3, 7 
Garudapurana 51, 198, 224 
Gautama 198, 214, 216 
Gazetteer of United Provinces 200 
Geographical Dictionary 40n, 81n 
Gheranda Sarphitd 89 
Gingee- See Jin]i 
Ginpura 128* 

Glrvanapadamafljarl 161, 165*, 
167, 168, 169, 170 

Gii vQnavagmanjari 161 
Glass 2n 

Gorakhanatb 89 

Gore, Prof N A 132, 136 

GotrSvali 19 
J Government MSS Library 
( Poona ) 204, 220, 221 

Government Oriental MSS Lib- 
rary, Madras 204n 

Govinda 47, 215, 216 

Govindajit 128, 129*, 130 

Govindaraya 77n 

Govindasvamin 157 

Grant Duff 85n, 186 

Grhyagmsagara 20, 21*, 24 

Gunakara 38 

Gunamaia 45 

Gunaratnam&ld, 44 
Gupta, Umesa Gandra 176n 
Gurjara caste 29, 30 
GurumarmapraMsikd 212 
Gwahor 189, 190, 193, 194, 195,. 
201, 202 


Haidar Ah 209n 

Haihayendracarita 100 

Haihayendrakavya ( - vyakhya ) 
110a, 117, 118, 119; 121, 122, 
123, 124, 126, 126, 127 

Haima 44 

Halayudba 44, 93 

Hall, Pitzedward 17*, 18, 89n, 
206, 207, 209, 220 

Haradatta 154, 155*, 156, 214 

H&ravah 45 

Handasa Baba 189 

Handasa Svami 195 

Hankavi 55, 100, 105, 106*, 
108, 109, 110*, 111, 112, 113, 
114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 
121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 
127, 128 See Bhanubbatta 

Hansvami 216 

Hanvamsa 216 

Hathayoga 86, 87 

Hathayogopradipika8Q, 87*, 88,89* 

Hattacandra 45 

Helaraja 216 

Hemacandra 45, 172, 173, 174, 
176*, 177, 178, 179, 180* 

Hemadn 38, 45, 163, 168, 198, 

199, 214 
Hiranyakeia Dharmasfttra 157 
History of Chaul and Bassetn 40a 



History of Dharmasfatra I8n, 
20n, 23n, 24n, 77, 79b, SOn, 
82n, 134, 137n, 140, 143n, 
157n, 200, 212n, 215* 

History of Oingea and its rulers 
167, 169n 

History of Indian Astronomy 37* 

60n, 90, 200 
History of Indian Logic 17, 23, 

135n, 139 
History of the Marathas 186 
History of Sanskrit Poetics 35, 

189a, 218, 221, 222 
Hobson-Jobson I66n 
Brdayadlpaka 44 
Hultzscb, E. 203, 204» 
Hultzsch Report 22n 
Humam, Hakim 193 
Hungurasimha 201 
Hwon Tksang 41n 


Ikken 203, 204*, 206, 209*, 210 
Imperial Gazetteer 26n, 27n, 29*, 

41a, 209a 
Index to the Bibl. of the Indian 

Phil. Systems 17 n 
Indian Ephemcns 216 
India Ofjice Catalogue 218 
India 0«»co Library 18, 20, 25 
India Office MSS Catalogue 25n, 
36n, 50, 135 
Indrasing 27 a 
Indu loJn, 15S 
Ink 147 

Jabalpur 2?n 

Jaga'Hjatoiinl 17n, 18 
Jagajjyotiraialla 11 
Joganmobana 198 
Jagannatha PanditarajA 113, 121, 

123, 126, 170, 218 
Jagat Chand 200 
Jahangir 194 
Jaitapar 59# 
Janaki Prasad, Diwan Bahadur 

Jatakapaddhati 90, 200 
Jativtveka 80* 
Ja>adatta 172, 173, 170, 177, 

179, 180*, 181«» 
Jayadeva 51, 93 
Jayaruma Kavi 29n 
JayaramasvamI Yad3gaonkar 147 » 

148, 151, 162 
Jayasimha Siddharaja 176a 
Jean Hugues 41n 
Jebangir 146 
Jejjata 45 
Jinaratnakosa 145 
Jmil(Gingco) 79n, lOOn, 1G1, 
162u, 164, 1G6», 167n, 168*, 
169n, 170 
Jinjii-i^a IGSn 
Jumna 195 
Jyourgarga 198, 199 

Kaiyata 50, 21G 
KalOdaria 214 
Kalanastt 20G 
Kalanjar l f j3 
Kabpaka 4, 7 
Kak.V L lGSu 
Kali t)i, G3, CG, 71 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Kahdasa 45, 49, 121, 129 
Kalpadrukosa 43a 
Kalpataru 208 
Kalusha 115, 116, 117 
Kalyanasagara 144, 145, 146 
Kalyanasahi 201 
Kama 7 
KQmadhenu 50 
Kamalakara 78 
Kamalakarabhatta 18, 82 d, 155n, 

170, 214 
K&mapradipa 38 
KamasamUha 129* 
KamasQtra 1 

Kane, MM Dr. P. Y. 18, 20n, 23, 
24n, 77, 79n, 80n, 82n, 134, 
137n, 139n r 140,141, 143n, 
157, 200, 212, 215, 221, 222, 
Kane Volume 14, 45n 

Kankanakavi 38 

Kapardisvamin 166n 

Karanataka Brahmanas 19 

Karbada Brahmanas 19 

Karptirlya 6ivadatta 43 

See Sivadatta Karpiarlya 

KarmavipQka 2l5n 

Karp&ramanjari 220, 222 

Kashmir Catalogue 47n 

Kaiika I7n, 18*, 24 

Kasyapa 199 

Katre, S L. 185, 186, 216 

Katyayana 21 

Kavikaustubha 35, 36, 38, 41 

Kavi Mandana 37 

Kavindracandrodaya 46, 47 

Kavlndracarya SarasvatI 29*, 

Kavladra Paraoiananda 210 
Kavindravacanasamuccaya HI 
Kavyadarsa 221 
KavyakutUhala 37, 41 
K&vyamandana 37, 41 
Kavyanustlsana 177n 
Kavyaprakaia 50, 208, 216, 221 
Kdvyasekhara 37, 41 
KELyal 179, 180 
Kayastha 76 a, 78n 
Kdyasthadharmapradlpa 77n 
KdyasthaparabMdharmctdarsa 76*, 

77, 78*, 80n, 82*, 83, 84 

( same as Parabh&prakarana ) 
Kayastha Prabhus 19 
Keen, H G 189 
Keladi 203, 204, 205, 206, 209* 

210, 211 
Kelavali 59n 
Kesava 45 
Kesavabhatta 65*>, 66, 132, 133, 

134*, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139 
Kesavapaddhati 197, 200 
Kesavapandita 81n, 100, 167n 
Ketkar, S V 76n 
Keyadeva 44 

Khandadeva 182, 183, 184 
Khandekar, Vaidya Srvarama 

Baghunatha 35, 41 
Khan Khanan 193 
Khare, G H 210n 
Kharepatan 59n 
Kharparapaka 3, 7 
Khengar 140 
Kielhorn 221 
King Shahaji 29n 



King Shahaji (Tanjore) 38 
KJrusimha 17, 18, 25, 26», 29, 

JCirtHHrjunlya 37 , 51 
Kondabhatta 13, 14, 203n, 205, 

206, 207, 203, 209, 210, 211 
Kohkana7S, 74, 80n, 103, 122, 

Koran 2n 
Kramadlpihil S9a 
Krishna Aiyangar, A. N. 222 
Krishnamacbarya, Jf. 112 
Krsiparasara 224n 
Krsnabhatta Arde 17-*, 18o, 19*, 

2*0, 21,' 22* , 23, 24 
Kr§nabhattt 17n 
Krsnadatta 46 
Krsna Govmda SOn 
Krsnauiisra 93 
Krsnapandita 36, 39, 41 
Krsnapandita (Sri-) 103, 104, 

107, 109, 112, 113, 114, 115, 

116 117, 119, 127 
Ksara 154, 155, 156, 157, 158 
Ksemendra 130 
Kudal 58*, 60a 
Kulkarni, Prof. K. P. 155n 
Kumar apala 17 6o 
Kumilrasambhaia 37 
KilrmapunlQJ 51, 143, 216, 221 
Kurnia>amala 198 
Kurttl ^Urapradlpa 13*, 11,15, 16 
Kutumbaka\ i 38 
Km iltij&nai.da 38 
L vjht x,tbJMdusLkharn 2, 4, o, 

Lak§mana Desika 200 
Laksmana Pandita 49, 50, 51, 52, 

Laksnianatya 48, 52, 53 
Laksmldharabbatta 20, 21 *, 22 
Laksbrainarayana Bao, N. 205, 

Lahtapattana 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 

Lahtavistara 1 
Lalat Shah 200, 201 
Lallamuhfirtasiira 38 
Laugaksi 132, 133, 136, 137 
Lavana 154, 155, 156, 157, 158 
Lele, K K. and Anant Shaatri 

Upadhyaya 190 
LUOcautra 153, 158 
Limaye collection 77n, 83, 84 
Limaye, Shambhurao Govmd 77n 
Limaye, Sakhopant 82*, 84 
LihgapurQna 221 
List of C. P. MSS 221 
List of Indie MSS m XJ S. A. 2ln 
List of Inscriptions of Northern 

India 201 
List of MSS (B.O.R.I) 43u 
List3 of Antuiuities 203 
Lokeivara 10 
Lolimbara]! 45 


iladana Kavi 37 

MadanapirtjUa 131, 133, 110, 

MuJar.'iratn<i 21 i 
MaJanjiirolit «H 
MJdbava4j, 51, 190 
MJdhaviiJriiol, :0S, 216 


Studies in Indian LiLorary History 

Madhavananda 197 

Madhusudana Sarasvati 149, 160 

Madhyayuglna Cantrakosa 79n, 
I35n, 139n, 147, 165, 168n, 
166n, 176n, 188, 189, 209, 

Magna 37, 45, 130 

Mahabharata 1, 9, 48, 49, 62, 208, 

216, 223 
Mah&bhasyapradyota 213, 214, 

215, 216, 217, 218, 219 
Maharastra Brahmins 19, 23 
Mahdrastriya Jndnakosa 76n, 78n, 

Mahendramalla 91, 93, 96 
Mahesa Misra 13*, 14, 47 
Mahesvara 198 
Mabldhara-visaya 25, 26*, 27, 28, 

Malumnastotra 147, 148, 149, 

150, 151 
Mahipat Shah 200 
MahismatI 81* 
Maihar State 26n, 27*, 29* 
Majamdar, Dr G. P. 1* 
Mcilavikctgmmttra 60 
Mallaya 200 
Malhkar]ana 176 
Mammata 37, 221 
Mananarendra 197, 201 
Manasahi 201, 202 
Manasollasa 168, 172, 174 
Mandanamisra 208, 215 
Manjusa 18*, 20 
Mafikad, P. A 196* 
Manoranrt 16, 208, 209, 
Mansingh, Eaja 193, 194, 195 

Mann 50, 81, 143, 214, 216 
Marco Polo 179 1, 51) 143,. 

214," 216, 216 
Marutamandana 15» 16 
Masi 223, 225 
MaslpUra 226, 226 
Mate, Tryambaka Narayana 160lt 
Materia Medica of the Hindus 1 
Matsyapurana 143, 197, 223, 224 
Maval 57n 

Mavji, Pnrushottam Vishram 115 
Mayiira Kavi 37 
Medtnl 44 1 50 
Meghaduta 44 
Mem 9 
Mihiranagara ( - pattana ) 102,. 

107, 109, 112, 122, 124 
Mimamsa-Kaustubha 182, 183 ,, 

Mirza Abu-r rahim 193 
Mitak§ara 214, 216, 220 
Mitra, Eajendralal 13n, 43, 77n, 

133, 135 
Moropant 153, 168 
Mrcchakattka 10 
MudrQrciksaaa 10 
MuhUrtacintamani 37, 38 
Muh&rtamala 80n 
Mukhavasa 4, 7 
Mnktesvara 153, 158 
Muktimandap'a 184 
Muktikopamsad 86 
Mukuta 45 

Music of Hindustan 193n, 194 
Mask 9, 10 



Naganatba ( XJjjesa ) 48n, 49, 

NUgarasarLasia 10 
Nasojibhatja 81, 203n, 212, 214, 

215, 216, 217, 218, 219 
Natnar, Dr. S. M. H. 167n 
Katwlha 37 
Nakula 177, 181 
NUmannlld 45 
Nandapandita 214, 218 
NandipurHya 223, 224^, 226 
Nan> ad ova 45 
Narada Pancardlra 197 
NGradapurHna 224 
Naradaaamlnta 197 
Nnrujana 106, 107, 108, 109, 

111, 112, 113, 118, 119, 122, 

123, 124, 125, 126 
Narayanabbatta 15, 20, 21*, 22, 

24, 45, SOn 
Natyaprallpa 221, 222 
Natyasastra 1 

Nepal 11, 90, 91, 92,93, 94,95 
Neuberger, Dr. Albert 226^ 
Nt'jhuntu 44 
Nikmn 4ln 
Nllakantha Caturdbara 48, 49, 

o2<>, 53 
KUakantba £ukla li, 129*, 130, 

131, 203 
Nib' antba Sim 76a, 77*, 78n, 

S0,,8U82*, 83*, 84, S5* 
Xirm^nindliu 17u, 18^, 20,21, 

22*, S2n, 131, 155a, 214, 

AW,»v» 20S, 216 
Kmanauda biddha 223 

Notices of Sanskrit MSS l3n, 43, 

44 >, 77n. 133, 135 
Nrsimha 80a 
Nrsimhacampil 132, 133, 134, 135, 

136, 137, 138 
Nrsimhamisra 51 
Xrstmhaprasuda SOll, 137*, 138 
Nrsimhasrama 51, 208, 209 
Xyfrjacandnka 133, 134*, 135, 

136 137 
Xywjapadarthadlpika 207, 208 
NydyaratnilKara 51 
Nyayasudhu, 51, 1S3, 208 


Oppert 18n, 207 

Oriental Biographical Dictionary 

166a, 189 
Outline of the Religious Literature 

of India 80 n, 200 
Oxford History of India 166n 


Pilcana 3, 6 
Padarthadipil a 213 
Padmapurana 81, 121, 143,223 
PadmasrI 10, 11, 12 
Padyfiiali 111 
Palm-leaf 147 
Pandit Bbavani Dutt 196 
Pandit Narahan 196 
PJnmi 51, 130, 208, 216 
Pap>rub 2a 

Pjralthilpra 1 aratia 76 »> 77* 
Paradkar, Uarishastri 45 
Paruniiili'ihuruihjil^j 211 
Pu-rair^Uanda ( Kavlcdra ) 10 
Par^vr-fcUu, 193, 214 
pjrCi'siri-:JCt!tJ.h ' 21, 13-i 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Parasurama 79n 
ParasurHmapratapa 20, 139 
Parduman Shah 201 
Pargiter 8ln 
Panbhasendusekhara 81n, 213, 

214, 215, 217, 219 
Parikh, Prof. E. 0. 177n 
Partagah 2l0n 

Parthasarathi Misra 183, 208 
Partudkar, B. L 90, 98, 99 
PataBjah 216 
Patankar, Pandit Eaghunatha 

Sastri 19, 182 
Pathaka, Sakharama Ababhatta 

Patil, D. E. 154n 
Patkar, Dr. M M 30, 31 
Patna Gaya Report 8n 
Payagunde, Balambhatta 81n 
Pen 147 
Perfumes 3n, 6 
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea 

40n, 41n 
Peshwa Bajirao n, 19 
Peshwa Daftar 185 
Peshwa Madhava Eao 1, 185 
Peterson 20, 49, 79n 
Pietro della Valle 204n, 210 
Pllegara 56 
Pillai 216 
Pimputkar, E. S 24 
Pirthi Shah 200 
Poleman 24n 
Poona 19*, 23, 40n 
Prabhune, Bama 6astrl 186 
Prabodhacandrodaya 38, 61 
Pradlp Shah 200 

Prahladacampa 133, 135, 136, 

137, 138 
Pr&krta Dvya'sraya KHvya 176n 
Prasastisamgraha 145 
Prastavabandha 38, 42 
~Braudhamanorama 15 
Prayogapdnjata 20, 214 
Prayogaratna 20 
Prayogastira 20 
PrthvJ 8 
Priyangn 9, 10 
Ptolemy 41 n 
PuBjaraja 216 
Panyastambha ( Puntambe ) 35*, 

132,133, 136,137, 138,139 
Purusottama 45 
Patapaka 3, 7 


Eabhasa 44 

Eaddi, Pandit Eangacharya 1 

Rddh&m&dhavavilasacampQ, 29n 

Baghavacaitanya 93 

Baghava Kavi 35*, 36n 

Eaghavan, Dr V. 2n 

BSghavapcindavlya 48 

Eaghunatha 80n 

Eaghunatha Appa Khandekar 

35a, 41 
Eaghunatha Manohara 35, 36*38, 

39*, 40», 41 
Eaghunatha &romani Bhattacarya _ 

Raghuvam'sa 37, 48, 49, 60 
Ea]a, Dr C. K. 14 
Ea]§ Jaising 28 
Bajamartcmda 198, 199 
JRajamghaniu 44 



Eajapur 19, 080 

Jiujiiramacartta 65d, 79n, 8ln, 

100*. 167n 
Eaja Bainchand 193, 194, 195 
Baiaram Chatrapati 166, 167n, 

Bajasekbara 51, 129, 220 
Bajopadbye 55, 64 
Bajwado (Vishvanath Kashinatb) 

76x1, 85n 
Eama 45 

Bamacandra ( Bagbela ) 27n 
RQmacandracandrodaya 183, 184i 

185, 186, 1S7 
Bamadusa 153 
Bamasahi 201 

Bamasrama 29, 30, 45, 49, 54* 
Eamavaiapaiyya 199 
Bamavajapoyi 20, 200 
Mmayan* 215, 223 
Banado Visvanatba M. 28a 
Banadnlla Kban 209, 210 
Rtliaka 216 
Banganiuba Arada 17»» 18, 20, 

22, 24 
Bauganatba Dlksita 205 
Eaugojibbatta 204, 205, 206, 

207, 203, 209, 210, 211 
Bantidova 15 
IiasaoawjOdhara 217, 218 
Rasalirdayo 47 
Iiasakal pair urna 47 
Hasauanjurl 37, 213, 218 
RcuarattJkara 223 
Hasaratn'iiatnucca'j^ 45 
Jiasatitran'jinl 91, 93 
IlastKtjlMd 123« 

Batnakara Tnpathi 210 
Ratnakola 44, 198 
RatnamHia 18, 37 
Bayaraukuta 51 
Report ( Buhler ) 100a 
Report ( B G. Bbandarkar ) 128* 
Report ( S. B. Bhandarkir ) 50 
Report, 1882-83, 90 
Bevadanda 41 

Revised Cataloqu,3 2* 
Bowa 26n, 27, 28, 193, 191 
Rgvcda 165n 
Bomans 2n, 8 
Bose 8 

Jitupaucahka 37, 41 
Budra 14 
Bupagosvamm 111 
Bupanarayana 45 
Sabaji Ptataparaja 139 
Sabatasvawin 216 
&abda l .uu3tubha lia, 52, 208. 

Sabdilrnaui 44 
Sabdeiuluiekhara 213, 217, 218, 

SalhtivinoJa 90, 92, 03, 9i, 93a, 

97, 98, 99 

Sablvjabharaip 128 
Sabhtjakaijh tkharani 12Sn 
SabhjOlwp 1 arani 128*, 131 111 
SdhendranlCua Kdi'jH 167a 
sain Jall.1I tdln 201 
Slhitjidxrpixni 221, 222 
Slhit'jjrat.iV ara 37 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

SaliyOdrikhailda 79n, 83 

S aktivadavitarana 17n 

Saletore, Dr B. A 204 

Sahhotra 179, 181tf 

Sahvahana 201 

S&manya Vedanta Upamsads 86n 

gambhn ( Sambhaji ) 55, 56, 62, 
64, 65, 70, 71, 76n, 77n, 79n, 
81n, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 

105, 106, 107, 114*, 115*, 
116, 117, 119, 120, 121, 123, 
126, 127 

S'ambhubhatta 184 
Sambhurajacanta 100, 101, 105, 

106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 
113, 114, 116, 118, 119, 120, 
121, 122, 123, 126 

SambhuvilQsika 118, 119, 120, 

122, 127 
SamgitaratnMcara 37, 221, 222 
Samjnasamuccaya 43*, 44#, 46, 
S'amkaracarya 147, 148, 150*, 

157n, 196tt, 197, 198, 200 
Samputa 225, 226 
Samuccaya 198 
Sandal 9, 10 

S'ankarabhatta 214, 215n, 218 
S'ankaracarya 86, 208 

See also Samkaracarya 
Sanskrit English Dictionary 8 
Sanskrit Poetics 221, 222 
Sapindyadipika 213 
Sdptndyapradipa 214 
SHracandrika 48, 51 
S'aradatanaya 222 
S'aradatilaka 199, 200 
Saiangi38 } £2 

Sarasvata Brahmins 29 
Sarasvatadvaitasudha 48, 49 
Sarasvatlkanthabharana 50, 221 
Sardesai Eao Bahadur G-. S 55,, 

64, 85n, 167 
Sarkar, Sir Jadunath 167 
S'arma, K. M. K 14, 48, 49, 50 
S'arma, Prof. Bamavatara 43 
S'arngadhara 51, 93, 130, 199 
S'drngadharapaddhati 1 
Sarupsing 27n 
S'Ostradlpika 183, 208 
S'a'svata 45 

S'astrl, Cmnasvami 155 
Satyadasa 102, 127 
S'aunaka 197 
Somdia Oriental Institute, Ujjain 

216, 217 

S'esakrsna 80n 

Sevai Jaising of Amber 188 

Sewell 203 

Shahaji 209, 210 

Shah, A M. 146 

Shah Jahan 47, 200 

Shaista Khan 40* 

Sharma, Dr H. D 36n, 111, 112, 

113, 114, 116 

Sharma, Dr. H. D and Patkar, M. 

M. 46n 
Shastri, Dr Hiranand 190* 192 
Shastri, MM. Dr. H. P. 14, 30n 
Shivaji ( the Great ) 29n, 40, 65, 

64, 65, 79n, 100, 101, 106, 

114, 115, 119, 123, 127 
Siddhamantrapraka'sa 44 
Siddhanrsimhamalla 92, 93, 95*,, 

96, 97, 98 



Siddhantakaumudl 208, 209 
Siddh&ntaUifaanakroda 17a 
SiddhdntamalijU^a 215 
Siddhantasiromani 199, 200 
Stddhtintatattvavucka 13*, 15 
Sunha 44 
Singabhupala 222 
Smgbana 222 
Siromanibhattacarja S8 

&va6/tara<a 40, 210 
Stiacarttrapradlpa 79a 
Stvadatta, Kaipurlya 43*, 44*, 45, 

46, 47 See Karpurlya 
&ivadatta ilisra 4G, 47 
Sivadtgmjaya 79a 
Siv&dvaitamrnaya 51 
S'ltagita 205 
tfttaAoia 43*, 44, 46, 47 
Sivahk 78a 
S'naprakdsa 43* 
Sivasiraha 91, 92, 93, 96 
Sfnatattiaineka 'ol 
S'lwllOsa 206 
Skandapurilna 51, 79n, 83, 121, 

208, 224' 

Smith, Mrs. lGSa 

Smith, Vincent lGGn, 192, 193, 

SMflilattstubha 215 

Smrtiaihnhi 153, 15S 
Snrt'jjrthas&ui loGll, 211 
Sohav.a.1 Statu 20, 29* 
Sou* Atpt,ctnof Indian duhiatton. 

Somcsvara 158*, 159fl, 172, 173, 

174, 176, 177, 178, 179, ISO 
Sources of Maratha History 85a 
South India and the Zfuhammudan 

Iniader* 179n 
SphotavQda 207 
S'rOddhasSgara 20 
£rldhara 156a 
£rldbaradeva 93 
grtfhatananda 197 
Srldharasvamm 208 
^rldhara Venkatasa 167n 
Srlkrsnapanditi See Krsnapandita 
Srmagar 200 
Srlnatha 89 
Srin»vasachati, Rao Bahadur C. S. 

167, 169, 170 
Srlnivasa Malla 90, 92, 94, OS, 

96. 97, 98* 
Srlpati 198, 199 
Srlrauganutha 107, 108, 126 
^'pigHrakaumudl 37, 42 
Sfrivj&ramdnjari 33 
S' rhg&ratarauqmi 37* 
&rngerl 205 

Stem 13-, 17, 20, 24n, 43 
Strangwajs. A. H. 1'ox 193n, 194 
Subandhu 93 
SuUidsituratiuiaU 100, Hi, 112, 

113, 111, 116, 117, 118, 123, 

Subbuti 15 

Sudarij.nJcacj 1 lofi», 156» 
Sudhtkiri 221, 223 
S'Ct/ra. amain \ara S2« 
S'u-.rat.Ut 1 
Sulphur 9 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Sundaramisra Aujagari 222 

Sur Das 194 

Suresvaracarja 51 

Suryadasa 37n 

Suryapura ( Surat ) 105, 108, 

109, 112, 115, 118, 122, 124, 

SiLryasiddhanta 199 
Susruta 37, 45 
Susrutasamhita 1, 154n, 157"*, 

158, I59n 
Svatmarama 87, 88, 89* 
Syamasaha 196*, 197, 198, 200, 

201, 202 
Systems of Sanskrit Grammar I44n 


Tanasena ( Tansen ) 188, 189,, 
190, 191*, 192, 193, 194, 195 

Tanjore Catalogue 52 

Tapanapattana 102, 103, 127 

Tarapala 44 

TarkabhOsa 133, 135, 136 

Tarkacandnka 186 

Tarkadipika 135, 136, 137 

Tarkakaustubha 184 

Tarkapradlpa 206, 207, 209 

Tarkaratna 207, 208 

Tarkasamgrdha 186 

TOtparyadlpikS 212 

TattvacintQmam 17n, 18 

Tattvakaustubha 203, 204* 

Tavermer 28 

Technical Arts and Sciences of the 
Ancients 226n ' 

Telanga Brahmins 29 

Thatte 78n, 80 

Thatte, P V and V. N 77n 

Tirumalabhatta 205 
Todar Mali, Raja 193 
Tomara Mitrasena 201 
Travels 28*, 204n, 210 
Trikctndasesa 44 
Trimalla 45# 
Tnpathi, T. 12n 
Tnvedi, K P 208 
Trivikramabhatta 93 
Trtvikramapaddhatt 198 
Tutan Khamun 2n 
Tvagvarga 6 

Udbhata 215 
Uddharana 201 

Udyota 212, 215, 216, 217, 218 
Ulwar Catalogue 39n 
UmapaU Dalapati 136, 137, 138, 

Upamsadbrahmaydgin 86*v, 87, 88, 

Utkalacarya 51 
Utpalmikosa 45 

Vacaspati 44, 51, 208, 216 
Vaderu 205, 210"* 
Vagbhata 44, 121 
Vagbhata I, 157 
Vaidya, K M 254n 
V^idyanatha 186, 187 
Vaidyanatha Payagunde 215, 217, 

Vaidyavallabha 44 
VaidyavdeLsa 36>, 39*, 40, 41 
Vaisesikas 8 

Vaisnava Upamsads 89n 
Vaiy&karanabhUsana 13*, 14, 205, 

207, 208, 209 ' 



, 213, 211,, 216, 216, 217, 218, 219 
Yalandeja 56 
Yamuna 161, 221 
Vanamah Misra 13*, 14*, 15, 16, 

Vaugasena 45 
Varadaraja 14, 45n, 161V, 165n, 

170, 203 
Varahamihira 37, 197 
Varuhapuratia 134, 224 
Varana 155*, 157, 158, 160* 
Vurdnasldarpaiiatlkd 30 
Varungacartta 153, 158 
Yaranna 163, 157, 158 
Vantkatantra 199, 200 
Vartt 4. 7 
Vasana 3, 7 
VdsaiaJatta 17 , 18 
Vasistha 81, 198, 208 
Vasisthasaiphitd 198 
Vditupradlpa 198 
Vdstusastra 198 
Vuslusiromaiu 106*. 197, 198, 199, 

200, 201, 202 
lustutontra 198 
YaUaraja 30* 
Yat3>ayana 1, 51, 216 
Va-jupunhia 121, 216, 223 
VcdabluVy'jaslra 203n 
Yedha 3, 7 

Yolaukar, Prof. 1L D. 21, 30d, 
30u, 16u, 17, 115, 116, 132, 
133, 145, 207, 219 
Vtak-AteU'lrA ( Veukatapf a ) 2QJ, 
201/ '205, 200, 210,211 

Venupaka 3, 7 
Vidagdhamukhatnandana .15 
Vidala 153*. loin, 155, 157, 

Viddana 200 
Vtdhanamdia 132 
Yidyabbusana, Dr. S. C. 17, 23 

135n, 139 
Vidyadbara 188* 
Vidyaranya 51, 150, 151* 
Yijayadatta 176 
Vijayanagara comm. Vol. 201, 202 

YijSanesvara 50, 140, 143, 214 

Vikraniaditya (Bagbola) 27 il 
Yikramasahi 201 
Vikramorvasiya 51 
Yinayasagara 141o, 145, 146 
Ymayasandara 144a 
Ylrabbadra 27n, 205, 206, 207 

209, 210, 211 
VltabbJna 27n 

VlrabhanHdayaUvya 190*, 192 
Vlrama 201 
Ylrasimba 201 
Visnudbarruottara 193 
Vtsnupuram 31, 113, 183, 223 
Visva 11, GO, 121, 221 
Vlhdiars'i l<il, 135 
Visia'.nrina 198 
Vthalocmui 11 
Yis\ci. irv 77n, 79n 

bee GlgJIbbaua 
\ ujt'iu i 2CS 
Yo[ ul> , i Jl 
V^lxIliU J5. 51 
Yrnh a.j >>3. l.i T 


Studies in Indian Literary History 

Vrndavana 15, 195 

Vyilkhyiisudha 25, 26, 28, 29, 39, 

Vyasa 208 

Vyavaharatilaka 199, 200 
Vyomakesa 2 
Vijutpathkosa 155n 


Walsh, E H. 96 
"Warren Hastings 22*. 23 
Wilkins 23 

Wmdisch and Eggehng 18n 
"Winternitz and Keith 25n 


Xenophon J81 

YajSavalkya 50, 81, 134, 143, 214, 

Yafnavalkyaamrti 10, 228* 
Yavanesvara 198 
Yogacandnka 48*, 49, 50, 51, 52 
Yogatattvopamsad 86*. 87, 88 
Yoga Upamsads 86n, 87n, 88a 
Yukttkalpataru 1 
Yule and Burnell 166n 


Zulfikar Khan 163, 164, 165, 166*. 
167* 168, 169 


( By N. A. Gore ) 

[ Note a., author. Com. Commentary ] 

jibhilafitdrtha-cmtilmam of Somesvara, dato of, 17 i. 

2ciirendu of Tryambaka Narayana Mate, articles of diet mentioned in, 

„ , dato of, IGOn. 

Add, Muhammad Shah = seo Adali, Muhammad Shah. 
Adali, Muhammad Shah, music teacber of Tanasena and Baz Babadar, 

Adiaitasudhi, a dissertation on the Raghuvaipsa, exact dato of, 18- 34. 

„ , works and authors quoted in, 50 - 51. 

' Abipbena ' = Opium, 176. 
Akbar, ' nmo gems ' at the court of, 193. 
Alchemy, dato of tho RasaratnUkara, a work on, 223. 
Anantadova, a. of the Smrttkau3tubha> dato of, 215. 
Jntueftipaddhatt of Eesava, authors and works quoted m, 131. 
Apararka, date of, 223. 

„ , puranic extracts quoted by, and their bearing on tho history 

of Indian paleography and education, 223-226. 
AparoksHnubhaia, dato of metrical Marathi Com,, on, 117. 
AparoksJiiubh&ti - Aparoks&nubhaia s. v, 
Appa>a Dlksita, dato of, 38. 
Aroda faindy = Ardo s. v 

Architecture, tho Vthtus'iromam, a work on, 190-202. 
Ardo family, chronology of authors belonging to, 17-21. 
„ Kranabhatta, 17n 
„ „ , dato of, 20 

„ „ , 74 works of, 17, 18, 

Asadkhau, tho prime minister of Aurangzeb, lCGn. 
Asauc tnirnvja of Nlgopbhatta, authors and worb> quctcd in, 21 i. 
J*t\i\r;a3culjrahj, dato of, lo3. 

Aktctkitstta of Nakula, description of horso aco, to colours in, 177. 
-Ut.uu.di' iha of Ja>adatta, dato of, 177 Ixatnts of hordes in, 176-17£. 

246 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Aurangzeb, references to, in the SabhUvinoda, 93. 

' Avaranna ', references in the Dharmasutras to, 153-160. 

Baghela dynasty, genealogy of, 27n. 

' Baijapura-paka ', meaning of, 3. 

Baz Bahadur, music teacher of, 192. 

Benares, college founded by Jaising at, 28. 

,, visited by Tavernier in 1666, 28. 

Bhanubhatta ( = Harikavri ), works of, 100 - 127. 
Bhanuji Dlk§ita, date of, 27, 45n. 

Bhanuji Dlksita's Vyakhy&sudhQ, a contemporary MS of, 25 - 34. 
Bhattoji Dlksita and Keladi rulers of Ikkeri, 203-206 

„ , caste of, 29 

„ , date of, 203. 

„ , period of literary activity of, 14. 

„ , some pupils of, 203. 

Bh&vanaprakQsa of S'aradatanaya, date of, 222. 
Bho]ar5]a of Gutch, date of, 140. 

„ , reputed author of the Dharmapradlpa, 144. 

Bhojavydkarana of Vmayasagara, date of, 146. 
Bhujanagara = Bhuj, the capital of Gutch, 142. 
Bodluiyana-dharmasUtra, date of, 167. 
4 Brahmadana \ pp. 223 ff. 

„ See also ' Vidyadana * 

Budhdbhtisana of King Sambh5]i, 115. 

Cakrapanidatta, commentator of the Carakasamhita, date of, 153n. 
Gampaka oil, 5n. 

CampavatI = Caul in Alibag taluk, 40. 
Candrasenlya Eayasthas, origin of, 79n. 
Caste, Mevada, 218 
Caul, see CampavatL 
Ctmanl'sataka = Cimanicanta, 131. 
Coins, dated, of Kings of Lahtapur (Nepal), 96, 97. 
Cosmetics, Indian, see Gandhasdra, Gandhasastra and GandhavSda. 

„ , purpose of, 2n. 

„ , references in ancient Egyptian records to, 2n. 

„ , references m the Bible to, 2n. 

„ , six processes m the manufacture of, 3, 6£ 

„ , used by Nero, 2n. 

„ , used by the Bomans, 2n. 


Cutcb, kings of, and their chronology, 110. 

Daivajffa Damodara, -works of, 90. 

Dated coins of kings of Lahtapur ( Nepal), 90, 97. 

Dasakum&racarita pUnapithika, an epitome of, 17. 

Dharmapradlpa and Bhojavyclkarana, chronology, of, 110- 116. 

„ , works and authors quoted jn, 143. 

, date of, 113 
' Dolapaka ', meaning of, 3. 
Education, sea Indian Education. 

Egypt, ancient, references to the uso of cosmetics in, 2n. 
Gadgil, Balkrsnasastri, Chief justice of Peshva Balaji II, 18G. 

„ , date of, 186, 187. 

Gadgil (Gadegila), Surnamo, in 18th Century records, 285. 
Gagabkatta ( = "Visvesvara ), works of, 79n. 
Qandhasira of Gangadbara, Critical analysis of, 1-2. 

„ , information about the author of, 6. 

„ , three sections of, 6. 

Gandhasastra, sis purposes of the study of, 7. 
Oandhatdda, a work on Indian cosmetics, 2. 

,, , Marathi commentary on, 2. 

Garhwal, Some chiefs of, 200. 
' Gartapaka *, meaning of, 3. 
Genealogy of Baghela dynasty, 27n. 

„ Harikavi, 108. 
Genealogy of Kings of Nepal, 95. 

„ Laksmana Pandito, 52, 

, t Baghunatha Alanobara, 30, 11. 

„ Nllakantha Thatte, 78n. 

„ Purantk family, 99. 

„ the Tomara family of Gopacala ( Gwaltor ), 20L 

„ Vatsaraja Tripathin, 30n. 
Gijare, Surname, 18m 
Gmgeo = Jinp, 16C, lGOn. 

Glrxlnapadamanjari of Dhunduaja, date of, 108, 169. 
Gopacala = Gwalior, 201. 
Gorakhcatha, date of, 59. 

Haradalta, commentator cf the Jpastai.i^jrhyaiQtra, 155. 
Baridosi'Svaml, yt,ru. of Tansen, 195. 

250 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Malabar, foreign horse trade in, about 1290 A D., 179 - 180. 
Mclnasollasa = AbhtlaSitHrtha - cintamant, 174. 

„ , date of, 158n, 174. 

Manohara, Raghunatha, author of the Kavikaustubha, 35. 

„ , date of, 41. 

„ , gotra of, 36n 

„ , works of, 41. 

Marathi metrical commentary on the AparoksfXnubhava, 147, 151. 
Mihiranagara = Surat, 124. 

= Suryapura = Surat, 109. 
Mlmamsa, JRcimacandra-Candrodaya, a rare work on, 182-187, 
Music, Indian see Tansen. 
Musicians at the Court of Akbar, 192, 193n. 

„ of Medieval India. 190. 
MuhUrta m&rtanda, date of, 90. 
Nckgarasarvasva, a work on erotics, 10. 

„ , references to cosmetics and perfumes in, 11 f. 

Nagopbhatta, a list of the works of, 212-218. 
„ .date of, 212. 

„ , relative chronology of the works of, 212 - 219. 
Nandapandita, date of, 215. 
' Nava-ratnas * at Akbar's Court, 193 
N&tyapradipa of Sundaramisra Aujagari, date of, 222. 

Nayaka rulers of Ikkeri see Ikkeri. 
Nepal kings, genealogy of, 95, 96, 97. 
Nllakantha Suri ( Thatte ), an assistant in the Adalat Court 
at Satara, 81n, 85n 

,, , genealogy of, 78n. 

„ , pupils of, 81n. 

Ntrnayasmdhu, date of, 21. 

Non-vegetarian dishes in the M&nasolldsa of 12th Century, 158n 
Nrstrpha-Campa of Kesavabhatta, Mss of, 133, 134— 5^ 136. 
Nrstrphaprasada of Dalapati, date of, 137n. 
Opium = Ahiphena, 176. 
„ , date of its introduction into India, 176. 
Padmasri, author of the NSgarasarvasva, date of, 10, 11. 
' Paka, ' varieties of, 8. 
Paleographic imagery m a verse in the Mahimna-stotra, 147 

Subject-Index 251 

Paleography, see Indian Paleography. 
Parabhu caste, ' gramanyas ' about, 76n. 

„ see also Kayastha Parabhus 

Perfumery industry m Bihar and Arwal about 1811 A. D., 8. 
Polo, game of, section in the Zf&nasolliisa on, 174. 
Portuguese, first appeared at Gaul in 1505, lln. 
Punyastambha = Puntamba m Ahmednagar district, 132. 

,, , some Sanskrit authors belonging to, 139. 

Puranik family of Partud ( Hyderabad, Dm ), 98 f. 

„ , genealogy of, 99. 

1 Putapaka ', meaning of, 3. 

Baddi collection of Afss at the Bhandarkar 0. B. Institute, 1. 
Iliidha-mZdhaw-vil&sa campQ. of Jayarama, data of, 29n. 
Jlaohutatpsa = Sdraxvatopamsad 50. 

,, , S&rasvatddvaita3udka, a philosophical and grammatical 
dissertation on, 18 
JiUjHrdvia-cartta and seige of Jinji, lQ7n. 

ItQmacandra caivdrodaya, a rare MS of an unknown Mlmamsa work of, 

,, .Date of, 184, 185. 

„ , woiks and authors quoted in, 183. 

Bamasrama = Bhanuji Dlksita, 30. 

„ , "Vatsaraja, a pupil of, 30. 

HasaratnUkara, a work on alchemy, date of, 223. 
liasQrnaiasudhiikara of Singabhupala, date of, 222. 
Kico, varieties of, 159n. 
Boso, uses of, by the Bomans, 8. 

„ „ , by the Indians, date of, 8 
Bose-wator, manufacture in India of, 8n. 
Sabhilvinoda of DaivajfSa Damodara, date of, 90-99. 

„ , works and authors quoted in, 93. 
Sabh'jQlahKaratni of Govindajit, date of, 12S— 131. 

„ , works and authors quoted m, 129-130. 

SJJixtyadarpana, date of, 221. 
Sanibkap, King, wrote Budhabhil^xm, 115. 
Simbhu ( = Satubhaji ), fragments of poems pertaining to, 55-75. 
Ximbhurtlja cartta, anal>sis of, 100-103. 

tianAh* u/a^a commentary cf Han-La.-i on Hamajcndra cania, 
authors and works quoted in, 118, 1U. 

252 Studies in Indian Literary History 

S'ankarabhatta, author of the Karmaviptika, date of, 215n. 

„ , author of the Dvaitamrnaya, date of, 215. 

SUpindyapradipa of Nagojibhatta, authors and works quoted in, 214. 
S'arngadhara, author of the Sanglta-ratnUkara, patron of, 222. 
Scents and perfumes, sources of information on anoient Indian, 1. 
8eyda-K-Kadi Nondt-ncltakam, a Tamil mono drama and the seige of 

Jin]i, 167n. 
Singhana, the Yadava king, date of, 222. 
8'ivadatta, Karpurlya, date, of, 46 
„ , genealogy of, 46. 

„ , oldest dated Ms of a work of, 44. 

&iva gita, commentary by Venkatappa Nayaka I on, 205. 
&iva kosa of S'lvadatta, date of, 43n. 

„ , works quoted in the author's own commentary on, 44-45- 
Somesvara's M&nasoll&sa, date of, 178. 

„ , Some distinctive names of horses recorded 

„ in, 173-176 

Subh&sita-li&rdivali of Han-kavi, date of, 113. 

„ , Some authors quoted m, 112. 

Sudarsanacarya, commentator of the Apastamba-grhyasUtra, 155n. 
Surname Atale ( Athalye ), 76n, 77ru 
Arde, 17, 23. 
„ Ayacita, 23. 
„ Deva, 23. 
„ Gijare, 48n. 
„ Joshi, 23, 
„ Kanade, 23. 
„ Earlekar, 23. 
„ Lele, 23. 
„ Limaye, 77n. 
„ Manohara, 36n. 
„ Matmi, 23. 
„ Pathaka, 132. 
„ Puramk Sangvikar, 14. 
„ S'esa, 23 
Tare, 23. 

Subject-Index 253 

Surname Thatte, 78n. 

„ Tnpatbin, 80n. 

„ Vadgaonkar, 115. 

Suryapura = Surat, 109, 122. 
Syntax, Vanamah Misra's work on, 13n. 
Tanasena sco Tansen below. 
Tansen, a contemporary Sanskrit tribute to the musical talents of, 188-195. 

,, , a good full length picture of, 194, 

„ , Am i-Akbari on, 191 - 192. 

i, , date of the death of, 189 

>. , information from the Uadhyayuglna-cantra-ko'sa about, 189 

.. , information from the Oriental Biographical Dictionary 

about, 189 

i. , Music teacher of, 192, 195. 

ii , patron of, 190. 

., , Summary of information in the Jnanakosa about, 194-195. 

„ , Vincent Smith on, 193f. 

„ Vlrabhanudayakavya on, 190-191. 

Tarkopradlpa of Kondabhatta, date of, 209. 

Tarkaaamgraha, Vaidyanatha Gadgil's commentary on, 18b. 
Toilet, Indian, In. 

„ see also GandAuaurcr, Gandhasastra, GandhaiOda. 
Tomara family of Gwalior, genealogy of, 201. 
Trimalla, date of, 4Cn. 

Upambadbrahuujogin and the Hathayogapradlpika, 8G-89 
V*idyauia$a ci Iiaghunatha Manobara, 36, 36n, 10. 
VaiMarambhZ&am of Kondabhatta, authors and works quoted in, 208. 

^vj^immstddhaUnmaujil^ of Xagojibhatta, authors and works quoted 
in, 210. 

Yauauuili ili^ra, date and works of, 13-16. 
Varadaraja, author of the Glnlntpadn uialijarl, date of, 101. 
VarCn JtUirpati i lit a, date of, 30. 
' VarJnna ' «.<> ' A\arJnna. * 

- au ,>.u,M, aathora and works quoted in, 19? -109, 
.» , a work on Architecture, 10u -£02. 

264 Studies in Indian Literary History 

Vasudeva's com. on the KarpRramanjarl, authors and works quoted id, 22, __ 

„ , date of, 220-222 

Vatsaraja Tripathin, genealogy of, 30n, 

Vegetarian and non- vegetarian dishes in the Manasolliisa, a list of, 159n. 
' Venupaka ', meaning of, 3. 
' Vidyadana ', 223 ff. 

Vidyadhara, the Bengali architect of Sevai Jaipur, 188 
YirabhanMaya- K&vya, author and date of, 190. 
„ on Tanasena, 190-191. 

Vyahhyfaudha, a commentary on the Amarakoia, 25 - 25n. 

„ , dated MSS of, 25. 

Warren Hastings, testimonials of good conduct to, by Benares Pandits, 

Zulfikar Khan and Beige of Jin]i, 166 ; 166n